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7661. 题目: Plant rhizosphere oxidation reduces methane production and emission in rewetted peatlands
文章编号: N18071506
期刊: Soil Biology and Biochemistry
作者: Svenja Agethen, Michael Sander, Carolin Waldemer, Klaus-Holger Knorr
更新时间: 2018-07-15
摘要: The global loss of peatlands, by drainage or peat extraction, has encouraged measures to restore these ecosystems and their function as carbon sinks. However, there is a potential of high emissions of the potent greenhouse gas CH4 from restored peatlands. Vascular plants, which often dominate restored sites, play a key role in determining the amount of emitted CH4: The plants can either fuel methanogenesis by supplying labile carbon or attenuate methanogenesis by transferring oxygen into the rhizosphere. To quantify the net effect of these counteracting processes, we tested in a two-pronged approach CH4 production, emission, and the underlying processes in (1.) monoliths of three different restored cutover peatlands and in (2.) mesocosms with Eriophorum vaginatum, E. angustifolium and Juncus effusus versus controls with Sphagna and bare peat. Despite waterlogged, and thus persisting anoxic conditions, concentrations of dissolved CH4 remained close to zero in all tested monoliths. We ascribe this finding to two factors: The poor decomposability of the peat material, as determined in anoxic incubations, and the availability of alternative electron acceptors that sustained anaerobic respiration and competitively suppressed methanogenesis. While inorganic electron acceptor pools were small and rapidly diminished, dissolved organic matter provided constant electron acceptor capacity, indicating that reducible moieties in the organic matter were continuously re-oxidized in the rhizosphere of all tested vascular plant species. This continuous re-oxidation of the dissolved organic matter correlated with plant growth rates (R2 = 0.6–0.8), suggesting that supply of oxygen through the aerenchyma of plant roots regenerated electron acceptor capacity in the rhizosphere. Vascular plants may have differential effects on the net ecosystem exchange, however, our findings suggest that CH4 concentrations and emissions may remain low in restored cutover peatlands for months to years. Thus, waterlogging and vascular plant cover of degraded cutover peatlands does not necessarily create hot-spots of CH4 emissions.

7662. 题目: Influence of ancient anthropogenic activities on the mangrove soil microbiome
文章编号: N18071505
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Luciano F. Huergo, Daniel V. Rissi, Andressa S. Elias, Maria V. Gon?alves, Marcos V. Gernet, Flávio Barreto, Gilson W. Dahmer, Rodrigo A. Reis, Fábio O. Pedrosa, Emanuel M. Souza, Rose A. Monteiro, Valter A. Baura, Eduardo Balsanelli, Leonardo M. Cruz
更新时间: 2018-07-15
摘要: Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems located at the transition between the terrestrial and marine environments. Mangroves play an important role in carbon storage, nutrient cycling and support for the marine food web. Mangrove soils are formed by fine particles rich in organic carbon and are subject to constant fluctuations in oxygen, salinity and nutrient availability due to fresh water flux and tidal variations. Microbes play an important role in nutrient cycling in mangrove soils; however, studies on the mangrove soil microbiome are scarce. Here we compare the microbiome of pristine mangrove soil located in an environmentally protected area in Guaratuba, Southern Brazil, with the microbiome of mangrove soil affected by the presence of carbonaceaous debris eroding from an archeological site known as Sambaqui. We show that although the Sambaqui site has a major effect on soil chemistry, increasing the soil pH by 2.6 units, only minor changes in the soil microbiome were detected indicating resilience of the microbial community to pH variations. The high alpha diversity indexes and predicted metabolic potential suggest that the mangrove soil microbiome not only provides important ecological services but also may host a broad range of microbes and genes of biotechnological interest.

