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1. 题目: Changes in mechanical properties and surface microstructure of shale organic matter after coupling supercritical carbon dioxide with water
文章编号: N24061717
期刊: Applied Geochemistry
作者: Ying Kang, Zhengfu Ning, Fangtao Lyu, Zejiang Jia
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO) fracturing technology has been increasingly emphasized in the development of unconventional oil and gas resources due to its advantages of anhydrous fabrication of complex seam networks and geological sequestration of CO. However, previous studies have mostly focused on the geometry, number, and type of inorganic mineral fractures, and rarely paid attention to the changes in the seepage structure within organic matter (OM). To characterize the nanoscale microstructural changes of OM induced by HO-ScCO, this study obtained the variation rule of mechanical properties of OM with adsorbed water saturation based on nanoindentation test, and the continuous change of elastic modulus and morphology of the OM in the same region after dry, water-wet, and water-ScCO treatments was compared by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Elastic modulus and hardness of OM were calculated by Oliver-Pharr and Hertz methods, and the average roughness, root mean square roughness, and kurtosis were obtained based on 3D morphology. The results showed that elastic modulus and hardness were negatively and nonlinearly correlated with water saturation. Although the AFM-measured elastic modulus of OM microphases of the dry, water-wet, and water-ScCO-treated shale were all highly discrete and non-homogeneous, they were generally normally distributed, and the mean values of the elastic modulus decreased sequentially. It is determined that water-ScCO coupling make OM matrix undergo superimposed dissolution. It is shown that ScCO and water synergistically change the microstructure of shale OM, and the weakening of mechanical properties and the increase of surface roughness are very favorable for geological sequestration and long-term storage of CO.

2. 题目: Continuous deposition of pre-aged organic carbon in the southern Mariana Trench since the last deglaciation
文章编号: N24061716
期刊: Chemical Geology
作者: Da-Wei Li, Mengna Chen, Shuai Liu, Hailong Zhang, Zicheng Wang, Xiaoyan Ning, Jiwei Tian, Meixun Zhao
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: One of the key challenges in understanding the role of hadal trenches in the marine organic carbon (OC) cycle is the need to distinguish OC sources, assess accumulation rates, and identify controlling processes. To address this, sediment core samples from the southern Mariana Trench were analyzed for their contents and carbon isotopes (C and C) of both total OC (TOC) and saturated long-chain fatty acid (-LCFA). Our findings indicate that sedimentary OC in the southern Mariana Trench is primarily derived from marine sources, as indicated by TOC-δC values ranging from −19.9‰ to −17.0‰ and the ratios of TOC to total nitrogen (TOC/TN) of 5.5–8.4. The C ages of TOC and -LCFA ranged from 7159 to 22,662 yr and 8713 to 22,819 yr, respectively, with both showing gradual down-core increasing trends. This allows for a conservative estimation of sedimentation rate of 17.5–18.7 cm kyr in the southern Mariana Trench, leading to a sedimentary OC accumulation rate of 529–942 g C m kyr, which is 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than that observed in the abyssal plain. We propose that the continuous lateral downslope transport played a significant role in focusing pre-aged OC into the southern Mariana Trench. Therefore, hadal trenches are likely to accumulate substantial amounts of sedimentary OC in the deep ocean.

3. 题目: Alteration of soil pH induced by submerging/drainage and application of peanut straw biochar and its impact on Cd(II) availability in an acidic soil to indica-japonica rice varieties
文章编号: N24061715
期刊: Environmental Pollution
作者: Md Romel Biswash, Ke-wei Li, Ren-kou Xu, Ernest Uwiringiyimana, Peng Guan, Hai-long Lu, Jiu-yu Li, Jun Jiang, Zhi-neng Hong, Ren-yong Shi
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: The effects of soil pH variations induced by submergence/drainage and biochar application on soil cadmium (Cd) availability to different rice ( L.) varieties are not well understood. This study aims to investigate the possible reasons for available Cd(II) reduction in paddy soil as influenced by biochar and to determine Cd(II) absorption and translocation rates in different parts of various rice varieties. A pot experiment in a greenhouse using four and four rice varieties was conducted in Cd(II) contaminated paddy soil with peanut straw biochar. The results indicated that the submerging led to an increase in soil pH due to the consumption of protons (H) by the reduction reactions of iron/manganese (Fe/Mn) oxides and sulfate (SO) and thus the decrease in soil available Cd(II) contents. However, the drainage decreased soil pH due to the release of protons during the oxidation of Fe, Mn, and S and thus the increase in soil available Cd(II) contents. Application of the biochar increased soil pH during soil submerging and inhibited the decline in soil pH during soil drainage, and thus decreased soil available Cd(II) contents under both submerging and drainage conditions. The rice varieties absorbed more Cd(II) in their roots and accumulated higher amounts of Cd(II) in their shoots and grains than the rice varieties. The Cd(II) sensitive varieties exhibited a greater absorption and translocation rate of Cd(II) compared to the tolerant varieties of both and rice. Biochar inhibited the absorption and accumulation of Cd(II) in the rice varieties, which ultimately lowered the Cd(II) contents in rice grains below the national food safety limit (0.2 mg kg). Overall, planting rice varieties in Cd(II) polluted paddy soils combined with the use of biochar can effectively reduce Cd(II) content in rice grains which protects human health against Cd(II) toxicity.

