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181. 题目: Response of soil organic carbon to straw return in farmland soil in China: A meta-analysis
文章编号: N24051001
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Jinjian Xin, Li Yan, Hongguang Cai
更新时间: 2024-05-10
摘要: Straw return is an effective measure to promote sustainable agriculture by significantly improving soil fertility. At present, few studies have been conducted on the most effective carbon enhancing management measures for various crops. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis using data collected from 184 literature sources, comprising 3297 data sets to analyze the carbon increase effects of straw returning in three main crops (rice, maize, and wheat) in China and to explore the influence mechanism of natural factors, soil properties, straw return measures, and cropping systems on the carbon enhancement effect. The study showed that straw return significantly increased soil organic carbon and the rate of increase was higher for wheat at 15.88% (14.74%–17.03%) than for rice at 12.7% (11.5%–13.91%) and maize at 12.42% (11.42%–13.42%), with varying degrees of improvement in other soil physicochemical properties. Natural factors have the greatest impact on the carbon increasing effect of rice fields, reaching 28.8%, especially at temperature between 10 °C and 15 °C, less than 800 mm precipitation, low latitude, and short frost-free period. Maize and wheat are most affected by soil properties, reaching 41% and 34.5% respectively. Furthermore, field management practices also play a pivotal role, organic carbon increasing obviously was observed when the C/N ratio of exogenous nutrients is bigger than 20 with the low initial organic matter. Shallow tillage and less than 7.5 t hm−2 straw returning with 3–10 years to the field are ideal for rice and maize. Crop rotation, especially in drylands, increased soil organic carbon more significantly than continuous. The results of our analysis can provide valuable insights into the effect of straw return on carbon increase. In the future, the soil carbon can be improved by adopting rational cropping patterns and straw return measures with taking into account climate and soil characteristics for different crops.

182. 题目: Phosphorus immobilization/release behavior of lanthanum-modified bentonite amended sediment under the dual effects of pH and dissolved organic carbon
文章编号: N24050913
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Xiaodi Li, Xiaomeng Zhou, Junxia Yu, Chunqiao Xiao, Ruan Chi
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要: Lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) is typical P-inactivating agent that has been applied in over 200 lakes. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and high pH restrict the phosphorus (P) immobilization performance of LMB. However, the P immobilization/release behaviors of LMB-amended sediment when suspended to overlying water with high pH and DOC have not yet been studied. In the present work, batch adsorption and long-term incubation experiments were performed to study the combined effects of pH and DOC on the P control by LMB. The results showed that the coexistence of low concentration of DOC or preloading with some DOC had a negligible effect on P binding by LMB. In the presence of DOC, the P adsorption was more pronounced at pH 7.5 and was measurably less at pH 9.5. Additionally, the pH value was the key factor that decided the P removal at low DOC concentration. The increase in pH and DOC could significantly promote the release of sediment P with a higher EPC. Under such condition, a higher LMB dosage was needed to effectively control the P releasing from sediment. In sediment/water system with intermittent resuspension, the alkaline conditions greatly facilitated the release of sediment P and DOC, which increased from 0.087 to 0.581 mg/L, and from 11.05 to 26.56 mg/L, respectively. Under the dual effect of pH and DOC, the P-immobilization performance of LMB was weakened, and a tailor-made scheme became essential for determining the optimum dosage. The desorption experiments verified that the previously loaded phosphorus on LMB was hard to be released even under high pH and DOC conditions, with an accumulative desorption rate of less than 2%. Accordingly, to achieve the best P controlling efficiency, the application strategies depending on LMB should avoid the high DOC loading period such as the rainy season and algal blooms.

183. 题目: Role of minerals in regulating the mineralization of cover crop residue and native organic matter and the community and necromass of microbes in flooded paddy soils
文章编号: N24050912
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Lei Shi, Jun Zhu, Qingling Fu, Hongqing Hu, Qiaoyun Huang
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要:

Aims

The application of cover crop residue is an important means in managing paddy soil. This study was to investigate the influences of minerals on the mineralization of organic matter and the community and necromass of microbes in paddy soils amended with cover crop residue.