7663. 题目: Probing algogenic organic matter (AOM) by size-exclusion chromatography to predict AOM-derived disinfection by-product formation
文章编号: N18071504
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Lap-Cuong Hua, Jr-Lin Lin, Shu-Ju Chao, Chihpin Huang
更新时间: 2018-07-15
摘要: High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) coupled with peak-fitting technique was used to probe molecular weight (MW) properties of algogenic organic matter (AOM). The qualitative and quantitative MW information derived was used to predict AOM-derived disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. We resolved overlapping HPSEC chromatograms of all AOM samples into six major peaks with R2 > 0.996. This study gave significant insight into the HPSEC profiles of AOM, in which resolved peaks A and B (biopolymers) and peak C (humic substances) showed a strong correlation with the formation of carbonaceous-DBPs (C-DBPs). This likely resulted from the abundance of aromatic structures and conjugated CC double bonds in their chemical nature. Our results also indicated the importance of algal cells, including intra-cellular and cell-bound organic matter, over extra-cellular organic matter as precursors to C-DBP formation. The application of the information extracted from HPSEC profiles associated with the fluorescent components of AOM showed great improvements in the predictability of THMs, HAAs, and C-DBPs with R2 > 0.7 and p < 0.05. The outcome of this study will significantly benefit effective control of AOM-derived DBP formation by the chlorination of eutrophic waters.

7664. 题目: Effects of increasing nutrient disturbances on phytoplankton community structure and biodiversity in two tropical seas
文章编号: N18071503
期刊: Marine Pollution Bulletin
作者: Yuping Zhou, Bo Hu, Weihong Zhao, Dongyang Cui, Liju Tan, Jiangtao Wang
更新时间: 2018-07-15
摘要: Statistical analysis of rainfall data from 2005 to 2015 showed that atmospheric deposition supplied large amount of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (38–155 mg·m-2·month-1) in N-deficient South China Sea and Eastern Indian Ocean. To understand marine ecosystem responses to increasing nutrient disturbances, we implemented field mesocosm experiments to study phytoplankton community structure and biodiversity responses to nutrient treatments with nitrate, phosphate and iron across tropical seas. Our results showed that DIN supply would change phytoplankton community structure and stimulated the regime shift from cyanobacteria to diatoms (relative dominance R > 0). Phytoplankton communities were dominated by diatoms (relative abundance >50%) accompanied by high chlorophyll a content with 1.58–39.27 μg·L-1 in DIN-added cultures, whereas cyanobacteria dominated communities (relative abundance >60%) with low biomass of 0.12–0.18 μg·L-1 in undisturbed cultures. Simultaneously increased DIN loading from atmospheric deposition would decrease ecological diversity of tropical seas owing to species competition and succession (Shannon diversity H′ decreased to <1).

7665. 题目: Unregulated disinfection By-products in drinking water in Quebec: A meta analysis
文章编号: N18071502
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Gyan Chhipi-Shrestha, Manuel Rodriguez, Rehan Sadiq
更新时间: 2018-07-15
摘要: Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed primarily by the reaction of natural organic matter and disinfectants. DBPs that are not regulated are referred to as unregulated DBPs (U-DBPs) and they are in majority in total DBPs. U-DBPs can be more toxic than regulated DBPs. U-DBPs such as haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetonitriles (HKs) and halonitromethanes (HNMs) are widely present in drinking water supplies in different regions of the world. This study investigated the occurrence of U-DBPs and their variability in drinking water in the Province of Quebec (Canada), using the water quality database of 40 municipal water systems generated by our research group. The concentrations of HANs, HKs, and their compounds, including chloropicrin (CPK), were highly variable in different water systems in Quebec. The concentration range of these U-DBPs is in line with drinking water concentration ranges in different regions of the world. Factors such as system size, water source, season, pH, total organic carbon content, free residual chlorine and disinfectant types cause significant variations in the concentrations of HANs, HKs and their constituent compounds, including CPK, in drinking water in Quebec. This information is valuable for decision making concerning source water selection, water distribution planning, water treatment plant design including disinfection, and overall drinking water quality management related to U-DBPs. Moreover, U-DBPs and regulated DBPs are strongly correlated, although the degree of correlation can vary with water source, system size and season, indicating that regulated DBPs can be used as surrogates of U-DBPs.