4. 题目: Excellent adsorption and catalytic oxidation of toluene facilitated by metal-free nitrogen-doped mesoporous biochar
文章编号: N24061714
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: Md. Wahad Uz Zaman, Ajit Dattatray Phule, Sahar Elkaee, Seul Yi Kim, Jae Hwan Yang
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: In this study, we synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous biochar by a salt-templating method to assess the potential of our modified biochar for advanced remediation of toluene through either adsorption or catalytic oxidation. The principal findings indicated that the incorporation of nitrogen and the mesopore-forming agent significantly influenced the toluene removal performance by altering the physicochemical properties of the biochar. Notably, the sample synthesized at 900 °C (BUPZ-900) exhibited the exceptional toluene adsorption capacity, reaching 283.85 mg/g, due to its high surface area and mesopore volume. Advanced characterizations revealed that different nitrogen functionalities played distinct roles in the adsorption performance. The presence of graphitic nitrogen in BUPZ-900 enhanced toluene adsorption through π-π dispersion interactions. Conversely, BUPZ-600, boasting a high nitrogen content (8.66 at%) and a predominance of pyridinic-N (3.92 at%), exhibited the highest catalytic activity, despite its low adsorption capacity attributed to a smaller surface area. This heightened activity was attributed to the basicity of pyridinic-N, which acted as active sites, despite the material’s lower surface area. Our study highlights the promise of nitrogen-doped mesoporous biochar as an effective adsorbent or catalyst for advanced remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), even in the absence of metal catalysts. This work emphasizes the critical role of synthesis temperature and nitrogen functionalization in optimizing biochar properties for environmental applications.

5. 题目: Silica–magnesium coupling in lignin–based biochar: A promising remediation for composite heavy metal pollution in environment
文章编号: N24061713
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Xianzhen Li, Yiru Zhang, Wenmin Huang, Yanli Luo, Jian Wang, Diao She
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Lignin hydrothermal silica–carbon material served as a backbone for MgCl activation to prepare lignin–based silicon/magnesia biochar (ALB/Si–Mg) for Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn removal from water and soil environment. Characterization studies revealed a 1017.71-fold increase in the specific surface area of ALB/Si–Mg compared to the original lignin biochar (ALB), producing abundant oxygen functional groups (OC–O, Si–O, Mg–O), and mineral matter (MgSiO and MgO). Crucially, batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that the adsorption capacity of ALB/Si–Mg for Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn was 848.17, 665.07, 151.84, and 245.78 mg/g, which were 29.09–140.45 times of the ALB. Soil remediation experiments showed that applying ALB/Si–Mg increased soil effective silicon (109.04%–450.2%) and soil exchangeable magnesium (276.41%–878.66%), enhanced plant photosynthesis, and notably reduced the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil as well as the content of heavy metals in Pakchoi, thereby promoting Pakchoi growth and development. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on ALB/Si–Mg, along with MgSiO and MgO nanoparticles, enhanced the adsorption capacity for heavy metals through the promotion of heavy metal precipitation, ion exchange, and complexation mechanisms. This study establishes the groundwork for the coupling of silica and magnesium elements in biochar and the remediation of composite heavy metal environmental pollution.