Methods

13C-labelled cover crop residue (Astragalus sinicus L.) was prepared using a pulse labeling method. The mineralization of cover crop residue and native soil organic matter and the community and necromass of microbes in two flooded paddy soils amended with or without illite, goethite and ferrihydrite was investigated by incubation experiments. The released CO2/CH4 was analyzed by gas chromatography. Amino sugar was used as the biomarker of microbial residue carbon. Soil microbial communities were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results

Illite, goethite and ferrihydrite significantly decreased the amounts of both CO2 and CH4 emissions from native soil organic carbon in both paddy soils. Moreover, the inhibition efficiency followed the same sequence of ferrihydrite > goethite > illite for both CO2 and CH4 emissions. However, ferrihydrite significantly stimulated the mineralization of cover crop residue in both paddy soils. The examined minerals, especially ferrihydrite, also tended to decrease bacterial and fungal abundance and diversity in both paddy soils. Moreover, the contents of both bacterial and fungal residue carbon were significantly decreased by the examined minerals in alkaline paddy soil.

Conclusion

Examined minerals tended to decrease total mineralization of cover crop residue and native organic matter, the microbial abundance, diversity, and necromass in flooded paddy soils.

184. 题目: Salt pollution reduces turbidity, dissolved organic matter, and cyanobacteria in experimental vernal pool communities
文章编号: N24050911
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Jared P Vigil, Matthew S Schuler
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要: Anthropogenic activities such as the over-application of road deicers are causing an increase in the concentration of salts in historically fresh waters. Experimental and field investigations demonstrate that freshwater salinization disrupts ecosystem functions and services, causing the death of freshwater organisms and changes to nutrient conditions. Wetland habitats are one system negatively affected by salt pollution, including ephemeral wetlands (vernal pools) that fill with salt-polluted water after snowmelt. In urbanized areas, the degradation of these ecosystems could result in irreversible ecological damage including reduced water quality and a reduction in biodiversity. To investigate the effects of freshwater salinization on vernal pool communities, we exposed soils from vernal pools to water containing no salt (control), or four concentrations of three salts standardized by chloride concentration (50 mg Cl− L−1, 100 mg Cl− L−1, 200 mg Cl− L−1, and 400 mg Cl− L−1; magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium chloride). The results of this experiment suggest that emerging zooplankton communities in vernal pools are sensitive to low concentrations of salt pollution, and that alternative salts such as magnesium chloride and calcium chloride are more toxic than sodium chloride. We did not find positive or negative changes in the abundance of eukaryotic phytoplankton but did find negative effects of salt on cyanobacteria abundance, possibly due to corresponding reductions in turbidity which might be needed as a fixation site for cyanobacteria to form heterocysts. Finally, we found that salt pollution likely caused flocculation of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM), resulting in reduced concentrations of DOM which could alter the buffering capacity of freshwater systems, light attenuation, and the populations of planktonic heterotrophs.

185. 题目: The inputs of autochthonous organic carbon driven by mangroves reduce metal mobility and bioavailability in intertidal regions
文章编号: N24050910
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Linjing Niu, Youshao Wang, Yanwu Zhou, Jiao Fei, Cuici Sun, Zhi-Hua Li, Hao Cheng
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要: The significance of mangroves in carbon storage is widely acknowledged. However, the potential role of carbon enhancement driven by mangroves in mitigating the risk of metal exposure remains unclear. In this study, a natural mangrove reserve located in Futian was selected to investigate the potential role of autochthonous organic carbon on metal bioavailability. The presence of mangroves seemed to have little effect on the accumulations of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI/III), Pb(II), and Ni(II) in surface sediments. Metal mobility and bioavailability, however, were found to be directly influenced by the presence of mangroves. Compared with mudflat, mangrove sediments exhibited an obvious in the bioavailability of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI/III), Pb(II), and Ni(II) by 19–79 %, with the highest reduction occurring in the interior of mangroves dominated by . Mangroves also significantly enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon in sediments, regardless of carbon components. Moreover, the results from random forest analysis further showed that autochthonous organic carbon was the most important carbon component that negatively related to metal bioavailability. In summary, this is the first study to provide a linkage between mangrove cover and increased autochthonous organic carbon input, which decreases metal bioavailability. The present data also suggest that mangroves are an efficient natural barrier to alleviate the risk of metal exposure in intertidal regions.