7666. 题目: Effects of soil components and solution inorganic cations on interactions of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with soils
文章编号: N18071501
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Qiuci Miao, Erping Bi
更新时间: 2018-07-15
摘要: Effects of alkyl chain length of ionic liquid (IL), soil components and solution inorganic cations on a selected IL (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride, [OMIM]Cl) interaction with Chinese soils were investigated using batch sorption experiments. The results indicated that sorption energy was mainly controlled by chain length of [OMIM]Cl and contents of soil organic matter (SOM). [OMIM]Cl sorption on soils was mainly controlled by cation exchange process. Contributions of SOM and clay minerals (CMs) to [OMIM]Cl sorption were 7.3%–53.8% and 46.2%–92.7%, respectively. SOM possessed higher energy cation-exchange binding sites than CMs. To predict the sorption of [OMIM]Cl on soils, a model for the relationship between sorption coefficient (Kd) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) from soil components (SOM and CMs, i.e., CECSOM and CECCMs) as well as solution concentration (Ce) was established: LogKd = Log(1.67*CECSOM + 3.22*CECCMs) - 0.58LogCe. This model could provide a good prediction for sorption coefficients and the prediction errors were within 0.48 log unit. Competitive effects caused by inorganic cations followed the order of Ca2+ = Mg2+ > K+ > Na+. Concentrations and valence of coexisting ions both affect their competitive capability on [OMIM]Cl sorption. The finding of this study provided valuable information for evaluating the fate of [OMIM]Cl in soils.

7667. 题目: Impacts of soil abiotic attributes on Fusarium wilt, focusing on bananas
文章编号: N18071403
期刊: Applied Soil Ecology
作者: Ryan Orr, Paul N. Nelson
更新时间: 2018-07-14
摘要: Production of many crops, including bananas, is threatened worldwide by the spread of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt. Severity of the disease is related to soil biotic and abiotic attributes, which influence the plant, the pathogen and the other soil organisms. Across a variety of crops, soil temperature, redox potential, and extractable iron and manganese contents are generally positively correlated with disease severity, whereas pH, nitrate:ammonium ratio, organic matter content and extractable calcium, zinc, silicon, potassium, phosphorus and boron contents are negatively correlated, but less consensus exists for bananas. There are numerous incompletely understood interactions between soil abiotic attributes and disease severity, including those between pH- and redox-controlled micronutrient availability, buffering by organic matter and clay, and effects of nutrients on plant defence mechanisms. Though not all soil attributes can be managed, pH, organic matter content and availability of nutrients show promise for manipulation to reduce disease severity and mitigate risk.

7668. 题目: Root litter decomposition slows with soil depth
文章编号: N18071402
期刊: Soil Biology and Biochemistry
作者: Caitlin E. Hicks Pries, Benjamin N. Sulman, Corinna West, Caitlin O'Neill, Erik Poppleton, Rachel C. Porras, Cristina Castanha, Biao Zhu, Daniel B. Wiedemeier, Margaret S. Torn
更新时间: 2018-07-14
摘要: Even though over half of the world's soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in subsoils (>20 cm deep), and the old ages of subsoil OC indicate its cycling differs from surface SOC, there are few studies examining in situ decomposition processes in deep soils. Here, we added 13C-labeled fine roots to 15, 55, and 95 cm depths of a well-characterized coniferous forest Alfisol and monitored the amount of root-derived C remaining over 6, 12, and 30 months. We recovered the root-derived C in microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) after 6 months and in coarse (>2 mm) particulate, fine (<2 mm) particulate, and dense, mineral-associated pools after 6, 12, and 30 months. Overall, root decomposition in the first 6 months was similar among all depths but significantly diverged at 30 months with faster decomposition at 15 cm than at 95 cm. There were more fungal and Gram negative-associated PLFAs at 15 cm than at 95 cm, and 13C analysis revealed those microbial groups preferred the added root carbon to native SOC. Mineral-associations were not the cause of slower decomposition at depth because similar amounts of applied root C was recovered in the dense fraction at all depths. The largest difference among depths was in the amount of root C recovered in the coarse particulate fraction, which was greater at 95 cm (50%) than at 15 cm (15%). Slower decomposition of the particulate pool at depth likely contributed to the increase in C:N ratios and depletion of δ13C values below 60 cm depth in our soil profiles. Simulations of these soils using the CORPSE model, which incorporates microbial priming effects and mineral stabilization of SOC, reproduced patterns of particulate and mineral-associated SOC over both time and depth and suggested that a lack of priming by root exudates at depth could account for the slower decomposition rate of particulate root material. Decomposition of deep particulate SOC may increase if root exudation or dissolved OC transport to depth increases.