6. 题目: Effect of electric field and humic acid on the mobility of biochar particles in soil
文章编号: N24061712
期刊: Environmental Technology & Innovation
作者: Yifan Yang, Min Yang, Hongjia Bao, Chen Chen, Weimin Cao, Xiaolei Zhang, Qiang Liu
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Biochar is a widely used material for the remediation of contaminated soils. However, the recovery of biochar after its application in soil remains a significant challenge. To regulate the migration of particles and identify a possible strategy for the recovery of biochar from soil, this study investigated the transport behavior of biochar microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) in real soil under different potential gradients (0, 0.5 and 1.0·V cm) and humic acid (HA) concentrations (0, 5 and 10 mg·L). It was demonstrated that the electric field and the presence of HA could enhance the mass recovery of biochar particles. Further improvement in the mobility of biochar was observed upon increasing potential gradient and HA content, which resulted in an increase in electrostatic repulsion between biochar and soil particles. In the optimal conditions, the recovery of biochar MPs and NPs in the effluent could be significantly increased to 46.3±1.2 % and 72±1.2 % at 1.0 V·cm in the presence of 5 mg·L HA. The transport of biochar particles in soil was well explained by the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) model. The enhanced migration was attributed to the increase of oxygen-containing functional groups on biochar particles by the electric field, which reduced the zeta potential (ζ-potential) of biochar and thus increased the electrostatic repulsion between them and the soil. Furthermore, the application of direct current reduced the size of biochar particles, facilitating biochar migration by reducing the size-blocking effect. The results of this study provide a basis for regulating the migration of biochar in soil.

7. 题目: Eco-hydrological processes regulate lake riparian soil organic matter under dryness stress
文章编号: N24061711
期刊: Water Research
作者: Kaiyue Ji, Wei Ouyang, Chunye Lin, Mengchang He, Xitao Liu
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: As transitional zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the soil properties of riparian zones are deeply influenced by the eco-hydrological conditions of lakes. However, with the increasing frequent drought events caused by climate change, the response of riparian soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics to the eco-hydrological process of lakes under dryness stress is unclear. In this study, we utilized the field research, indoor experiments, ecoenzymatic stoichiometry model and data analysis to identify whether riparian SOM and enzyme activity were affected by dryness stress and determine the feedback relationship between soil biochemical properties and lake eco-hydrological processes. The results showed that lake dryness stress reduced the non-vegetated riparian soil quality (the mean Carbon Pool Management Index decreased by 18 % and 6 % for water–land interface (WL) and bare land (BL), respectively), and the humification degree and molecular weight of the riparian soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) (with E/E and E/E value of WL 6.1 and 1.9 times higher than main lake sediment), which was not conducive to soil carbon storage. In addition, lake dryness stress reduced the C-hydrolytic enzyme activity and soil enzyme stoichiometry. The vector and Vector-TER analysis suggested the riparian soil was C and N limitation of the microbial community (vector length of 2.05 ± 0.57 and vector angle of 30.10° ± 7.70°), and dryness had reduced the limitations to some extent. Most notably, we combined structural equation model (SEM) analysis and found that lake dryness stress affects riparian soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics by significantly affecting microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil pH. Finally, the response of riparian zone to eco-hydrological condition under climate change should receive further attention, which can effectively deepen our understanding of the carbon water cycle mechanism in riparian soil under changing environments.

8. 题目: Soil carbon sequestration increment and carbon-negative emissions in alternate wetting and drying paddy ecosystems through biochar incorporation
文章编号: N24061710
期刊: Agricultural Water Management
作者: Chang Liu, Taotao Chen, Feng Zhang, Hongwei Han, Benji Yi, Daocai Chi
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Biochar has been recognized as one of the most important negative emission technologies due to its indirect removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, how biochar incorporation converts rice paddy into carbon negative and enhances soil carbon sequestration (SOCS) remain largely unexplored, especially under alternate wetting and drying irrigation (I). A 3-yr field experiment was conducted utilizing a split-plot design with continuous flooding irrigation (I) and I as main plots and two biochar incorporations at the rate of 0 t ha (B) and 20 t ha (B) as sub-plots. Results indicated that I reduced CH emissions by 73 %, GWP by 69 %, and greenhouse gas emission intensity (GHGI) by 69 % on average, but increased NO emissions by 109 % over the three years. Biochar inhibited NO emissions by 31 % over the three years, increased grain yield by 5 % and 11 %, and reduced CH emissions by 22 % and 38 % in the 2nd and 3rd year, although a 6 % lower grain yield was observed in the 1st year. Biochar can increase SOCS and SOCS rate more remarkably under I than I. Biochar coupled with I obtained the highest SOCS (56.9 t C ha) and lowest net GWP (-23.0 t CO-eq ha) and efficiently inhibited the negative effect of I on the increase in NO emissions. Moreover, compared with IB, IB and IB decreased net GWP by nearly 4 and 8 times, which was mainly attributed to a substantial increase in SOCS (48.3 and 56.9 t C ha) through biochar incorporation. The further decline in net GWP comparing IB with IB was caused by decreased GWP under I. Therefore, biochar combined I offers significant benefits in mitigating net greenhouse gases emissions and promoting soil C sequestration in paddy ecosystems.