186. 题目: Transformation of dissolved organic matter during groundwater arsenite removal using air cathode iron electrocoagulation
文章编号: N24050909
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Ying Yuan, Jiabao Chen, Hao Zhang, Yue Wu, Yu Xiao, Wan Huang, Yang Wang, Jun Tang, Fang Zhang
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要: Dissolve organic matters (DOM) usually showed negative effect on the removal of inorganic arsenic (As) in groundwater by electrochemical approaches, yet which parts of sub-component within DOM played the role was lack of evidence. Herein, we investigated the effects of land-source humic-like acid (HA) on groundwater As(III) removal using air cathode iron electrocoagulation, based on the parallel factor analysis of three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix and statistical methods. Our results showed that the land-source HA contained five kinds of components and all components presented significantly negative correlations with the removal of both As(III) and As(V). However, the high aromatic fulvic-like acid and low aromatic humic-like acid components of land-source HA presented the opposite correlations with the concentration of As(III) during the reaction. The high aromaticity fulvic-like components of land-source HA (Sigma-Aldrich HA, SAHA) produced during the reaction facilitated the oxidation of As(III) due to its high electron transfer capacities and good solubility in wide pH range, but the low aromaticity humic-like ones worked against the oxidation of As(III). Our findings offered the novel insights for the flexible activities of DOM in electron Fenton system.

187. 题目: Coupling machine learning and theoretical models to compare key properties of biochar in adsorption kinetics rate and maximum adsorption capacity for emerging contaminants
文章编号: N24050908
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Bingyou Liu, Feiyu Xi, Huanjing Zhang, Jiangtao Peng, Lianpeng Sun, Xinzhe Zhu
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要: Insights into key properties of biochar with a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity are urgent to design biochar as an adsorbent in pollution emergency treatment. Machine learning (ML) incorporating classical theoretical adsorption models was applied to build prediction models for adsorption kinetics rate (., K) and maximum adsorption capacity (., Q) of emerging contaminants (ECs) on biochar. Results demonstrated that the prediction performance of adaptive boosting algorithm significantly improved after data preprocessing (., log-transformation) in the small unbalanced datasets with of 0.865 and 0.874 for K and Q, respectively. The surface chemistry, primarily led by ash content of biochar significantly influenced the K, while surface porous structure of biochar showed a dominant role in predicting Q. An interactive platform was deployed for relevant scientists to predict K and Q of new biochar for ECs. The research provided practical references for future engineered biochar design for ECs removal.

188. 题目: Iron-doped biochar, an agricultural and environmentally beneficial fertilizer
文章编号: N24050906
期刊: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
作者: Amara Dar, Mahreen Hafeez, Fiza Sarwar, Noor ul Ain, Ghazala Yaseen
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要:

The utilization of agricultural waste to create value-added goods has benefited waste management while resolving cost-effectiveness and food shortage problems. Returning biochar produced from agricultural waste to the agricultural field is a sustainable method of enhancing crop production while lowering the environmental effect of typical fertilizers. It also enhances soil condition by modulating pH, soil organic carbon, water retention capacity, and soil ion exchange potential. The current work concentrated on the production of iron oxide-loaded biochar from banana peels. Pyrolysis was carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 °C. The co-precipitation technique was utilized to impregnate Fe3O4 nanoparticles on biochar, and it showed to be an effective and trustworthy method. Loading was done in situ. Characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR, CHNS, and TGA were employed to characterize synthesized materials. Swelling ratio, water retention, absorbance, and equilibrium water content percentage were used to study the adsorption capabilities of Fe3O4-loaded biochar, soil, and raw biochar. As a consequence, Fe3O4-enriched biochar was shown to have better adsorption capability than raw biochar, which in turn showed better adsorption properties than soil. Iron-loaded biochar was employed as a fertilizer in Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra), and the results showed that it is a cost-effective, environmentally friendly fertilizer.