7669. 题目: Organic carbon content and humus composition after application aluminum sulfate and rice straw to soda saline-alkaline soil
文章编号: N18071401
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Xingmin Zhao, Menglong Zhu, Xinxin Guo, Hongbin Wang, Biao Sui, Lanpo Zhao
更新时间: 2018-07-14
摘要: The soil organic carbon accumulation in soda saline-alkaline soil and the humus composition changes with application of aluminum sulfate and rice straw were investigated by the controlled simulative experiments in laboratory. For evaluating the amelioration effect, organic carbon content and humus composition in soda saline-alkaline soil were investigated with different application amounts of rice straw and aluminum sulfate. Potassium dichromate oxidation titration (exogenous heat) method and Kumada method were used to analyze the contents of organic carbon and humus composition, respectively. The transformation of soil organic matter in the saline-alkali soil during the amelioration has been clarified in this paper. The results demonstrated that the contents of soil organic carbon were significantly increased (13–92%) with different application amounts of rice straw and aluminum sulfate. The contents of free fraction and combined fraction of humus and their compositions (humic acid and fulvic acid) were increased with different application amounts of rice straw. The free fraction of humus was increased more dramatically. Due to aluminum sulfate application, free fraction of humus and humic acid (HA) was transformed to combined fraction partially. Free HA was changed to be P type with rice straw application. With aluminum sulfate application, free form of HA was changed from type P to type Rp. For rice straw application, combined HA only was transferred within the area of type A. Aluminum sulfate addition had no significant effect on the type of combined form of HA. With the same amount of rice straw application, the contents of soil organic carbon were increased by increasing the amount of aluminum sulfate application. Both rice straw and aluminum sulfate applications could reduce the humification degree of free and combined fraction of HA. According to the types of HA, it could be concluded that humus became younger and renewed due to the application of rice straw and aluminum sulfate.

7670. 题目: Contrasting Fe speciation in two humid forest soils: Insight into organomineral associations in redox-active environments
文章编号: N18071302
期刊: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
作者: Elizabeth K. Coward, Aaron Thompson, Alain F. Plante
更新时间: 2018-07-13
摘要: While the contribution of iron (Fe)-bearing minerals to organic carbon (C) stabilization in terrestrial systems is well-described, the influence of Fe solid-phase speciation on organomineral associations is unclear in highly-dynamic, oxidation-reduction (redox)-active soils. In humid tropic forest soils, fluctuations in redox state accelerate weathering of Fe-bearing mineral phases, producing a spectrum of mineral sizes and bonding environments available for C stabilization, and confounding our understanding of C stability. Characterizing these Fe-bearing phases can help us understand the response of redox-active soil systems to climatic changes that may alter Fe mineral crystallinity and solubility, for instance changes in precipitation intensity, storm event frequency and temperature. Leveraging inorganic selective dissolution techniques, 57Fe M ssbauer spectroscopy (MBS), specific surface area (SSA) analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD), we investigated mineral speciation in surface soils of contrasting lithologies from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO), Puerto Rico. The LCZO provides a model investigatory framework in which high C inputs to surface horizons by similar vegetation, topography and climatic forcings are intercepted by highly-weathered, volcaniclastic Oxisols or quartz diorite-derived Inceptisols, producing a gradient of Fe content and speciation. Strong correlations observed between Fe concentrations and extraction-induced changes in SSA indicated target Fe phases contribute substantially to SSA of the bulk mineral matrix. MBS analysis of untreated soils reveal both Oxisol and Inceptisol soils are largely composed of FeIII-oxyhydroxides, accompanied by substantial FeII and silicate FeIII contributions in Inceptisol soils. FeIII-oxyhydroxides in the Oxisol soils were largely short-range-ordered (SRO), and notably, a fraction of particularly low-crystallinity FeIII-oxyhydroxide mineral phases in these soils appear protected against harsh reductive dissolution, whereas the overall higher crystallinity Fe phases in the Inceptisol soils, do not. These findings suggest that some high-SSA, SRO FeIII phases, which likely also have high C sorption capacities, may be immobilized against reduction in these Oxisol soils. Consequently, C associated with these FeIII phases may be preferentially stabilized in Oxisol soils, potentially driving disparate C mineralization and CO2 production rates across contrasting lithologies.