9. 题目: Addition of softwood biochar did not reduce N2O emissions or N leaching from peat soil in the short term
文章编号: N24061709
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: S Saarnio, H Kekkonen, K Lång
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Drained agricultural peat soils pollute both the atmosphere and watercourses. Biochar has been observed to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nutrient loading in mineral soils. We studied effects of three biochar types with two application rates (10 and 30 Mg ha) on GHG fluxes as well as N and P leaching on peat soil. Peat monoliths were drilled from a long-term cultivated field and were watered either slightly (five dry periods) or heavily (four rainfall periods) during an 11-month laboratory experiment with intact peat columns. The incubation of bare peat profiles enhanced peat decomposition leading to high CO (up to 1300 mg CO m h) and NO emissions (even 10,000–50,000 μg NO m h) and NO-N leaching (even 300–700 mg L) in all treatments. In the beginning of the experiment, the lower application rate of pine bark biochars increased NO emission compared to control, but otherwise none of the biochars or their application rates significantly affected gas fluxes or nutrient leaching. These results indicate that moderate softwood biochar application does not help to mitigate the environmental problems of agricultural peat soils. Higher application rate of biochar pyrolyzed at high temperature is recommended for further studies with peat soils.

10. 题目: Algal extracellular polymeric substance compositions drive the binding characteristics, affinity, and phytotoxicity of graphene oxide in water
文章编号: N24061708
期刊: Water Research
作者: Kangying Wu, Shaohu Ouyang, Zongxin Tao, Xiangang Hu, Qixing Zhou
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Graphene oxide (GO, a popular 2D nanomaterial) poses great potential in water treatment arousing considerable attention regarding its fate and risk in aquatic environments. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) exist widely in water and play critical roles in biogeochemical processes. However, the influences of complex EPS fractions on the fate and risk of GO remain unknown in water. This study integrates fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, and biolayer interferometry studies on the binding characteristics and affinity between EPS fractions and GO. The results revealed the preferential binding of fluorescent aromatic protein-like component, fulvic-like component, and non-fluorescent polysaccharide in soluble EPS (S-EPS) and bound EPS (B-EPS) on GO π−π stacking and electrostatic interaction that contributed to a higher adsorption capacity of S-EPS on GO and weaker affinity than of B-EPS. Moreover, the EPS fractions drive the morphological and structural alterations, and the attenuated colloid stability of GO in water. Notably, GO-EPS induced stronger phytotoxicity (e.g., photosynthetic damage, and membrane lipid remodeling) compared to pristine GO. Metabolic and functional lipid analysis further elucidated the regulation of amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism contributed to the persistent phytotoxicity. This work provides insights into the roles and mechanisms of EPS fractions composition in regulating the environmental fate and risk of GO in natural water.

11. 题目: Chemical composition, source characteristics, and hygroscopic properties of organic-enriched aerosols in the high Arctic during summer
文章编号: N24061707
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Suresh K R Boreddy, Mukunda M Gogoi, Prashant Hegde, S Suresh Babu
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Arctic regions are extremely sensitive to global warming. Aerosols are one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents affecting the Arctic climate. The present study examines the summertime chemical characteristics and potential sources of various organic and inorganic aerosols at a Norwegian Arctic site, Ny-Ålesund (79°N). The results show that organic matter (OM) accounts for 60 % of the total PM mass, followed by sulfate (SO). Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) contributes 62 % of OC. Photochemical processes involving diverse anthropogenic and biogenic precursor compounds are identified as the major sources of WSOC, while water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) aerosols are predominantly linked to primary marine emissions. Despite being a remote pristine site, the aerosols show a sign of chemical aging, evidenced by a significant chloride depletion, which was about 82 % on average during the study period. Nitrogen-containing aerosols are likely stemming from migratory seabird colonies and local dust sources around the sampling site. While biogenic, crustal, and sea salt-derived SO account for 37%, 8%, and 5% respectively, the remaining 50% is attributed to anthropogenic SO. Through chemical tracers, Pearson correlation coefficient matrix, and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), the present study identifies soil biota (terrestrial biogenic) and marine emissions, along with their photochemical oxidation processes, as potential sources of Arctic aerosols during summer, while biomass burning and combustion-related sources have a minor contribution. The chemical closure of hygroscopicity highlights that while organics predominantly control aerosol hygroscopicity in the Arctic summer, specific inorganic components like (NH)SO can significantly increase it on certain days, affecting aerosol-cloud interactions and climate processes over the Arctic during summer. The present study highlights the high abundance of organics and their vital role in the Arctic climate during summer when natural aerosols are conquered.