189. 题目: Fractionation of biomass-burning smoke-derived dissolved organic matters on the surface of clay minerals: Variations of molecular properties and components
文章编号: N24050905
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Yinhua Zhong, Yue Cheng, Huiying Zhang, Ran Wei, Jinzhi Ni, Weifeng Chen, Hui Jia
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要: Biomass burning (e.g., wildfire) frequently occurs globally, inevitably produces abundant biomass-burning smoke-derived dissolved organic matters (BBS-DOMs) which eventually deposits on the surface environment. The adsorption and fractionation of BBS-DOMs on clays inevitably alter their biogeochemical process and environmental behaviors in the surface environment. It is therefore important to clarify the adsorption and fractionation of BBS-DOM on clay surfaces. This study found that the fractionation of BBS-DOMs on clays (montmorillonite and kaolinite) were controlled by their functional groups, aromaticity, molecular size and organic components. The spectral indexes (SUVA and S) of BBS-DOMs in solution after clays adsorption suggested that with the increasing DOC concentration, the primary interaction between BBS-DOMs and clays changed from hydrogen bond to hydrophobic/pore filling effects, and the adsorption ratio of the large molecules increased, which were very different from natural fulvic acid. Furthermore, various BBS-DOMs and fulvic acid had different component fractionation behaviors during clay adsorption, because they had different abundances of protein-like matters (hydrogen bond donors), pyridine-N/pyrimidine-N (positive charge doners of electrostatic interaction), and fulvic-like matters (hydrophobic interaction and pore filling effect). Additionally, the increasing pH weakened the adsorption of bulk BBS-DOMs and enhanced the adsorption ratio of aromatic matters and smaller BBS-DOM molecules. Meanwhile, at a higher pH, the adsorption ratio of protein-like matters increased, while the adsorption ratio of humic- and fulvic-like matters decreased. The result was ascribed to the enhanced hydrogen bond between protein-like matters and clays as well as the enhanced electrostatic repulsion between humic−/fulvic-like matters and clays. This study is helpful for deeply understanding the multimedia-crossing environmental behavior of BBS-DOMs in the surface environment.

190. 题目: Environmental controls on the distribution of brGDGTs and brGMGTs across the Seine River basin (NW France): implications for bacterial tetraethers as a proxy for riverine runoff
文章编号: N24050904
期刊: Biogeosciences
作者: Zhe-Xuan Zhang, Edith Parlanti, Christelle Anquetil, Jérôme Morelle, Anniet M Laverman, Alexandre Thibault, Elisa Bou, Arnaud Huguet
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要: . Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial lipids that have been widely used as environmental proxies in continental paleorecords. Another group of related lipids, branched glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGMGTs), has recently been proposed as a potential paleotemperature proxy. Nevertheless, the sources and environmental dependencies of both brGDGTs and brGMGTs along the river–sea continuum are still poorly understood, complicating their application as paleoenvironmental proxies in some aquatic settings. In this study, the sources of brGDGTs and brGMGTs and the potential factors controlling their distributions are explored across the Seine River basin (NW France), which encompasses the freshwater-to-seawater continuum. BrGDGTs and brGMGTs were analyzed in soils, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediments (n=237) collected along the land–sea continuum of the Seine basin. Both types of compounds (i.e., brGDGTs and brGMGTs) are shown to be produced in situ, in freshwater and saltwater, based on their high concentrations and distinct distributions in aquatic settings (SPM and sediments) vs. soils. Redundancy analysis further shows that both salinity and nitrogen dominantly control the brGDGT distributions. Furthermore, the relative abundance of 6-methyl vs. that of 5-methyl brGDGTs (the IR6Me ratio), the total nitrogen (TN), the δ15N, and the chlorophyll a concentration co-vary in a specific geographical zone with low salinity, suggesting that 6-methyl brGDGTs are preferentially produced under low-salinity and high-productivity conditions. In contrast to brGDGTs, the brGMGT distribution appears to be primarily regulated by salinity, with a distinct influence on the individual homologues. Salinity is positively correlated with homologues H1020a and H1020b and negatively correlated with compounds H1020c and H1034b in SPM. This suggests that bacteria living in freshwater preferentially produce compounds H1020c and H1034b, whereas bacteria that primarily grow in saltwater appear to be predominantly responsible for the production of homologues H1020a and H1020b. Based on the abundance ratio of the freshwater-derived compounds (H1020c and H1034b) vs. their saltwater-derived homologues (H1020a and H1020b), a novel proxy, the Riverine IndeX (RIX), is proposed to trace riverine organic matter inputs, with high values (>0.5) indicating a higher riverine contribution. We successfully applied RIX to the Godavari River basin (India) and a paleorecord across the upper Paleocene and lower Eocene from the Arctic Coring Expedition at Lomonosov Ridge, showing its potential applicability to both modern samples and paleorecords.