7671. 题目: Multiple negative carbon-isotope excursions during the Carnian Pluvial Episode (Late Triassic)
文章编号: N18071301
期刊: Earth-Science Reviews
作者: Jacopo Dal Corso, Piero Gianolla, Manuel Rigo, Marco Franceschi, Guido Roghi, Paolo Mietto, Stefano Manfrin, Béla Raucsik, Tamás Budai, Hugh C. Jenkyns, Claire E. Reymond, Marcello Caggiati, Giovanni Gattolin, Anna Breda, Agostino Merico, Nereo Preto
更新时间: 2018-07-13
摘要: The Carnian Pluvial Episode was a phase of global climatic change and biotic turnover that occurred during the early Late Triassic. In marine sedimentary basins, the arrival of huge amounts of siliciclastic sediments, the establishment of anoxic conditions, and a sudden change of the carbonate factory on platforms marked the Carnian Pluvial Episode. The sedimentary changes are closely associated with abrupt biological turnover among marine and terrestrial groups as, for example, an extinction among ammonoids and conodonts in the ocean, and a turnover of the vertebrate fauna and the flora on land. Multiple negative carbon-isotope excursions were recorded during the Carnian Pluvial Episode in both organic matter and marine carbonates suggesting repeated injection of 13C-depleted CO2 into the ocean–atmosphere system, but their temporal and causal links with the sedimentological and palaeontological changes are poorly understood. We here review the existing carbon-isotope records and present new data on the carbon-isotope composition of organic carbon in selected sections of the western Tethys realm that record the entire Carnian Pluvial Episode. New ammonoid, conodont and sporomorph biostratigraphic data were collected and coupled to an extensive review of the existing biostratigraphy to constrain the age of the sampled sections. The results provide biostratigraphically constrained composite organic carbon-isotope curves for the Carnian. This sheds light on the temporal and causal links between the main carbon-isotope perturbations, and the distinct environmental and biotic changes that mark the Carnian Pluvial Episode. The carbon-isotope records suggest that a series of carbon-cycle perturbations, possibly recording multiple phases of volcanic activity during the emplacement of the Wrangellia Large Igneous Province, disrupted Carnian environments and ecosystems repeatedly over a remarkably long time interval of about 1 million years.

7672. 题目: Insights into the succession of the bacterial microbiota during biodrying of storage sludge mixed with beer lees: Studies on its biodiversity, structure, associations, and functionality
文章编号: N18071216
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Tiantian Liu, Chongwei Cui, Junguo He, Jian Tang
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: Biodrying was first used for post-treatment of storage sludge mixed with beer lees. In this study, dynamic changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM), bacterial community structure, bacterial associations as well as metabolic functions were investigated using Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) spectra, high-throughput sequencing, network and correlation matrix analyses, and Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt). Furthermore, a hypothetical model was proposed to better understand the biodrying process. The results showed that desired performance was obtained and DOM variations revealed that biodrying can increase biostability of the matrix. The bacterial communities differed among different stages of the biodrying. At the phylum level, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in the mesophilic and cooling phases, whereas Firmicutes became the most dominant phylum in the thermophilic phase. At the genus level, the dominant bacteria in the mesophilic and cooling phases were not obvious, while Ureibacillus and Bacillus were the dominant genera in the thermophilic phase. Network and correlation matrix analyses were useful tools for insights into the bacterial interactions. PICRUSt metagenome inference indicated that metabolism, genetic information processing, and environmental information processing were the primary metabolic pathways. These results allowed us to advance a hypothetical model explaining how succession in bacterial associations regulates the dynamics of a biodrying system.

