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61. 题目: Loading of redox-active metal Fe largely enhances the capacity of biochar to mitigate soil N2O emissions by promoting complete denitrification
文章编号: N24041606
期刊: Biology and Fertility of Soils
作者: Dan Yuan, Ping Wu, Jiao Yuan, Zhifen Jia, Chunsheng Hu, Tim J Clough, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Jiafa Luo, Jiahuan Tang, Shuping Qin
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要:

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a critical greenhouse gas and an ozone-depleting substance, with a global warming potential 298–310 times greater than that of CO2. Mitigating N2O emissions from soils has environmental benefits. Recent research indicates that biochar can serve as an “electron shuttle” to reduce N2O emissions from soils. Electron shuttle is defined as organic molecules capable of reversibly receiving and donating electrons. Thus, biochar is expected to facilitate stepwise reduction of denitrification products, reducing N2O to environmentally harmless N2. However, it remains uncertain whether biochar’s capacity to mitigate N2O can be enlarged by augmenting its function as an electron shuttle. Thus, this study prepared a biochar with enhanced electron shuttle potential by loading redox-active (Fe) onto biochar. The effectiveness of this biochar in mitigating soil N2O emissions was investigated by incorporating it into the soil. The results showed that Fe-loaded biochar significantly augmented its function as an electron shuttle and dramatically reduced soil N2O emissions by 92% compared to the original biochar. The degree of decrease in N2O emissions was strongly associated with both the electron shuttle capacity and the concentration of redox-active Fe in the biochar. Additionally, Fe-loaded biochar significantly decreased the N2O/(N2O + N2) emission ratio and increased the expression of the nosZ-II gene. Our findings suggest that redox-active Fe loading in biochar is an effective strategy to enhance its electron shuttle function. The augmented electron shuttle function of biochar can successfully facilitate N2O mitigation emission by promoting complete denitrification.

62. 题目: Recovery of organic matters by activated sludge from municipal wastewater: Performance and characterization
文章编号: N24041605
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Junyan Lu, Qiaoling Lu, Qian Hu, Bin Qiu
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Municipal wastewater treatment processes consume a significant amount of energy and generate substantial carbon emissions. However, organic matters existing in municipal wastewater hold the potential as a valuable carbon source. Activated sludge has the potential to capture and recover the organic matters, thereby enriching carbon sources and facilitating subsequent sludge anaerobic digestion as well as in line with the concept of sustainable development. Based on above, this study investigated the enrichment and recovery characteristics and mechanisms of activated sludge adsorption on carbon sources in municipal wastewater, while optimizing the recovery conditions. The results indicated that insoluble organic matters, as well as a fraction of dissolved organic matters, can be effective recovered within approximately 40 min. Specifically, 74.1% of insoluble organic matters and 25.8% of soluble organic matters were successfully captured by the activated sludge, resulting in a 5.0% increase in sludge organic matter content. Moreover, activated sludge demonstrated remarkable recovery of particulate organic matters across various particle sizes, particularly larger particles (>5 μm) with high protein content. Notably, the dissolved biodegradable organics such as tryptophan and tyrosine protein-like substances according to 3D-EEM and lipids, proteins/amino sugars, and carbohydrates according to FT-ICR MS can be effectively recovered. Finally, the study revealed that the recovery of organic matters from the wastewater by activated sludge followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, with surface binding, hydrogen bonding and interparticle diffusion in sludge flocs as the primary adsorption mechanisms. This approach had abroad application prospects for improving the profitability of wastewater treatment plants.