191. 题目: Shining a Light on How Soil Organic Carbon Behaves at Fine Scales under Long-Term Elevated CO2: An 8 Year Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Study
文章编号: N24050903
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Zhe H Weng, Peter M Kopittke, Steffen Schweizer, Jian Jin, Roger Armstrong, Michael Rose, Yunyun Zheng, Ashley Franks, Caixian Tang
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要: Building and protecting soil organic carbon (SOC) are critical to agricultural productivity, soil health, and climate change mitigation. We aim to understand how mechanisms at the organo-mineral interfaces influence SOC persistence in three contrasting soils (Luvisol, Vertisol, and Calcisol) under long-term free air CO2 enrichment conditions. A continuous wheat-field pea-canola rotation was maintained. For the first time, we provided evidence to a novel notion that persistent SOC is molecularly simple even under elevated CO2 conditions. We found that the elevated CO2 condition did not change the total SOC content or C forms compared with the soils under ambient CO2 as identified by synchrotron-based soft X-ray analyses. Furthermore, synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy confirmed a two-dimensional microscale distribution of similar and less diverse C forms in intact microaggregates under long-term elevated CO2 conditions. Strong correlations between the distribution of C forms and O–H groups of clays can explain the steady state of the total SOC content. However, the correlations between C forms and clay minerals were weakened in the coarse-textured Calcisol under long-term elevated CO2. Our findings suggested that we should emphasize identifying management practices that increase the physical protection of SOC instead of increasing complexity of C. Such information is valuable in developing more accurate C prediction models under elevated CO2 conditions and shift our thinking in developing management practices for maintaining and building SOC for better soil fertility and future environmental sustainability.

192. 题目: Unleashing the potential of Cajanus cajun biochar polymer composite for Cu (II) removal: mechanism, modification, and application
文章编号: N24050902
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Sadamanti Sireesha, Inkollu Sreedhar
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要:

This study introduces a cost-effective approach to fabricating a porous and ionically surface-modified biochar-based alginate polymer networks composite (SBPC) through air drying. The study critically analyzes the role and concentrations of various components in the success of SBPC. Characterization techniques were employed to evaluate the microstructure and adsorption mechanism, confirming the ability of the adsorbent’s carboxyl and hydroxyl groups to eliminate various heavy metal ions in water simultaneously. The SBPC demonstrated high copper binding capacities (937.4 mg/g and 823.2 mg/g) through response surface methodology (RSM) and column studies. It was also influential in single and natural systems, exhibiting competitive behavior and efficient removal of Cu2+. The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics strongly correlate with experimental data, with R2 values of 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. SBPC showed remarkable stability, up to 10 desorption cycles, and achieved 98% Cu2+ adsorption efficiency and 91.0% desorption. Finally, the cost analysis showed a cost of 125.68 INR/kg or 1.51 USD/kg, which is very low compared to the literature. These results highlight the potential of SPBC and show that it provides an efficient and cost-effective solution for removing Cu2+ from a real system.

193. 题目: Persistence of soil microbial residuals and lignin phenols in forest ecosystems along the latitude gradient
文章编号: N24050901
期刊: Journal of Soils and Sediments
作者: Qiaoling Lin, Qiuxiang Tian, Chang Liao, Xudong Yuan, Mengzhen Lu, Feng Liu
更新时间: 2024-05-09
摘要:

Aims

Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage is mainly governed by inputs from plant and microbial sources. How the relative contributions of these two sources in forest soils vary along broad-scale environmental gradients is poorly understood. The contributions of these two carbon sources in different soil layers are also elusive.

Methods

We used amino sugar and lignin phenol as biomarkers to indicate microbial- and plant-derived soil carbon. The concentrations of amino sugar and lignin phenol in topsoil (0–10 cm) and subsoil (30–60 cm) of major forest types along a latitude gradient in China were investigated.

Results

The concentration of soil amino sugar decreased along the latitude in topsoil, which is mainly controlled by the variations in mean annual temperature and soil nitrogen. The concentration of lignin phenols decreased along latitude in topsoil, mainly controlled by soil carbon/nitrogen ratio. The microbial-derived carbon was mainly composed of fungi-derived in topsoil, while bacteria-derived dominated in subsoil. Climate and soil properties are primary factors controlling the persistence of microbial residues and lignin phenols in topsoil, and soil clay is the crucial factor in the subsoil.