7673. 题目: Microscale water distribution and its effects on organic carbon decomposition in unsaturated soils
文章编号: N18071215
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Zhifeng Yan, Tiejun Wang, Lichun Wang, Xiaofan Yang, Peyton Smith, Markus Hilpert, Siliang Li, Jianying Shang, Vanessa Bailey, Chongxuan Liu
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: Microscale water distribution in the subsurface is key to many geochemical and biogeochemical reactions. This study investigated microscale water distribution and movement in unsaturated soils using micro-continuum hydrodynamic models, and examined the effect of microscale water distribution on organic carbon (C) decomposition using a micro-continuum biogeochemical reaction model. The micro-continuum hydrodynamic model that relates capillary pressure to porosity captured the measured water imbibition curve at the core scale, and exhibited reasonable water distribution and movement at the microscale. The simulations of organic C decomposition illustrate that microscale water distribution strongly affected the distribution of C decomposition rates by regulating the availability of dissolved organic C and oxygen. Particularly, changes in water distribution altered the location and intensity of reactive hotspots and thereby CO2 flux from soils. The microscale interactions between water content and organic C decomposition rate provide underlying mechanisms for explaining macroscale phenomenon observed in laboratory and fields. Overall, this study presents a useful tool for explicating hydro-biogeochemical behaviors in the subsurface by integrating micro-continuum hydrodynamic and biogeochemical reaction modeling.

7674. 题目: Realizing the opportunities of black carbon in urban soils: Implications for water quality management with green infrastructure
文章编号: N18071214
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: L.A. Schifman, A. Prues, K. Gilkey, W.D. Shuster
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: Soils and associated microbial processes regulate the carbon cycle and provide a sink for atmospheric black carbon (BC). Particularly in urban areas, present and accumulated soil BC may act as an effective sorbent of anthropogenic contaminants in green spaces. We characterized carbon concentrations that have accumulated in urban soils (organic carbon, BC, and inorganic C) and determined soil physical attributes (soil texture, hydraulic conductivity) from urban soil assessments (surface and sub-surface horizons) carried out in eleven cities in the United States. We used both ordinary least squares and non-parametric classification and regression tree (CART) methods to discern trends in soil BC concentrations with regard to soil, landscape, and emission characteristics. We found that for all cities, regional traffic density and vegetation were good predictors of soil BC concentration. Additionally, the thickness of the top soil horizon explained additional variation in sub-surface BC concentrations. Sites with coincident BC stocks and favorable infiltration rate were discussed as per their potential for improving water quality in multifunctional green infrastructure installations. In the broader sense, the high sorption capacity of existing, accumulated soil BC can contribute to regulation of contaminant cycling in urban areas and may enhance the overall value of urban soils in terms of ecosystem services.

7675. 题目: Changing rainfall frequency affects soil organic carbon concentrations by altering non-labile soil organic carbon concentrations in a tropical monsoon forest
文章编号: N18071213
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Xiaomei Chen, Qi Deng, Guojun Lin, Meizhen Lin, Hui Wei
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: Soil stores a substantial proportion of carbon (C), making it the greatest terrestrial C pool and pivotal to stabilizing the global climate system. Rainfall amounts and regimes have been changing in many places, but effects of precipitation changes on soil organic C (SOC) stabilization are not completely understood. Considerable attention has been focused on the consequences of changes in rainfall amounts, with rainfall regimes having been less studied. This study was conducted in a tropical climax forest to clarify the effects of rainfall changes on SOC fractions, with permanganate oxidation and density fractionations employed to divide the labile and non-labile SOC fractions. Two rainfall manipulation treatments, i.e., increased rainfall frequency with the total rainfall amount unchanged (IRF) and decreased rainfall amount by 50% with rainfall frequency unaltered (DRA), were conducted for two years, with ambient rainfall (AR) as the control. As a result, the IRF treatment increased the SOC concentration that mainly originated from increases in the non-labile SOC content. Relative to the AR control, the DRA treatment did not change the total SOC concentration although the labile SOC concentration increased. This typically is due to a small proportion of the labile fraction to the total SOC content. Our results suggest that this water-rich mature forest is resistant to rainfall amount changes to a great extent (e.g., decrease of 50% as in the present study) from the SOC stabilization perspective, while changes in rainfall frequency could exert more notable effects.

