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41. 题目: Temporal effects of soil organic carbon mineralization during the formation of a siltation body produced by erosion
文章编号: N24041706
期刊: Catena
作者: Yi Zhang, Xiaojun Liu, Peng Li, Lie Xiao, Xing Wang
更新时间: 2024-04-17
摘要: The construction of check dams on the Loess Plateau has altered the landscape through the creation of a large erosive siltation volume. Understanding the mechanisms that drive biogeochemical cycling within this unique, high-volume carbon pool is crucial for accurate assessments of global organic carbon dynamics. Understanding the time-scale effects of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization during the formation of siltation bodies is critical for a mechanistic understanding of these dynamics and for estimating the carbon storage potential of check dams. Through nuclear tracer elements (Cs, Pb) analyze combining with the precipitation data during the operation of the check dam, we analyzed the siltation profiles formed by these dams to determine the year of formation and to classify the silt stages. We also observed SOC mineralization in different siltation stages with an average of 2.83 mg·kg·d, using field sampling and indoor incubation experiments, while the maximum value appeared in ST-4 (4.64 mg·kg·d). We found that the SOC mineralization in the initial (ST-1) and mid-term (ST-2) stages decreased, while mineralization in the late (ST-3) and terminal (ST-4) stages first increased before decreasing. In ST-3, mineralization lagged significantly and increased more slowly compared to ST-4 (ST-4: 26.78 % > ST-3: 9.60 %). There were significant differences in the type of carbon source utilized by soil microorganisms, and the degree of utilization gradually increased with siltation stage. The factors limiting SOC mineralization also varied across stages, and we quantified the direct and interactive contributions of each factor to mineralization. The direct effect of factors on SOC mineralization was significantly higher than the interaction between factors at all stages of siltation (ST-4:0.82>0.17; ST-3:0.94>0.05; ST-2:0.93>0.06; ST-1:0.96>0.04). We also calculated the amount of SOC fixed and released at each stage. During the 58 years the check dam has been operating, 41.56 kg of SOC has been mineralized and 1644.77 kg has been deposited to net 1603.16 kg of net SOC storage. Ultimately, we conclude that siltation bodies formed by check dams can significantly reduce SOC mineralization and play a positive role in the net storage of SOC. Thus, these mechanisms ought to contribute to the creation of a cohesive theory about the SOC pool evolution in check dams.

42. 题目: Soil dissolved organic matter quality and bacterial community composition regulate the substrate-binding affinity of hydrolytic enzymes under short-term nitrogen addition
文章编号: N24041705
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Xiaoqing Zhang, Quanxin Zeng, Xiaochun Yuan, Qiufang Zhang, Jiacong Zhou, Min Xu, Hao Sun, Linna Chen, Xiaoli Gao, Yuehmin Chen
更新时间: 2024-04-17
摘要: Soil enzymes play important roles in soil C and nutrient cycling. However, the effects of N addition on soil enzyme kinetics and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term N addition on the soil properties, microbial properties, maximum reaction rate (, which is attained at saturating substrate concentrations), and Michaelis constant (, where a high indicates low substrate affinity) of microbial C- (β-1,4-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase), N- (β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase and L-leucine aminopeptidase), and P-degrading (acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) enzymes in subtropical coniferous () and broadleaf () forests. In the broadleaf forest, N addition increased the and substrate-binding affinities (decline in ) of C- and P-degrading enzymes by triggering a P deficiency response in microorganisms (i.e., increased microbial biomass N:P ratio). These findings indicate that the soil enzyme kinetics followed the optimal foraging strategy in response to N addition. Moreover, N addition reduced the proportion of complex organic molecules in dissolved organic matter (DOM; e.g., reduced abundance of humic-like fluorophores and humification index), suggesting that N addition increased soil DOM quality and thus increased the affinities of C-degrading enzymes. N addition increased the abundance of and but reduced the abundance of and , indicating a shift in microbial community toward efficient P acquisition. N addition affected bacterial composition and thus indirectly influenced N- and P-degrading enzymes. In the coniferous forest, N addition significantly increased the of C-degrading enzymes but did not change other enzyme kinetics, which could be partly attributed to the unchanged N availability and microbial properties. Collectively, our findings provide insights into the relationship between enzyme kinetics, DOM quality, and microbial properties, which are important for predicting soil nutrient cycling and parameterizing models of C cycling under N deposition.