Conclusions

Both microbial residuals and lignin phenols in topsoil showed a decreasing trend with increasing latitude, but controlled by different sets of environmental factors. Subsoil microbial residues and lignin phenols showed no trend along the latitude and are mainly influenced by soil clay content.These findings provide new insights on how climate and vegetation affect soil carbon persistence, revealing significant distribution patterns of forest soil microbial residuals and lignin phenols along a latitude gradient.

194. 题目: It's time to broaden what we consider a ‘blue carbon ecosystem’
文章编号: N24050812
期刊: Global Change Biology
作者: Kelly James, Peter I Macreadie, Heidi L Burdett, Ian Davies, Nicholas A Kamenos
更新时间: 2024-05-08
摘要: Photoautotrophic marine ecosystems can lock up organic carbon in their biomass and the associated organic sediments they trap over millennia and are thus regarded as blue carbon ecosystems. Because of the ability of marine ecosystems to lock up organic carbon for millennia, blue carbon is receiving much attention within the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as a nature-based solution (NBS) to climate change, but classically still focuses on seagrass meadows, mangrove forests, and tidal marshes. However, other coastal ecosystems could also be important for blue carbon storage, but remain largely neglected in both carbon cycling budgets and NBS strategic planning. Using a meta-analysis of 253 research publications, we identify other coastal ecosystems—including mud flats, fjords, coralline algal (rhodolith) beds, and some components or coral reef systems—with a strong capacity to act as blue carbon sinks in certain situations. Features that promote blue carbon burial within these ‘non-classical’ blue carbon ecosystems included: (1) balancing of carbon release by calcification via carbon uptake at the individual and ecosystem levels; (2) high rates of allochthonous organic carbon supply because of high particle trapping capacity; (3) high rates of carbon preservation and low remineralization rates; and (4) location in depositional environments. Some of these features are context-dependent, meaning that these ecosystems were blue carbon sinks in some locations, but not others. Therefore, we provide a universal framework that can evaluate the likelihood of a given ecosystem to behave as a blue carbon sink for a given context. Overall, this paper seeks to encourage consideration of non-classical blue carbon ecosystems within NBS strategies, allowing more complete blue carbon accounting.

195. 题目: Effects of dissolved organic matter on soil aggregate dynamics using rare earth oxides as tracers in A Japanese Andisol
文章编号: N24050811
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Yike Wang, Maki Asano, Yuanyuan Huang, Kenji Tamura, Geer Teni, Weifan Gong, Qi Jiang
更新时间: 2024-05-08
摘要:

Background and aims

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) stands out as a highly active component within the organic matter pool. It is hypothesized to play a crucial role by adsorbing onto minerals and serving as a precursor for soil aggregates. However, the impact of DOM substrate types and addition levels on the intricate dynamics of soil aggregates remains elusive.

Methods

A 28-day short-term incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the responses of a Japanese Andisol to different DOM substrates, exploring the influence of three DOM substrates and two concentration levels. REOs concentrations in three aggregate fractions were measured on 0, 7, 14, and 28 days of incubation to calculate the aggregates transformation paths and relative aggregate change.

Results

DOM addition significantly increased aggregate stability in Andisols soil, evident in the elevated mean weight diameter (MWD) compared to the control (CK) treatment. The change of aggregate stability during incubation is determined by both DOM types and addition levels. The N-Acetyl-D( +)-Glucosamine (NADG) treatment, peaking at 14 days, whereas the vanillin (VAN) treatment reaching the highest MWD value before incubation (0 days). The increase in aggregate stability was reflected in the transformation paths of aggregates. NADG treatment, VAN treatment, and the NADG&VAN (MIX) mixture all contributed to reduced macroaggregate breakdown and inhibited the microaggregates breakdown. Furthermore, the relative changes in aggregate turnover exhibited varying trends across treatments. Regarding macroaggregate dynamics, the addition of vanillin, especially in the 100%VAN and 100%MIX treatments, significantly enhanced macroaggregate formation, with an increase of over 30% in the 100%MIX treatment after 28 days. Microaggregate dynamics varied among treatments. In the 100%NADG and 100%VAN treatments, there was an initial increase from 0 to 7 days, succeeded by a decrease from 7 to 28 days. The 50%VAN and 50%MIX treatments exhibited an increasing trend from 0 to 14 days, followed by a decrease from 14 to 28 days.