63. 题目: Factors controlling the contributions of bacterial and fungal residue carbon to soil organic carbon in grassland ecosystems
文章编号: N24041604
期刊: Catena
作者: Yingchao Yu, Junxiao Pan, Honghui Wu, Juntao Zhu, Ning Zong, Hui An, Changhui Wang, Xiaoan Zuo, Cunzheng Wei, Fawei Zhang, Shuang Liu, Jielin Liu, Huajie Diao, Bo Zhang, Qiang Yu, Xinyu Zhang
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Soil microbial residue carbon (MRC) plays an important role in the accumulation and stabilization of soil organic carbon (SOC) in grassland ecosystems. Numerous studies to date show that soil bacterial MRC and fungal MRC have different effects on SOC stability, however, there is a lack of understanding about what regulates the contributions of the bacterial MRC and fungal MRC to SOC in large-scale grassland ecosystems. In this study, we selected nine alpine and temperate grassland ecosystems to quantify the effects of biotic (plant and microbial) and abiotic (climate and soil) factors on the bacterial and fungal MRC/SOC. The results showed that 1) Both biotic and abiotic factors explained 97% and 89% of the variations in the bacterial MRC/SOC and fungal MRC/SOC, respectively. Compared with the fungal MRC/SOC, the bacterial MRC/SOC could be explained more by the biotic and abiotic factors. 2) The bacterial MRC/SOC was clearly correlated with climate and increased as the mean annual temperature increased and decreased as the mean annual precipitation increased. The bacterial MRC/SOC was negatively correlated with the soil phosphorus stoichiometry. 3) The fungal MRC/SOC was significantly correlated with mean annual temperature and was negatively correlated with the ratio of carbon to nitrogen. Our study demonstrates that the bacterial and fungal MRC/SOC respond differently to environmental changes, which can contribute to the regulation of soil carbon sequestration in grassland ecosystems by modulating different soil microbial communities under climate change.

64. 题目: Interaction between ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal plants decelerates stable soil organic matter decomposition
文章编号: N24041603
期刊: Applied Soil Ecology
作者: Sylwia Adamczyk, Rashmi Shrestha, Bartosz Adamczyk, Chao Liang, Christina Biasi, Jussi Heinonsalo, Kristiina Karhu
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Boreal forests are N-limited ecosystems storing globally significant amounts of carbon (C) belowground as soil organic matter (SOM). The significant role of mycorrhizal fungi, both ericoid (ERM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) in decomposition and building up SOM has been proposed, but it is still largely unknown how these two types of mycorrhiza interact in terms of SOM changes. Here we try to elucidate the combined effect of these mycorrhizal types on the SOM decomposition and accumulation in a pot study with ECM-pine ( L.) and ERM-heather ( L.). Experimental design included plants growing alone or in a mixture, and a non-planted control. In contrast to the mixture, heather growing alone exerted higher biomass, higher uptake of N from stable SOM pool, slightly higher microbial biomass C and fungal biomass. Moreover, heather soil had the highest dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen. On the contrary, mixed cultures showed lower growth of heather and stable SOM decomposition. Our results suggest that interaction between ERM and ECM plants may lead to stable SOM accumulation in boreal forest soils.

65. 题目: Dissolved black carbon mediated photo-reductive formation of colloidal-stable gold nanoparticles
文章编号: N24041602
期刊: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
作者: Shuangshuang Zhang, Peiyun Wei, Xiaolei Qu, Heyun Fu, Huiting Liu
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have garnered attention as an emerging class of nanomaterials due to their wide range of applications across various sectors. This study reported that the dissolved black carbon (DBC) can mediate Au(III) photoreduction and form uniform and colloidal-stable AuNPs in aqueous solutions at room temperature under sunlight irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the average diameter of the photo-formed AuNPs was approximately 16 nm, and these nanoparticles maintained considerable colloidal-stability over time. Notably, no change in average size was observed following a 23-day storage period at 4°C in a light-free environment. The photo-formed superoxide (O·) is the crucial reductant in this reaction. O·, generated by DBC, reduces Au(III) to Au(I), which is then further reduced to Au(0), culminating in the formation of AuNPs. Furthermore, our findings illustrate that an increase in reaction pH shifts the predominant species of Au(III) in the solution toward forms with a lower redox potential, thereby decreasing the oxidizability of Au(III) and consequently decelerating the photoreduction process. A mildly acidic environment is more favorable for the DBC-mediated photoformation of AuNPs. This study elucidates that DBC can be observed as a novel reductant to complete the photo-reductive formation of AuNPs under low-cost conditions, opening up a new possibility for the green synthesis of AuNPs.