43. 题目: Synergistic improvement of humus formation in compost residue by fenton-like and effective microorganism composite agents
文章编号: N24041704
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Jun Zhuo Cai, Ying Lan Yu, Zhan Biao Yang, Xiao Xun Xu, Guo Chun Lv, Chang Lian Xu, Gui Yin Wang, Xin Qi, Ting Li, Yu Bon Man, Ming Hung Wong, Zhang Cheng
更新时间: 2024-04-17
摘要: Improving the humification of compost through a synergistic approach of biotic and abiotic methods is of great significance. This study employed a composite reagent, comprising Fenton-like agents and effective microorganisms (EM) to improve humification. This composite reagent increased humic-acid production by 37.44 %, reaching 39.82 g kg, surpassing the control group. The composite reagent synergistically promoted micromolecular fulvic acid and large humic acid production. Collaborative mechanism suggests that Fenton-like agents contributed to bulk residue decomposition and stimulated the evolution of microbial communities, whereas EMs promoted highly aromatic substance synthesis and adjusted the microbial community structure. Sequencing analysis indicates the Fenton-like agent initiated compost decomposition by , and EM reduced the abundance of , , and . Applied as an organic fertilizer in L. plantations, the composite reagent considerably improved growth and photosynthetic pigment content. This composite reagent with biotic and abiotic components provides a learnable method for promoting humification.

44. 题目: Crop sequence intensification: Meta-analysis of soil organic carbon and aggregate stability in Argentina
文章编号: N24041703
期刊: European Journal of Soil Science
作者: Emilia Giustiniani, Filipe Behrends Kraemer, Lucas A Garibaldi
更新时间: 2024-04-17
摘要: Intensification of crop sequence (ICS) has been proposed as a key field practice to preserve soil health and achieve more sustainable agricultural systems. However, the effects of ICS are site-specific and vary according to soil characteristics, climatic conditions, the duration of the crop sequencing and the types of crop involved. Soil aggregate stability (AS) and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock are useful indicators of soil health as they are closely linked to diverse soil services and functions and are sensitive to management practices. We performed a meta-analysis of 33 studies to analyse the impact of ICS on SOC stock and AS in field experiments in the central-eastern region of Argentina. Our results showed that ICS increased SOC stock and AS, with an overall mean change of 7% and 22%, respectively. Fine-textured soils showed the greatest SOC stock increase (12%), comparable to the increase observed in coarse-textured soils (11%); in medium-textured soils this increase was less than half (5%). Coarse-textured soils had the greatest increase in AS (32%), followed by medium-textured and fine-textured soils, which also showed notable improvements (25% and 19%, respectively). Greater diversity of crops resulted in larger increases in both AS and SOC. ICS generated a larger increase of SOC stock in the soil surface (0–10 cm) than in the subsurface (10–20 cm), whereas the opposite was found for AS. Long-term studies (≥9 years) had the greatest effect on AS and SOC stock. Regression analysis revealed that the initial carbon stock influenced SOC stock results following ICS, increases being greater when initial carbon stock contents were smaller. Introducing gramineous species into the crop sequence was associated with a greater improvement of AS and SOC stock. Finally, the mean rate of carbon sequestration from ICS in all the studies amounted to 0.28 Mg ha−1 yr−1. Overall, ICS is a useful strategy for improving SOC storage and AS in this region, though results may vary according to soil characteristics and management practices.

45. 题目: Role of Acetylene in the Chemical Evolution of Carbon Complexity
文章编号: N24041702
期刊: ACS Earth and Space Chemistry
作者: Evgeniy O Pentsak, Maria S Murga, Valentine P Ananikov
更新时间: 2024-04-17
摘要: Acetylene, among the multitude of organic molecules discovered in space, plays a distinct role in the genesis of organic matter. Characterized by its unique balance of stability and reactivity, acetylene is the simplest unsaturated organic molecule known to have a triple bond. In addition to its inherent chemical properties, acetylene is one of the most prevalent organic molecules found across the Universe, spanning from the icy surfaces of planets and satellites and the cold interstellar medium with low temperatures to hot circumstellar envelopes where temperatures surge to several thousand kelvins. These factors collectively position acetylene as a crucial building block in the molecular diversification of organic molecules and solids present in space. This review comprehensively discusses the formation and expansion of carbon skeletons involving acetylene, ranging from the formation of simple molecules to the origination of the first aromatic ring and ultimately to the formation of nanosized carbon particles. Mechanisms pertinent to both hot environments, such as circumstellar envelopes, and cold environments, including molecular clouds and planetary atmospheres, are explored. In addition, this review contemplates the role of acetylene in the synthesis of prebiotic molecules. A distinct focus is accorded to the recent advancements and future prospects of research into catalytic processes involving acetylene molecules, which is a significant instrument in driving the evolution of carbon complexity in the Universe. The insights garnered from this review underscore the significance of acetylene in astrochemistry and potentially contribute to our understanding of the chemical evolution of the Universe.