Conclusion

Overall, these findings highlight the important role of DOM in aggregate dynamics and suggest that the types and addition levels of DOM can significantly impact soil aggregate turnover pathways.

196. 题目: Contrasting stocks and origins of particulate and mineral-associated soil organic carbon in a mangrove-salt marsh ecotone
文章编号: N24050810
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Prakhin Assavapanuvat, Joshua L Breithaupt, Kevin M Engelbert, Christian Schröder, Joseph M Smoak, Thomas S Bianchi
更新时间: 2024-05-08
摘要: The global warming-driven poleward expansion of mangrove habitats (e.g., and ) into temperate salt marshes (e.g., and ) has been shown to alter coastal soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. However, the taxa-specific consequences of this vegetation shift on the origin and size of SOC sub-fractions (particulate OC (POC); mineral-associated OC (MAOC); and reactive iron-associated OC (FeR-MAOC)) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we used a particle size-based SOC fractionation method to compare quantity and δC composition of bulk and each SOC sub-fractions in soil cores collected from Apalachicola Bay barrier islands in Florida, USA, the highest latitude where monospecific communities of all four aforementioned plants co-occur. Depth-dependent variation of bulk soil δC clearly showed the global warming-driven replacement of by mangroves, as well as reciprocal substitutions of and , probably driven by changes in wetland elevation. Higher OC burial rates in mangrove habitats suggested that mangrove soils were principally developed by particle deposition. In contrast, comparatively lower OC burial rates but higher OC stocks in salt marsh habitats illustrated subsurface OC input from salt marsh roots. POC was primarily derived from contemporary plant detritus; its concentration was higher in salt marsh habitats (58.8 ± 9.0 % of SOC) relative to mangroves (38.4 ± 6.0 % of SOC). In contrast, MAOC content did not vary across plant habitats (53.5 ± 10.9 % of SOC), and principally originated from microbially-transformed OC and pre-existing plants. FeR-MAOC was essentially absent in soils (2.9 ± 3.6 % of SOC) while representing a minor fraction of MAOC in three other plant habitats (7.8 ± 7.0 % of SOC). The δC of FeR-MAOC was more like the present-day surface plants, highlighting the in situ FeR-MAOC formation in their active oxidizing rhizospheres

197. 题目: Adsorption of Phenol Using Eucalyptus saligna Biochar Activated with NiCl2
文章编号: N24050809
期刊: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
作者: Mateus da S Mesquita, Eduardo H Tanabe, Daniel A Bertuol
更新时间: 2024-05-08
摘要:

The treatment of produced water (formation water) still represents one of the greatest challenges in the petroleum industry. Among the various pollutants found in produced water, phenol is of particular concern, due to its high toxicity. The aim of this work was to synthesize a Eucalyptus saligna sawdust biochar activated with NiCl2, followed by evaluation of its capacity for the adsorption of phenol. The results confirmed that the chemically activated adsorbent showed higher phenol removal efficiency compared to a non-activated one, possibly due to the interactions involving new and/or intensified functional groups. The adsorbents were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda (BJH). Excellent adsorption capacity of the NiCl2-activated biochar was achieved at different pH (2 to 9) of the phenolic solution, with the ideal dosage being 1 g L−1. The adsorption kinetics could be fitted using the Elovich model, indicating that the adsorbent surface was heterogeneous. The adsorption isotherms indicated that multiple layers of the adsorbent were involved in phenol removal, in agreement with the Redlich-Peterson model with βRP trending toward 0. The maximum adsorption capacity of the NiCl2-activated biochar was 76.65 mg g−1. Thermodynamic evaluation indicated that the adsorption was exothermic and physical. Additionally, study of the effect of ionic strength conducted with NaCl, showed no substantial changes for phenol adsorption. Finally, thermal treatment in an inert atmosphere (pyrolysis) enabled effective desorption, with regeneration efficiency maintained at around 70% after three cycles.