12. 题目: Molecular-level insight into the origin-dependent adsorption fractionation of dissolved organic matter on ferrihydrite in aquatic environment: Implications for carbon sink in eutrophic lakes
文章编号: N24061706
期刊: Chemical Engineering Journal
作者: Chengyu Suo, Wensi Zhao, Shasha Liu, Rui Fu, Yi Ren, Yue Qiu, Yuxin Zhang, Zhongqi He, Baoshan Xing, Fengchang Wu
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Molecular fractionation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) induced by adsorption on minerals plays a significant role in carbon biogeochemical cycling in water environment. However, the molecular-level adsorption of algae-derived DOM (ADOM) on minerals in eutrophic lakes remains poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the ferrihydrite-induced adsorptive fractionation of ADOM and humic DOM for comparison by using spectral analysis, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and solid characterization methods. We observed higher adsorption rate but lower adsorption capacity for ADOM than humic DOM. Spectroscopy and FT-ICR-MS indicated compounds with large molecular weight (>350 Da), high unsaturated and oxygen-rich were preferentially adsorbed for both ADOM and humic DOM. Specifically, the adsorption affinity order was aromatics > lignin-like > aliphatic compounds. Furthermore, tannin-like and condensed aromatics were predominantly adsorbed in humic DOM and protein-like formulas in ADOM. The solid characterization of ferrihydrite before and after adsorption further confirmed the dominant adsorption of aromatic and carboxylic-containing species in humic DOM and aliphatic materials in ADOM. Additionally, the contribution variation of oxygen atom to double bond in the molecular formula before and after adsorption identified absorbed oxygen-containing substances were predominantly aromatic carboxylic acids for humic DOM, but few aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with ethers and alcohols for ADOM. These findings provided new insights into mineral-induced carbon sequestration, that is, increased release of ADOM in eutrophic lakes might influence the amount of organic carbon settled by ferrihydrite, and alter its quality from aromatic to aliphatic compounds transfer from water column to sediment through ferrihydrite adsorption.

13. 题目: Hydrothermal-assisted acid-etching of oil shale semi-coke for preparation of mineral/biochar nanocomposites and selective adsorption toward mycotoxins
文章编号: N24061705
期刊: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
作者: Feng Zhao, Bin Mu, Yuru Kang, Dandan Wang, Gong Zhu, Aiqin Wang
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Due to the continuous increase in the mycotoxin pollution in various cereals, animal feeds and water body, it is crucial to develop efficient mycotoxin adsorption materials. This study employed hydrothermal-assisted acid-etching of oil shale semi-coke (OSSC) to fabricate mineral/biochar nanocomposites based on full-component synchronous utilization of OSSC for the adsorption of mycotoxins, and the structural evolution and structure-activity relationship of mineral/biochar nanocomposites for adsorption of mycotoxins were studied from the mineral material perspective. XRD and Raman results indicated that the acid-etching process affected the crystalline structures of the minerals, while Zeta potential and FTIR spectra demonstrated that this process increased the number of active adsorption sites on the nanocomposites for selective adsorption of mycotoxins. By contrast, the obtained mineral/biochar nanocomposites presented good adsorption properties toward zearalenone and aflatoxin B with a maximum removal ratio of 95.59% and 100% after being treated with 4 mol/L of HCl for 12 h, while almost no zearalenone adsorption was observed for raw OSSC. The adsorption mechanism involves the formation of hydrogen bond, van der Waals force, π-π interaction, and π-dipole interaction derived from the synergistic effect between silicate and carbon species. This study provides a feasible strategy for the preparation of mineral/biochar nanocomposites with excellent adsorption performance, and a reference for understanding the structural evolution and structure-activity relationship of mineral/biochar nanocomposites to realize the popular strategy of “Treating the wastes with wastes”.