46. 题目: Photothermal-synergistic peroxymonosulfate activation promoting carbamazepine degradation by Porphyra-derived porous biochar composites: Performance, mechanism, transformation pathway and practical application
文章编号: N24041701
期刊: Chemical Engineering Journal
作者: Xiaoqian Peng, Yingyi Li, Ziying Jiang, Kairuo Zhu, Qingda An, Zuoyi Xiao, Xiaoling Dong, Shangru Zhai
更新时间: 2024-04-17
摘要: Heterogeneous catalysis with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation has received increasing attention in recalcitrant contaminants treatment, but multidimensional coupling via engineered biochar materials and photothermal synergy is still rare. Herein, we reported photothermal-synergistic PMS activation by -derived porous biochar composites (ZnS/NBC) for carbamazepine (CBZ) degradation. Benefitting from the high specific surface area, highly graphitic structure and strong light-to-heat conversion ability, ZnS/NBC/PMS/light system showed enhanced degradation performance and nearly complete mineralization of CBZ. Meanwhile, this system maintained high degradation efficiency in real water bodies and natural sunlight condition, respectively. Mechanism analysis confirmed that the predominant role of O and the auxiliary involvement of SO, OH and electron transfer jointly contributed to the CBZ degradation. Finally, the possible degradation pathways of CBZ were elaborated based on the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results and Fukui index calculations, and the diminishing ecotoxicity of the accompanying degradation intermediate was evaluated using the toxicity estimation software tool. This study provides a new insight for advancing a comprehensive utilization of photothermal conversion and biochar-based PMS activators to organic wastewater purification.

47. 题目: Changes in plant lignin components and microbial necromass matter with subtropical forest restoration
文章编号: N24041620
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Xiaolin Chen, Xiangyin Ni, Gaochao Zheng, Mingyan Hu, Han Y H Chen
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents the largest carbon reservoir in terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, understanding how to enhance SOC is crucial for the global carbon cycle and atmospheric CO removal. While there has been reported on SOC accumulation following forest restoration efforts, changes in plant lignin and microbial necromass across soil fractions and depths remain unclear. To address this gap, we investigated the SOC-standardized concentrations of lignin phenols and amino sugars in bulk soil and soil fractions (particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM)) during subtropical forest restoration, as tracers for change in plant lignin components and microbial necromass respectively. Our findings indicate that forest restoration does not affect SOC concentrations, but does result in changes in plant lignin and microbial necromass. Specifically, in the subsoil, lignin phenols and amino sugars concentrations in bulk soil and soil fractions rise significantly with restoration time, with lignin phenols and amino sugars concentrations in bulk soil rising by 29.6% and 53.0%, respectively. This suggests that as forests recover, lignin and microbial necromass have a higher contribution to SOC accumulation in the subsoil, while the contribution of low-molecular plant-derived organic matter decreases. The relative change rate of lignin phenols (relative to SOC) is greater than that of amino sugars in POM in the topsoil, while in the subsoil, the relative change rate of amino sugars in MAOM is greater than that of lignin phenols. These results indicate that lignin in POM declines more rapidly than amino sugars during restoration, whereas in MAOM, amino sugars accumulate faster than lignin. Overall, these findings provide important insights into the regulation of SOC accumulation during forest restoration by the combination of plant lignin and microbial necromass in various stabilization pathways.