7676. 题目: Effects of biochar on the ecological performance of a subtropical landfill
文章编号: N18071212
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Xun Wen Chen, James Tsz Fung Wong, Zhan Ting Chen, Thomas Wui Lung Tang, Hao Wen Guo, Anna Oi Wah Leung, Charles Wang Wai Ng, Ming Hung Wong
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: Landfills commonly occupy large areas of land that may be ecologically important. Ecological restoration of landfill cover is a necessary approach to rebuild sustainable habitats. However, unfavourable soil conditions and invasion by exotic plants in certain regions hinder the restoration. In this study, the effects of biochar as a soil amendment on the restoration of a landfill cover were investigated under field condition. Topsoils of a landfill cover in the subtropical region (Shenzhen, China) were mixed with 0, 5 and 10% (v/v) of biochar. Soil pH, electronic conductivity, organic matter, total organic carbon, water content, total N and total P were enhanced by biochar amendment. After nine months of self-succession, plant productivity, species richness and diversity were enhanced by biochar. The structures of soil bacterial and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities were changed, and species richness and diversity were moderately promoted. Enhanced plant growth and diversity were probably attributed to a number of enhanced bacterial functions related to nutrient cycling including aerobic ammonia oxidation, aerobic nitrite oxidation, nitrification, sulphur respiration, nitrate respiration, nitrogen respiration, ureolysis, chemoheterotrophy and fermentation. The higher abundances of bacteria Streptomyces sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in biochar treatments potentially enhanced the AM fungal diversity. The bacterial diversity was more related to the soil properties, especially pH, than AM fungi. Continuous monitoring is necessary to track the changes of species composition and ecological functions over time. This is the first comprehensive study on the effects of biochar on the ecological performance of a man-made ecosystem. In addition to agricultural application, biochar can be used for restoring degraded lands.

7677. 题目: Treatment of rural domestic wastewater using multi-soil-layering systems: Performance evaluation, factorial analysis and numerical modeling
文章编号: N18071211
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Pei Song, Guohe Huang, Chunjiang An, Ju Shen, Peng Zhang, Xiujuan Chen, Jian Shen, Yao Yao, Rubing Zheng, Chaoxing Sun
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: The discharge of wastewater in rural areas without effective treatment may result in contamination of surrounding surface water and groundwater resources. This study explored the wastewater treatment performance of multi-soil-layering (MSL) systems through interactive factorial analysis. MSL systems showed good performances under various operating conditions. The COD and BOD5 removal rates in MSL systems could reach 98.53 and 93.66%, respectively. The performances of MSL systems in TP removal stayed at high levels ranged from 97.97 to 100% throughout the experiments. The NH4+ N removal rates of the well performed MSL systems reached highest levels ranging from 89.96 to 100%. The TN removal rates of aerated MSL systems ranged from 51.11 to 64.44% after 72 days of operation. The independent effects of bottom submersion, microbial amendment and aeration, as well as most interactions were significant. The performance of MSL systems was mainly affected by bottom submersion and aeration as well as their interactions. Aeration was the most positive factor for the removal of organic matter, TP and NH4+ N. However, oxygenated environment was unfavorable for NO3 N removal. In the submerged area with limited oxygen, the microbial transformation of NO3 N still occurred. A stepwise-cluster inference model was developed for tackling the multivariate nonlinear relationships in contaminant removal processes. The results can help obtain a better understanding of the complicated processes among contaminant removal in MSL systems.

7678. 题目: Biofouling in ultrafiltration process for drinking water treatment and its control by chlorinated-water and pure water backwashing
文章编号: N18071210
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Senlin Shao, Yue Wang, Danting Shi, Xuezhi Zhang, Chuyang Y. Tang, Zizheng Liu, Jiangyun Li
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: We investigated biofouling in ultrafiltration (UF) for drinking water treatment and its control by backwashing with chlorinated-water or pure water. By using sodium azide to suppress biological growth, the relative contribution of biofouling to total fouling was estimated, and its value (5.3–56.0%) varied with the feed water, and increased with the increases of filtration time and membrane flux. The biofouling layer could partially remove biodegradable organic matter and ammonia (32.9–74.2%). Backwashing using chlorinated-water partly inactivated the microorganisms (23.8%) but increased the content of extracellular polymeric substances (7.7%) in the biofouling layer. In contrast, backwashing using pure water led to a looser and more porous fouling layer according to optical coherence tomography observation. Consequently, the latter was more effective in reducing fouling resistance (33.41% reduction) compared to backwashing by chlorinated-water (8.6%). These findings reveal the critical roles of biofouling in pollutants removal in addition to membrane permeability, which has important implications for addressing seasonal ammonia pollution.