14. 题目: Catalytic fixation of hydrogen sulfide over CuO-CaCO3 co-impregnated tea stalk-derived biochar
文章编号: N24061704
期刊: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
作者: Fangcong Lin, Leiping Wang, Xiaorong Dai, Zun Man, Yang Meng, Dongtao Chu, Yuting Yang, Wei Wang, Hang Xiao, Kaiying Wang
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Effective treatment of hydrogen sulfide (HS) is crucial for minimizing nuisance odors from intensive livestock and poultry operations. The development of high-performance desulfurizers holds practical significance in this context. Herein, a novel CuO-CaCO co-impregnated biochar desulfurizer (CuCa/BC) was synthesized by impregnation-pyrolysis method, using waste tea stalks and metal salts as raw materials, and it is intended for the treatment of HS at room temperature. The optimized CuCa/BC shows an excellent HS removal capacity of 182.67 mg/g, which is 31 times and 5.6 times that of inactivated biochar (BC) and copper-oxide-impregnated biochar (Cu/BC). The desulfurization mechanism of CuCa/BC involves synergistic effect of reactive adsorption and catalytic oxidation. CaCO’s alkaline adsorption sites and copper-mediated activation of superoxide radicals (∙O) were critical in this reaction. Besides, CuCa/BC demonstrated excellent reusability, retaining approximately 85 % of its initial HS removal capacity after seven cycles of desulfurization and regeneration. This study aims to develop a metal oxide- and carbonate-impregnated biochar-based desulfurizer, with the goal of advancing the technology for catalytic removal of HS in a more environmentally friendly and effective manner.

15. 题目: Bacterial surface properties and transport behavior actively respond to an extracellular polymeric substance gradient in saturated porous media
文章编号: N24061703
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Ying Liu, Mengya Du, Shangyi Shu, Jian Wei, Kun Zhu, Gang Wang
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: The transport and retention of bacteria in porous media, such as aquifer, are governed by the solid-liquid interface characteristics and bacterial mobility. The secretion of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) by bacteria modifies their surface property, and thereby has effects on their adhesion to surface. The role of EPS in bacterial mobility within saturated quartz sand media is uncertain, as both promoting and inhibitory effects have been reported, and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the effects of EPS on bacterial transport behavior and possible underlying mechanism were investigated at 4 concentrations (0 mg L, 50 mg L, 200 mg L and 1000 mg L) using laboratory simulation experiments in conjunction with Extend Derjaguin-Landau-Verweu-Overbeek (XDLVO) modeling. The results showed that EPS facilitated bacterial mobility at all tested concentrations. It could be partially explained by the increased energy barrier between bacterial cells and quartz sand surface in the presence of EPS. The XDLVO sphere-plate model predicted that EPS induced a higher electrostatic double layer (EDL) repulsive force, Lewis acid-base (AB) and steric stabilization (ST), as well as a lower Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) attractive force. However, at the highest EPS concentration (1000 mg L), the promotion of EPS on bacterial mobility weakened as a result of lower repulsive interactions between cells, which was supported by observed enhanced bacterial aggregation. Consequently, the increased aggregation led to greater bio-colloidal straining and ripening in the sand column, weakening the positive impact of EPS on bacterial transport. These findings suggested that EPS exhibited concentration-dependent effects on bacterial surface properties and transport behavior and revealed non-intuitive dual effects of EPS on those processes.

16. 题目: Recovering phosphate from sludge-incinerated ash by modified biochar as a soil conditioner and P-fertilizer
文章编号: N24061702
期刊: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
作者: Xiangyang Wang, Jiayong Li, Xiaodi Hao, Yuanyuan Wu
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: Phosphate (P) recovery by directly selective adsorption from the acidic leachate of sludge-incinerated ash (SIA) becomes more attractive due to avoiding heavy metal removal, and biochar from agricultural biomass could be applied for adsorption. However, the surface of biochar is negatively charged and is not effective to adsorb phosphate. Thus, biochar needs to be modified by some metals. With this study, Ca and Mg were used to modify biochar, and then the modified biochar was used to directly adsorb phosphorus from the acidic leachate of SIA. With P-adsorbed biochar used as the slowly-released P-fertilizer, the pot tests were carried out to check the P-fertilizer efficiency and safety. The results indicate that the modified biochar could complete > 80% of adsorption on phosphate, achieving a maximal adsorption capacity, up to 56.20–93.76 mg P/g biochar. The slowly-released effect of the P-adsorbed biochar was quite good, and the release rate was about 50%-60% within 15 d. The pot trials discovered that the P-adsorbed biochar could be directly used as a slowly-released P-fertilizer, which had the obvious effect on the growth of lettuce, and could also improve pH of the acidic soil and promote the absorption and utilization of nutrients by plants.