48. 题目: Land use changes and edaphic properties control contents and isotopic compositions of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in wetlands
文章编号: N24041619
期刊: Catena
作者: Shaopan Xia, Zhaoliang Song, Bingbing Yu, Yaran Fan, Vancov Tony, Laodong Guo, Qiang Li, Yuchuan Fan, Zhenqing Zhang, Yidong Wang, Weiqi Wang, Hailong Wang
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Land use change in wetlands leads to significant losses of soil organic matter (SOM). Stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes offer insights into changes in C3/C4 vegetation, SOM sources, and decomposition processes. Yet, predicting the spatial–temporal dynamics of SOM contents and isotopes under land use changes remains challenging. This study delves into the effects of land use changes on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), δC and δN values, and soil physico-chemical properties and lignin phenols. Our results highlight the significance of soil water content (SWC) in determining the outcomes of land use changes. The conversion of wetland to cropland, forestland and construction land, led to notable reductions in SOC contents (8.71–56.33 %), and TN contents (7.87–37.12 %). Wetland conversion resulted in an enrichment of C and N abundance, with wetlands exhibiting the lowest δC (−25.57 to –22.89 ‰) and δN (2.66 to 6.67 ‰) values. A significant correlation occurred between δC and δN values in wetlands, but underwent considerable changes after wetland conversion. Key parameters, including bulk density (BD), C:N, the acid-to-aldehyde of vanillyl ((Ad/Al)v), lignin content (Λ), and total phosphorus (TP), were identified as influencing factors for both SOC and TN contents. When evaluating δC values, the most influential factors included silt, C:N, SOC, sand, and BD. These indicate the importance of soil chemical group (from 41 % to 21 %) in elucidating δC values declined, while lignin group’s (from 9 % to 28 %) importance increased from topsoil to subsoil. The acid-to-aldehyde of syringyl ((Ad/Al)s), Λ, C:N, BD and the cinnamyl-to-vanillyl ratio (C/V) were identified as the primary factors influencing δN values, with chemical group accounting for 36 % and lignin group for 48 % in topsoil, while physical group dominated 42 % in subsoil. Our findings underscore the shifts in SOM sources and distinct mechanisms of degradation/preservation of SOM following land use changes.

49. 题目: Lignin-based hierarchical porous biochar prepared from negative pressure pyrolysis enhanced CO2 and VOCs adsorption
文章编号: N24041618
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: Zhifei Pan, Guangdou Qi, Xueyang Zhang, Qianqian You, Yinan Zheng, Wei Xiang, Yan Zhao, Bin Gao
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Lignin-based biochar was obtained under different pressures (-0.1 MPa, 0 MPa and 0.1 MPa), then characterized and researched for CO capture and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption. Negative pressure pyrolysis (-0.1 MPa) resulted in a hierarchical porous biochar with maximum specific surface area (1577.48 m/g), micropore volume (0.695 cm g) and the lowest average pore size (1.81 nm) after acid washing for removing ash. The CO uptake of biochar reached as high as 159.42 mg g due to its excellent micropore structure. The Avrami model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption process better, indicating the CO capture on biochar was mainly multilayer physical adsorption mechanisms. In addition, biochar was applied to adsorb benzene and showed maximum adsorption capacity of 470.03 mg g. The linear correlation analysis confirmed that the porosity of biochar (specific surface area and micropore volume) was critical to CO and VOCs adsorption performance. Finally, high reusability of 83.9 %-98.7 % for CO capture and 97.5 %-98.7 % for benzene adsorption after 10 adsorption/desorption cycles were obtained. Therefore, negative pressure pyrolysis could be a promising method for hierarchical porous biochar production for treating various atmosphere pollutants.

50. 题目: Analysis of natural organic matter chemistry in bentonite clay under compaction using different dry densities and duration
文章编号: N24041617
期刊: Applied Geochemistry
作者: Meiling Man, Huan Tong, Nivetha Srikanthan, Muhammed O Usman, Claire S Tully, James J Noël, Mehran Behazin, W Jeffrey Binns, Peter G Keech, Myrna J Simpson
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Canada has adopted an adaptive phased management plan for the long-term storage of used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR). The DGR barrier system employs copper-coated used fuel containers (UFCs) surrounded by buffer material which is composed of highly compacted bentonite clay. The natural organic matter (NOM) composition of the compacted bentonite is of practical importance for the safety assessment as it regulates the biogeochemical processes at the interface between the UFCs and the buffer layer. However, insufficient investigations on NOM constituents limits the understanding of biogeochemical dynamics in bentonites compacted under different dry densities. This study analyzed the carbon content and NOM composition using targeted compound analysis and solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with bentonites compacted at 1.1, 1.4 or 1.6 g/cm dry density for 1, 3, 6, 12 or 18 months. Organic carbon contents were similar across bentonites with different compaction densities at various durations as compared to the reference clay (powdered bentonite sample before compaction). The overall NOM composition measured by solid-state C NMR suggested a predominance of alkyl and aromatic carbon in bentonite samples. No marked variations were observed for the NOM components (i.e., alkyl, -alkyl and aromatic carbon) between the compacted bentonites and the reference clay. Targeted compound analysis revealed that the extractable lipid concentrations in the compacted clays did not significantly vary from the reference bentonite with only some compounds exhibiting nano-gram level differences. Bentonites with relatively lower dry densities (1.1 and 1.4 g/cm) demonstrated slightly higher extractable compound concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, the compound concentrations of bentonites compacted to 1.6 g/cm were similar or slightly lower compared with the reference bentonite, likely associated with limited microbial growth under high dry compaction density. Taken together, these results suggested that NOM composition and quantity did not significantly alter in bentonites under various pressures nor with longer experimental durations. These findings highlight that compacted bentonite exhibited geochemical stability under the simulated repository environments, which provides critical insight for design and performance of engineered barrier system in a DGR concept.