66. 题目: Integration of sequential electrocoagulation and adsorption for effective removal of colour and total organic carbon in textile effluents and its utilization for seed germination and irrigation
文章编号: N24041601
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Gowthaman Somasundaram, Tamizharasan Thavamani, Selvaraju Thangavelu
更新时间: 2024-04-16
摘要:

Textile effluent discharge can negatively impact the environment and living organisms due to its potential toxicity, higher percentages of total organic carbon (TOC) contents, and so on. The study investigates the extraordinary performance of the electrocoagulation process (ECP) combined with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as a highly effective and environmental friendly method of treating textile effluents. This scientific work mainly includes the focus on removing toxic components in textile effluents, such as high concentrations of colour and TOC using synthesized PAC derived from coconut shells coupled with the ECP (ECP–PAC). Initially, PAC was characterized by using XRD, Raman, BET, FTIR, and TGA studies. Subsequently, the pilot-scale ECP–PAC batch reactor was constructed with iron (Fe) as an anode and copper (Cu) as a cathode. The pilot-scale ECP–PAC batch reactor has achieved higher treatment efficiency in a shorter reaction time with low energy consumption compared to a stand-alone ECP. Further, the optimum conditions for effective ECP–PAC have been optimized, such as pH 7.5, applied current density (0–50 mA/cm2), reaction time (0–30 min), electrode combinations (Fe-Cu) with electrode distances of 5 cm apart, and an optimum dose of 5 g/L of PAC. Specifically, 98% of the colour and 96% of the TOC contents present in the industrial textile effluent were treated in 15 and 30 min, respectively. In quantitative perspectives, the developed batch reactor has sharply decreased TOC (324.1 mg/L), IC (1410 mg/L) and TC (1019 mg/L) to 13.55 mg/L (96%), 31.49 mg/L (97%), and 48.05 mg/L (95%), respectively, in 30 min demonstrating its sensitivity and selectivity with the utmost care. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of the treated water were convincingly assessed. That is, it remains suitable for the seed germination of mung bean and chlorophyll content study. Thus, the developed methodology could effectively reduce freshwater consumption in the agricultural sector, increase freshwater availability in water-scarce regions, and facilitate the increase of the recharging capacity of groundwater tables.

Graphical

67. 题目: Insights into the transformation of natural organic matter during UV/peroxydisulfate treatment by FT-ICR MS and machine learning: Non-negligible formation of organosulfates
文章编号: N24041519
期刊: Water Research
作者: Junfang Li, Wenlei Qin, Bao Zhu, Ting Ruan, Zhechao Hua, Hongyu Du, Shengkun Dong, Jingyun Fang
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Natural organic matter (NOM) is a major sink of radicals in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and understanding the transformation of NOM is important in water treatment. By using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in conjunction with machine learning, we comprehensively investigated the reactivity and transformation of NOM, and the formation of organosulfates during the UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS) process. After 60 min UV/PDS treatment, the CHO formula number and dissolved organic carbon concentration significantly decreased by 83.4 % and 74.8 %, respectively. Concurrently, the CHOS formula number increased substantially from 0.7 % to 20.5 %. Machine learning identifies DBE and AI as the critical characteristics determining the reactivity of NOM during UV/PDS treatment. Furthermore, linkage analysis suggests that decarboxylation and dealkylation reactions are dominant transformation pathways, while the additions of SO and SO are also non-negligible. According to SHAP analysis, the , number of oxygens, DBE and O/C of NOM were positively correlated with the formation of organosulfates in UV/PDS process. 92 organosulfates were screened out by precursor ion scan of HPLC-MS/MS and verified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, among which, 7 organosufates were quantified by authentic standards with the highest concentrations ranging from 2.1 to 203.0 ng L. In addition, the cytotoxicity of NOM to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells increased by 13.8 % after 30 min UV/PDS treatment, likely responsible for the formation of organosulfates. This is the first study to employ FT-ICR MS combined with machine learning to identify the dominant NOM properties affecting its reactivity and confirmed the formation of organosulfates from sulfate radical oxidation of NOM.

68. 题目: Ammonia hydroxide and citric acid modified wheat straw–biochars: Preparation, characterization, and environmental applications
文章编号: N24041518
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Agnieszka Tomczyk, Justína Vitková, Natália Botková, Olena Siryk, Bartosz Kondracki, Katarzyna Szewczuk–Karpisz
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: This study presents an assessment of inorganic and organic modification of biochar on physicochemical properties, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release, sorption efficiency towards enrofloxacin (E) and silver nanoparticles (Ag–NPs), as well as an evaluation of addition of prepared materials on hydro–physical properties and adsorption capacity of montmorillonite (M). The biochar was derived from wheat straw at 650 °C. An inorganic modification was performed using ammonia hydroxide, whereas an organic modification, using citric acid. The ammonia hydroxide and citric acid changed the biochar nature and surface chemistry by introducing amino and ester groups. The lowest DOC release was from ammonia–biochar (BCN) and the highest, from citric acid–biochar (BCC). The adsorption data were better described by pseudo–II order equation and Marczewski–Jaroniec isotherm. Results showed that BCN exhibited the highest efficiency in adsorption of E and Ag–NPs. It also improved the adsorptive abilities and saturated hydraulic conductivity of M. This provides the chemically modified biochars have an excellent potential to improve pollution removal from aqueous media and hydro–physical/sorption properties of soil sorption complex. They can be used with advantageous in environmental applications.