17. 题目: Synthesis, delineation and technological advancements of algae biochar for sustainable remediation of the emerging pollutants from wastewater-a review
文章编号: N24061701
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Gour Gopal Satpati, Anuradha Devi, Debajyoti Kundu, Pritam Kumar Dikshit, Sarveshwaran Saravanabhupathy, null Rajlakshmi, Rintu Banerjee, Rajiv Chandra Rajak, Majid Rasool Kamli, Sang-Yul Lee, Jung-Wan Kim, MubarakAli Davoodbasha
更新时间: 2024-06-17
摘要: The use of algae for value-added product and biorefining applications is enchanting attention among researchers in recent years due to its remarkable photosynthetic ability, adaptability, and capacity to accumulate lipids and carbohydrates. Algae biomass, based on its low manufacturing costs, is relatively renewable, sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical in comparison with other species. High production rate of algae provides a unique opportunity for its conversion to biochar with excellent physicochemical properties, . high surface area and pore volume, high adsorption capacity, abundant functional groups over surface, etc. Despite several potential algal-biochar, a detailed study on its application for removal of emerging contaminants from wastewater is limited. Therefore, this technical review is being carried out to evaluate the specific elimination of inorganic and organic pollutants from wastewater, with a view to assessing adsorption performances of biochar obtained from various algae species. Species-specific adsorption of emerging pollutants from wastewater have been discussed in the present review. The promising methods like pyrolysis, gasification, dry and wet torrefaction for the production of algae biochar are highlighted. The strategies include chemical and structural modifications of algae biochar for the removal of toxic contaminants have also been considered in the current work. The overall aim of this review is to confer about the synthesis, technological advancements, delineation and application of algae biochar for the treatment of wastewater.

18. 题目: Quartz Crystallinity Characteristics and Their Effects on Shale Gas Reservoir Performance: A Case Study of the Deep Longmaxi Formation Shale in the Sichuan Basin, China
文章编号: N24061603
期刊: ACS Earth and Space Chemistry
作者: Yue Feng, Xianming Xiao, Enze Wang, Dongfeng Hu, Ruobing Liu, Qin Zhou
更新时间: 2024-06-16
摘要: Quartz, as a pivotal constituent of shale, has garnered considerable attention in research. Nevertheless, prior studies on quartz in shale have concentrated on its influence on organic matter accumulation, pore development, and physical properties. The crystal morphology of quartz and its implications for shale reservoir performance have been largely overlooked. This study utilizes the Longmaxi (LMX) shale in the Sichuan Basin, China, as an example to conduct this work. We used X-ray powder diffraction, polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and cathodoluminescence testing, characterizing the crystallinity and characteristics of quartz, revealing the influence of quartz crystallinity on shale reservoirs. The results indicate that the quartz crystallinity index (QCI) of the LMX shale ranges from 2.81 to 8.09, and a significant correlation between the QCI and the sources of quartz is observed. Shale samples with lower QCI values tend to exhibit a higher content of biogenic quartz, whereas the content of clay-transformed quartz and/or terrigenous detrital quartz increases. Furthermore, the pore structure parameters of shale exhibit synergistic variations with QCI, especially for shale with low crystallinity, despite showcasing differences for pores with different pore sizes. Notably, QCI exhibits the strongest negative correlation with micropores, followed by mesopores, while this correlation is less apparent in macropores. The influence of QCI on pore development is primarily ascribed to its synergistic interaction with organic matter enrichment and the constraints imposed on the development and preservation of organic-matter-hosted pores. Under the well-preserved geological conditions of the LMX shale reservoirs, a definite correlation exists between the QCI value and shale gas content/production. This correlation signifies that QCI could serve as a potential indicator for assessing shale reservoir quality, complementing conventional parameters, such as the contents of total organic carbon and quartz.