51. 题目: Cotransport of aged biochar colloids and thallium(I) in water-saturated porous media: Impact of the ionic strength, pH and aging degree
文章编号: N24041616
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Shuangrui Yang, Yu Cao, Zhiheng Li, Chengxue Ma, Yuheng Huang, Die Hu, Hongxia Liu, Xiaoliu Huangfu
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Biochar colloids entering the soil undergo aging over time and exhibit strong capabilities in adsorbing and transporting pollutants. Therefore, investigating the cotransport of aged biochar colloids and thallium (Tl(I)) in quartz sand media is crucial for understanding Tl(I) migration in underground environments. This study investigated the migration of biochar colloids with two different aging degrees and Tl(I) in quartz sand media at various pH and ionic strengths (ISs). The results revealed that under all ISs and pH, 30%AWB (biochar aged with 30 % (w/w) HNO) inhibited Tl(I) migration in media. This inhibition primarily arose from the introduction of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups during aging, which significantly enhanced colloid adsorption onto Tl(I). At lower ISs, 30%AWB colloids exhibited greater inhibition of Tl(I) migration due to their increased adsorption capacity. Additionally, aging promoted the migration of biochar colloids in the media. Greater biochar aging notably enhanced this promotion, potentially owing to reduced colloidal particle size and the formation of biochar derivatives. Moreover, 50%AWB (biochar aged with 50 % (w/w) HNO) inhibited Tl(I) migration under low ISs but had almost no impact under high ISs. Nonetheless, at high pH, 50%AWB colloids facilitated Tl(I) migration. This phenomenon might be attributed to the inhibitory effect of aged biochar colloids on Tl(I) adsorption onto media at a high pH, as well as the stable binding between Tl(I) and aged biochar colloids. This study discusses the cotransport of biochar with various degrees of aging and Tl(I) in media, providing insights into remediating soils contaminated with Tl.

52. 题目: Inhibition of iron oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans by low-molecular-weight organic acids: Evaluation of performance and elucidation of mechanisms
文章编号: N24041615
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Wenbo Li, Qiyan Feng, Ze Li, Tao Jin, Yun Zhang, Gordon Southam
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: The catalytic role of () in iron biooxidation is pivotal in the formation of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), which poses a significant threat to the environment. To control AMD generation, treatments with low-molecular-weight organic acids are being studied, yet their exact mechanisms are unclear. In this study, AMD materials, organic acids, and molecular methods were employed to gain a deeper understanding of the inhibitory effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on the biooxidation of iron by . The inhibition experiments of on the oxidation of Fe showed that to attain a 90 % inhibition efficacy within 72 h, the minimum concentrations required for formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid are 0.5, 6, 4, and 10 mmol/L, respectively. Bacterial imaging illustrated the detrimental effects of these organic acids on the cell envelope structure. This includes severe damage to the outer membrane, particularly from formic and acetic acids, which also caused cell wall damage. Coupled with alterations in the types and quantities of protein, carbohydrate, and nucleic acid content in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), indicate the mechanisms underlying these inhibitory treatments. Transcriptomic analysis revealed interference of these organic acids with crucial metabolic pathways, particularly those related to energy metabolism. These findings establish a comprehensive theoretical basis for understanding the inhibition of ' biooxidation by low-molecular-weight organic acids, offering a novel opportunity to effectively mitigate the generation of AMD at its source.