198. 题目: Effects of dissolved organic matter on the environmental behavior and toxicity of metal nanomaterials: A review
文章编号: N24050808
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Xiaoqing Yang, Zhangjia Wang, Jiake Xu, Cheng Zhang, Peng Gao, Lusheng Zhu
更新时间: 2024-05-08
摘要: Metal nanomaterials (MNMs) have been released into the environment during their usage in various products, and their environmental behaviors directly impact their toxicity. Numerous environmental factors potentially affect the behaviors and toxicity of MNMs with dissolved organic matter (DOM) playing the most essential role. Abundant facts showing contradictory results about the effects of DOM on MNMs, herein the occurrence of DOM on the environmental process change of MNMs such as dissolution, dispersion, aggregation, and surface transformation were summarized. We also reviewed the effects of MNMs on organisms and their mechanisms in the environment such as acute toxicity, oxidative stress, oxidative damage, growth inhibition, photosynthesis, reproductive toxicity, and malformation. The presence of DOM had the potential to reduce or enhance the toxicity of MNMs by altering the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, dissolution, stability, and electrostatic repulsion of MNMs. Furthermore, we summarized the factors that affected different toxicity including specific organisms, DOM concentration, DOM types, light conditions, detection time, and production methods of MNMs. However, the more detailed mechanism of interaction between DOM and MNMs needs further investigation.

199. 题目: Evolution of black shale sedimentary environment and its impact on organic matter content and mineral composition: a case study from Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation in Southern and Eastern Sichuan Basin
文章编号: N24050807
期刊: Frontiers in Environmental Science
作者: Xinrui Yang, Hongchuan Yin, Licheng Yang, Liangjun Xu, Junyu Chen, Dongxi Liu, Chan Jiang, Zengzheng Jiang
更新时间: 2024-05-08
摘要: Due to global geological events and differences in regional sedimentary environments, marine shale reservoirs of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation in Eastern and Southern Sichuan Basin exhibit significant heterogeneity in organic matter content and mineral composition. In order to reveal the influence of paleoenvironment evolution on reservoir heterogeneity, key geochemical indicators of elements were used to reconstruct the sedimentary environment of marine shale in Eastern and Southern Sichuan Basin. The influence mechanism of paleoenvironment on organic matter content and mineral components was also explored. The results indicate that the Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation in the Southern and Eastern Sichuan Basin can be divided into two third-order sequences (Sq 1 and Sq 2). Each third-order sequence is divided into a transgressive system tract (TST) and a highstand system tract (HST). The average TOC content in the Eastern Sichuan Basin is the highest during the TST1 period with reaching 4.2%, while reached its maximum at 3.9% during the TST2 period in the Southern Sichuan Basin. Due to the influence of high paleo-productivity, the organic matter accumulation and quartz content in the eastern Sichuan region were higher than those in the southern Sichuan region from the TST1 to the middle TST2 period. However, the organic matter accumulation and quartz content in the late TST2 period were lower than those in the southern Sichuan region due to the dilution of terrestrial debris. During the HST2 period, due to the influence of higher paleo-productivity, clay adsorption and preservation condition, the TOC content in the eastern Sichuan region slightly increased in the early stage. At the same time, the marine shale in the southern Sichuan region has a high content of quartz minerals and a low content of clay minerals due to strong weathering intensity and input of coarse-grained debris (silt-size quartz).

200. 题目: Effects of crayfish shell powder and bamboo-derived biochar on nitrogen conversion, bacterial community and nitrogen functional genes during pig manure composting
文章编号: N24050806
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Zhuangzhuang Liu, Shuhua Cao, Xi He, Gang Liu, Hao Yao, Sujuan Ding, Jun Fang
更新时间: 2024-05-08
摘要: This study investigated the effects of crayfish shell powder (CSP) and bamboo-derived biochar (BDB) on nitrogen metabolism, bacterial community and nitrogen functional genes during pig manure composting. Four treatments were established: CP (with no additives), TP1 (5 % BDB), TP2 (5 % CSP) and TP3 (2.5 % BDB + 2.5 % CSP). Compared to CP, the germination index (GI) of TP reached > 85 % 10 days earlier. Meanwhile, TP3 reduced NH and NO emissions by 42.90 % and 65.9 %, respectively, while increased TN (total nitrogen) concentration by 5.43 g/kg. Furthermore, additives changed the bacterial structure and formed a beneficial symbiotic relationship with essential N-preserving bacteria, thereby enhancing nitrogen retention throughout the composting process. Metagenomic analysis revealed that additives upregulated nitrification genes and downregulated denitrification and nitrate reduction genes, ultimately improving nitrogen cycling and mitigating NH and NO emissions. In conclusion, the results confirmed that TP3 was the most effective treatment in reducing nitrogen loss.

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