7679. 题目: Estimation of soil organic carbon stocks of two cities, New York City and Paris
文章编号: N18071209
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Aurélie Cambou, Richard K. Shaw, Hermine Huot, Laure Vidal-Beaudet, Gilles Hunault, Patrice Cannavo, Fran?ois Nold, Christophe Schwartz
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: In cities, the strong heterogeneity of soils, added to the lack of standardized assessment methods, serves as a barrier to the estimation of their soil organic carbon content (SOC), soil organic carbon stocks (SOCS; kgC m 2) and soil organic carbon citywide totals (SOCCT; kgC). Are urban soils, even the subsoils and sealed soils, contributing to the global stock of C To address this question, the SOCS and SOCCT of two cities, New York City (NYC) and Paris, were compared. In NYC, soil samples were collected with a pedological standardized method to 1 m depth. The bulk density (Db) was measured; SOC and SOCS were calculated for 0–30 cm and 30–100 cm depths in open (unsealed) soils and sealed soils. In Paris, the samples were collected for 0–30 cm depth in open soils and sealed soils by different sampling methods. If SOC was measured, Db had to be estimated using pedotransfer functions (PTFs) refitted from the literature on NYC data; hence, SOCS was estimated. Globally, SOCS for open soils were not significantly different between both cities (11.3 ± 11.5 kgC m 2 in NYC; 9.9 ± 3.9 kgC m 2 in Paris). Nevertheless, SOCS was lower in sealed soils (2.9 ± 2.6 kgC m 2 in NYC and 3.4 ± 1.2 kgC m 2 in Paris). The SOCCT was similar between both cities for 0–30 cm (3.8 TgC in NYC and 3.5 TgC in Paris) and was also significant for the 30–100 cm layer in NYC (5.8 TgC). A comparison with estimated SOCCT in agricultural and forest soils demonstrated that the city's open soils represent important pools of organic carbon (respectively 110.4% and 44.5% more C in NYC and Paris than in agricultural soils, for 0–30 cm depth). That was mainly observable for the 1 m depth (146.6% more C in NYC than in agricultural soils). The methodology to assess urban SOCS was also discussed.

7680. 题目: Spatial and seasonal occurrence of micropollutants in four Portuguese rivers and a case study for fluorescence excitation-emission matrices
文章编号: N18071208
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Marta O. Barbosa, Ana R. Ribeiro, Nuno Ratola, Ethan Hain, Vera Homem, M. Fernando R. Pereira, Lee Blaney, Adrián M.T. Silva
更新时间: 2018-07-12
摘要: The European Union (EU) has recommended the monitoring of specific priority substances (PSs, Directive 2013/39) and some contaminants of emerging concern (CECs, Decision 2015/495) in surface waterbodies. The present study provides spatial distributions and temporal variations of a wide range of multi-class PSs and CECs in four stressed rivers in Portugal (Ave, Le a, Antu , and Cértima). Thirteen micropollutants were found in all four rivers, including the priority pesticide isoproturon (up to 92 ng L 1), various pharmaceuticals (up to 396 ng L 1), and the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC, up to 562 ng L 1) identified in Decision 2015/495. The industrial priority compound perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was found in three rivers (Antu , Cértima, and Le a) below the method quantification limit, together with four pharmaceuticals not included in these EU guidelines. The already banned priority pesticide atrazine was detected in Ave, Antu , and Le a (up to 41 ng L 1) and simazine in Cértima and Le a (up to 26 ng L 1). Acetamiprid and imidacloprid (included in Decision 2015/495) were only detected during the dry season in the Ave. Le a river was selected as a waterbody case study for assessment of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). These results matched the spatial distribution trend of micropollutants along the river, with stronger fluorescence response and higher concentrations being found downstream of industrial areas and urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Moreover, the fluorescence signature of surface water collected downstream of an urban WWTP aligned very well with that obtained for the respective WWTP effluent. Thus, actions are needed to preserve a good environmental status of these stressed European waterbodies.

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