53. 题目: Effect of Different Valence Ions and Coexistence of Cations and Humic Acid on the Separation of Perfluorobutyl Sulfonic Acid by Nanofiltration
文章编号: N24041614
期刊: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
作者: Zhe Liu, Mingliang Xian, Jiaxuan Wang, Peiru Fan, Jiaqing Xiong, Xinruo Wang
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要:

Perfluorobutylsulfonic acid (PFBS) is a biotoxic and persistent pollutant that cannot be effectively removed by conventional drinking water treatment processes. Nanofiltration is an effective method to remove PFBS, which can remove trace small molecular organic pollutants in water. The effects of the coexistence of inorganic ions and cations with humic acid (HA) on the nanofiltration separation of perfluorinated butyl sulfonic acid (PFBS) in nanofiltration membranes at 25°, 0.6M Pa were studied. The experimental results showed that when cations were present in the filtration solution, the removal rate of PFBS by NF membrane ranged from large to small as K+ (92.46%) > Na+ (92.16%) > Ca2+ (91.20%) > Mg2+ (91.07%) > Fe3+ (78.09%). The removal rate of PFBS was PO43− (92.34%) > SO42− (90.15%) when anions were present in the filtered solution. The dominant mechanism of NF membrane removal of PFBS is electrostatic repulsion, while the ionization of cations reduces the negative charge of the membrane surface and PFBS, and the high anions can increase the negative charge of the membrane surface and solute particles, changing the electrostatic repulsion between NF membrane and PFBS. When cations coexisted with HA, the electrostatic repulsion was enhanced, but the concentration polarization generated by the contaminated layer reduced the retention of PFBS. By identifying the leading removal mechanism of PFBS by NF membrane, this study can provide certain theoretical guidance for the selection of NF membrane in the actual water treatment application of NF technology, and the deep purification of drinking water to remove PFBS.

54. 题目: Mechanistic insight into the impact of interaction between goethite and humic acid on the photooxidation and photoreduction of bifenthrin
文章编号: N24041613
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Miaomiao Dai, Xiaona Dong, Yongbo Yang, Yuwei Wu, Lulu Chen, Canlan Jiang, Zechong Guo, Tongyi Yang
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Numerous application of pyrethroid insecticides has led to their accumulation in the environment, threatening ecological environment and human health. Its fate in the presence of iron-bearing minerals and natural organic matter under light irradiation is still unknown. We found that goethite (Gt) and humic acid (HA) could improve the photodegradation of bifenthrin (BF) in proper concentration under light irradiation. The interaction between Gt and HA may further enhance BF degradation. On one hand, the adsorption of HA on Gt may decrease the photocatalytic activity of HA through decreasing HA content in solution and sequestering the functional groups related with the production of reactive species. On the other hand, HA could improve the photocatalytic activity of Gt through extending light absorption, lowing of bandgap energy, hindering the recombination of photo-generated charges, and promoting the oxidation and reduction reaction on Gt surface. The increased oxygen vacancies on Gt surface along with the reduction of trivalent iron and the nucleophilic attack of hole to surface hydroxyl group contributed to the increasing photocatalytic activity of Gt. Electron paramagnetic resonance and quenching studies demonstrated that both oxidation species, such as hydroxyl radical (•OH) and singlet oxygen (O), and reducing species, such as hydrogen atoms (H•) and superoxide anion radical (O), contributed to BF degradation in UV-Gt-HA system. Mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and toxicity assessment indicated that less toxic CHClFO (OH–BF), CHClFO (TFP), CHO (OH-MBP), CHO (MBP acid), CHO (OH-MBP acid), and chloride ions were the main degradation products. The production of OH–BF, MPB, and TFP acid through oxidation and the production of MPB and TFP reduction were the two primary pathways of BF degradation.

55. 题目: Quinones-enhanced humification in food waste composting: A novel strategy for hazard mitigation and nitrogen retention
文章编号: N24041612
期刊: Environmental Pollution
作者: Jue Wang, Ruixue Chang, Qing Chen, Yanming Li
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: The harmless and high-value conversion of organic waste are the core problems to be solved by composting technology. This study introduced an innovative method of promoting targeted humification and nitrogen retention in composting by adding -benzoquinone (PBQ), the composting without any additives was set as control group (CK). The results indicated that the addition of exogenous quinones led to a 30.1% increase in humic acid (HA) content during the heating and thermophilic phases of composting. Spectroscopic analyses confirmed that exogenous quinones form the core skeleton structure of amino-quinones in HA through composting biochemical reactions. This accelerated the transformation of quinones into recalcitrant HA in the early stages of composting, and reduced CO and NH by 8% and 78%, respectively. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the decrease in carbon and nitrogen losses primarily correlated with quinones enhancing HA formation and greater nitrogen incorporation into HA ( < 0.05). Furthermore, the compost treated with quinones demonstrated a decrease in phytotoxicity and earthworm mortality, alongside a significant increase in the relative abundance of actinobacteria, which are associated with the humification process. This research establishes and proposes that co-composting with quinones-containing waste is an effective approach for the sustainable recycling of hazardous solid waste.