19. 题目: Disentangling influences of climate variability and lake-system evolution on climate proxies derived from isoprenoid and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs): the 250 kyr Lake Chala record
文章编号: N24061602
期刊: Biogeosciences
作者: Allix J Baxter, Francien Peterse, Dirk Verschuren, Aihemaiti Maitituerdi, Nicolas Waldmann, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté
更新时间: 2024-06-16
摘要: . High-resolution paleoclimate records from tropical continental settings are greatly needed to advance understanding of global climate dynamics. The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) project DeepCHALLA recovered a 214.8 m long sediment sequence from Lake Chala, a deep and permanently stratified (meromictic) crater lake in eastern equatorial Africa, covering the past ca. 250 000 years (250 kyr) of continuous lacustrine deposition since the earliest phase of lake-basin development. Lipid biomarker analyses on the sediments of Lake Chala can provide quantitative records of past variation in temperature and moisture balance from this poorly documented region. However, the degree to which climate proxies derived from aquatically produced biomarkers are affected by aspects of lake developmental history is rarely considered, even though it may critically influence their ability to consistently register a particular climate variable through time. Modern-system studies of Lake Chala revealed crucial information about the mechanisms underpinning relationships between proxies based on isoprenoid (iso-) and branched (br-) glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) and the targeted climate variables, but the persistence of these relationships in the past remains unclear. Here we assess the reliability of long-term climate signals registered in the sediments of Lake Chala by comparing downcore variations in GDGT distributions with major phases in lake-system evolution as reflected by independent proxies of lake depth, mixing regime and nutrient dynamics: seismic reflection data, lithology and fossil diatom assemblages. Together, these records suggest that during early lake history (before ca. 180–200 ka) the distinct mixing-related depth zones with which specific GDGT producers are associated in the modern-day lake were not yet formed, likely due to more open lake hydrology and absence of chemical water-column stratification. Consequently absolute GDGT concentrations dating to this period are relatively low, proxies sensitive to water-column stratification (e.g., branched versus isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index) display highly irregular temporal variability, and correlations between proxies are dissimilar to expectations based on modern-system understanding. A sequence of lake-system changes between ca. 180–200 and ca. 80 ka first established and then strengthened the chemical density gradient, promoting meromictic conditions despite the overall decrease in lake depth due to the basin gradually being filled up with sediments. From ca. 180 ka onward some GDGTs and derived proxies (e.g., crenarchaeol concentration, BIT index and IR6Me) display strong ∼ 23 kyr periodicity, likely reflecting the predominantly precession-driven insolation forcing of Quaternary climate variability in low-latitude regions. Our results suggest that GDGT-based temperature and moisture-balance proxies in Lake Chala sediments reflect the climate history of eastern equatorial Africa from at least ca. 160 ka onwards, i.e., covering the complete last glacial–interglacial cycle and the penultimate glacial maximum. This work confirms the potential of lacustrine GDGTs for elucidating the climate history of tropical regions at Quaternary timescales, provided they are applied to suitably high-quality sediment archives. Additionally, their interpretation should incorporate a broader understanding of the extent to which lake-system evolution limits the extrapolation back in time of proxy-climate relationships established in the modern system.

20. 题目: Response of hyporheic biofilms to temperature changes and dissolved organic carbon enrichment: a mesocosm study
文章编号: N24061601
期刊: Journal of Soils and Sediments
作者: Tatjana Simčič, Monika Poklukar, Nataša Mori
更新时间: 2024-06-16
摘要:

Purpose

Hyporheic biofilms are the central site for biogeochemical cycling in streams and rivers. In view of global warming and increasing human pressures, this study aimed to compare the response of hyporheic biofilm biomass and activities from an unpolluted reference stream reach surrounded by forest with those from a stream reach exposed to agricultural and urban land use using a mesocosm experiment in which the water temperature and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents were manipulated.

Methods

Hyporheic sediments collected in the field from the two study reaches (i.e. reference and impacted) were incubated in the laboratory at two different temperatures (10 °C, 14 °C) and wetted with three types of synthetic water (control [C] – 0 mg L−1; low DOC – 5 mg L−1; high DOC – 30 mg L−1) for four weeks. The responses of the hyporheic biofilms were measured weekly using structural (total protein content [TPC] as a proxy for biofilm biomass) and functional measures (electron transport system activity [ETSA] and community-level physiological profiling [CLPP]).

Results

The response of hyporheic biofilms to temperature changes and DOC enrichment was site-specific for all studied measures (TPC, ETSA and CLPP, including measured average well colour development [AWCD]). The addition of DOC to biofilms from the pristine stream reach significantly heightened the responses at 10 °C, a temperature within the normal environmental temperature ranges of the reference location, but not at 14 °C, which was here, a temperature outside normal environmental range. On the other hand, biofilms from the impacted stream reach exhibited increased responses following DOC enrichment under both temperature regimes, with a particularly pronounced response at 14 ºC, in this case, both experimental temperatures were within the normal environmental temperature ranges of the study locations.

Conclusion

Hyporheic biofilms were shown to be, like benthic biofilms, sensitive to temperature changes and organic enrichment, but their response to temperature changes and enrichment caused by climate change and/or other anthropogenic pressures (i.e. point and non-point pollution, removal of the riparian zone, hydromorphological modifications, etc.) was not simply linear but site-specific. The intensity of the response, characterized by increased activity and biomass production, appears to be constrained within the temperature ranges prevalent in the environment from which the biofilms originate. These findings emphasize the importance of site-specific considerations in predicting the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic pressures on these critical components of river and stream ecosystems.

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