56. 题目: A commercial humic acid inhibits benzo(a)pyrene biodegradation by Paracoccus aminovorans HPD-2
文章编号: N24041611
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Beibei Wang, Peiheng Wang, Shiliang Liu, Huanhuan Shi, Ying Teng
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Benzo()pyrene (BaP) is posing serious threats to soil ecosystems and its bioremediation usually limited by environmental factors and microbial activity. Humic acid (HA), a ubiquitous heterogeneous organic matter, which could affect the fate of environmental pollutants. However, the impact of HA on bioremediation of organic contamination remains controversial. In the present study, the biodegradation of BaP by HPD-2 with and without HA was explored. Approximately 87.4 % of BaP was biodegraded in the HPD-2 treatment after 5 days of incubation, whereas the addition of HA dramatically reduced BaP biodegradation to 56.0 %. The limited BaP biodegradation in the HA + HPD-2 treatment was probably due to the decrease of BaP bioavailability which induced by the adsorption of HA with unspecific interactions. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of fluorescence characteristics showed that strain HPD-2 was responsible for the presence of protein-like substances and the microbial original humic substances in the HPD-2 treatment. Addition of HA would result in the increase of soluble microbial humic-like material, which should ascribe to the biodegradation of BaP and probably utilization of HA. Furthermore, both the growth and survival of strain HPD-2 were inhibited in the HA + HPD-2 treatment, because of the limited available carbon source (i.e. BaP) at the presence of HA. The expression of gene1789 and gene2589 dramatically decreased in the HA + HPD-2 treatment, and this should be responsible for the decrease of BaP biodegradation as well. This study reveals the mechanism that HA affect the BaP biodegradation, and the decrease of biodegradation should ascribe to the interaction of HA and bacterial strain. Thus, the bioremediation strategies of PAHs need to consider the effects of organic matter in environment.

57. 题目: Characteristics of urban black carbon aerosols in the Yangtze River Delta of China based on long-term observations
文章编号: N24041610
期刊: Atmospheric Environment
作者: Yinan Zhou, Bingliang Zhuang, Tijian Wang, Peng Gao, Shu Li, Yaxin Hu, Mengmeng Li, Heng Cao, Min Xie, Huimin Chen
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Black carbon (BC) aerosols are important absorbing components that can impact the regional climate and environment. To better understand the effects of BC, long-term variations in BC concentrations and the relationships between BC and other air pollutants were investigated in urban Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) based on near-nine-year observations using a seven-channel aethalometer (AE-31). The BC concentrations in YRD city had substantial seasonal and diurnal variations, which are higher in winter (rush hours) and lower in summer (at noon). They had a significant declining trend since 2013 when the Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control was carried out, which was reduced by at least 45% from 2013 to 2019, and the same applies to heavy pollution episodes. The aerosol absorption coefficient (AAC) had temporal variations similar to those of the BC concentration because BC was the dominant component of absorbing aerosols (>80% at 550 nm). Investigations also indicated that the average contributions of BC from biomass burning (BC) and fossil fuel (BC) to the total BCs concentration could be of equal importance. However, the ratios of BC to the total BCs in colder seasons were much higher than those in summer. Nevertheless, both BC and BC might significantly contribute to the high BC loadings during particulate pollution episodes. Further comparisons showed that BCs had substantial positive correlations with CO and PM. The relationships between BC and CO imply that the sources of fossil fuel BC aerosols in Nanjing might mainly came from the combustion of industrial coal and gasoline vehicles. An extremely high BC loading or higher BC/PM ratio always corresponded to a lower O concentration, implying that BC might have a substantial influence on O formation.

58. 题目: Pathways of soil organic carbon accumulation are related to microbial life history strategies in fertilized agroecosystems
文章编号: N24041609
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Jiangnan Li, Jie Zhao, Xionghui Liao, Peilei Hu, Wenyu Wang, Qiumei Ling, Lei Xie, Jun Xiao, Wei Zhang, Kelin Wang
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Although the formation, turnover, and accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) are driven by different fertilizer inputs and their subsequent microbial-mediated transformation, the relationship between changes in plant-derived and microbial-derived components and soil microbial life history strategies under different fertilization regimes has not been well explored. In this study, the changes in microbial necromass carbon (MNC), lignin phenols, and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), as well as soil microbial life history strategy were determined in a 16-year field experiment in response to different fertilization regimes, including a no-fertilizer control (C), conventional chemical NPK fertilization (NPK), and partial substitutions of the NPK in chemical fertilizers with a low (30 %) or high (60 %) level of straw (0.3S and 0.6S) or cattle manure (0.3M and 0.6M). The results showed that total lignin phenol content and its contribution to SOC were significantly increased by 88.7 % and 74.2 %, respectively, in high-level straw substitution treatment as compared to chemical fertilization. Both high-level straw and cattle manure substitution increased MNC and total GRSP contents, but did not alter their contributions to SOC compared to chemical fertilization. In fertilized treatments, the high-level cattle manure substitution had the lowest and highest bacterial and fungal K/r ratio, respectively. Bacterial K/r ratio was an important factor in predicting bacterial necromass carbon content and there was a significant negative correlation between them. The ratio of ectomycorrhizal to saprotrophic fungi and fungal diversity were important factors for predicting lignin phenol and GRSP contents, respectively. In addition, the SEMs modeling indicated that straw substitution directly affected lignin phenol and MNC accumulation, whereas cattle manure substitution indirectly affected MNC accumulation by affecting microbial life history strategies. In conclusions, agricultural residues inputs support the formation of a multiple carbon pool of SOC compared to chemical fertilization; and microbial life history strategy is an important driver of SOC formation and affects SOC accumulation and stability in agroecosystems.

59. 题目: Unveiling activation mechanism of persulfate by homologous hemp-derived biochar catalysts for enhanced tetracycline wastewater remediation
文章编号: N24041608
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Chengyang Tang, Chuanyi Xu, Guoyu Zhong, Zhan Cen, Zhuobiao Ni, Zuofang Yao, Yueping Fang, Rongliang Qiu, Shengsen Zhang
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Advancements in biochar activating persulfate advanced oxidation processes (PS-AOP), have gained significant attention. However, the understanding of biochar-based catalysts in activating PS remains limited. Herein, biochar (BC) and N-doped biochar (NBC) were synthesized from hemp for activating PS to treat tetracycline (TC) wastewater and analyzed their mechanisms separately. Surprisingly, N-doped in biochar leads to a change in the activation mechanism of PS. The BC-PS system operates mainly through a radical pathway, advantageous for treating soil organic pollution (68%) with pH adaptability (less than 10% variation). Nevertheless, the NBC-PS system primarily employs an electron transfer non-radical pathway, demonstrating stability (only 7% performance degradation over four cycles) and enhanced resistance to anionic interference (less than 10% variation) in organic wastewater treatment. This study provides a technical reference and theoretical foundation for enhancing biochar activation of PS in the removal of organic pollutants from aquatic and terrestrial environments.

60. 题目: Mechanisms of biochar promoting medium chain fatty acids production from sewage sludge: Effect of biochar type
文章编号: N24041607
期刊: Journal of Cleaner Production
作者: Tianru Lou, Yanan Yin, Jianlong Wang
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are value-added products that can be produced through two-stage fermentation, where using sewage sludge as substrate contributes to achieving dual benefits of sludge management and low-carbon MCFAs production. In this paper, the promotion effect of biochar on MCFAs production was explored, and biochars derived from different biomass were added to reveal the impact of biochar type on MCFAs production from sewage sludge during the two-stage fermentation process. Results showed that biochar did enhance MCFAs production from sludge fermentation. The highest MCFAs accumulation (254.15 mmol C/L) was obtained in the coconut shell-derived biochar (CC) added group with an increase of 30.37%, and the caprylate accounted for up to 43.92% of total produced MCFAs. CC was most conducive to facilitating electron transfer and carbon conversion in the chain elongation (CE) process. The microbial analysis demonstrated that biochar additives enhanced the microbial diversity, together with the abundance of functional microorganisms. The cornstalk-derived biochar was more favorable for acidification (AC) microbes. In contrast, the CE microbes were ideally enriched by CC and rice stalk-derived biochar (RS), accompanied by the suppressed AC microbes during the CE process. Functional enzyme analysis indicated that CC contributed to breaking the rate-limiting step in the dominant metabolic pathway, stimulating MCFAs production by strengthening the dominant pathway in CE pathways.

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