69. 题目: Photo-methanification of aquatic dissolved organic matters with different origins under aerobic conditions: Non-negligible role of hydroxyl radicals
文章编号: N24041517
期刊: Water Research
作者: Jikang You, Fei Liu, Yongwu Wang, Chongsen Duan, Lu Zhang, Huishan Li, Junjian Wang, Huacheng Xu
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Lingering inconsistencies in the global methane (CH) budget and ambiguity in CH sources and sinks triggered efforts to identify new CH formation pathways in natural ecosystems. Herein, we reported a novel mechanism of light-induced generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) that drove the production of CH from aquatic dissolved organic matters (DOMs) under ambient conditions. A total of five DOM samples with different origins were applied to examine their potential in photo-methanification production under aerobic conditions, presenting a wide range of CH production rates from 3.57 × 10 to 5.90 × 10 nmol CH mg-C h. Experiments of •OH generator and scavenger indicated that the contribution of •OH to photo-methanificaiton among different DOM samples reached about 4∼42 %. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry showed that the carbohydrate- and lipid-like substances containing nitrogen-bonded methyl groups, methyl ester, acetyl groups, and ketones, were the potential precursors for light-induced CH production. Based on the experimental results and simulated calculations, the contribution of photo-methanification of aquatic DOMs to the diffusive CH flux across the water-air interface in a typical eutrophic shallow lake (e.g., Lake Chaohu) ranged from 0.1 % to 18.3 %. This study provides a new perspective on the pathways of CH formation in aquatic ecosystems and a deeper understanding on the sources and sinks of global CH.

70. 题目: South and Southeast Asia controls black carbon characteristics of Meili Snow Mountains in southeast Tibetan Plateau
文章编号: N24041516
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Pengfei Chen, Shichang Kang, Yuling Hu, Tao Pu, Yajun Liu, Shijin Wang, Mukesh Rai, Ke Wang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Chaoliu Li
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: South and Southeast Asia (SSA) emitted black carbon (BC) exerts potential effects on glacier and snow melting and regional climate change in the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, online BC measurements were conducted for 1 year at a remote village located at the terminus of the Mingyong Glacier below the Meili Snow Mountains. The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) was used to investigate the contribution and potential effect of SSA-emitted BC. In addition, variations in the light absorption characteristics of BC and brown carbon (BrC) were examined. The results indicated that the annual mean concentration of BC was 415 ± 372 ngm, with the highest concentration observed in April (monthly mean: 930 ± 484 ngm). BC exhibited a similar diurnal variation throughout the year, with two peaks observed in the morning (from 8:00 to 9:00 AM) and in the afternoon (from 4:00 to 5:00 PM), with even lower values at nighttime. At a short wavelength of 370 nm, the absorption coefficient () reached its maximum value, and the majority of values were < 20 Mm, indicating that the atmosphere was not overloaded with BC. At the same wavelength, BrC substantially contributed to , with an annual mean of 25.2 % ± 12.8 %. SSA was the largest contributor of BC (annual mean: 51.1 %) in the study area, particularly in spring (65.6 %). However, its contributions reached 20.2 % in summer, indicating non-negligible emissions from activities in other regions. In the atmosphere, the SSA BC-induced radiative forcing (RF) over the study region was positive. While at the near surface, the RF exhibited a significant seasonal variation, with the larger RF values occurring in winter and spring. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of controlling BC emissions from SSA to protect the Tibetan Plateau against pollution-related glacier and snow cover melting.

71. 题目: Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon quality descriptors determining factors that affect its sequestration in Northeast Algeria
文章编号: N24041515
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Sana Boubehziz, Chiara Piccini, Marco A Jiménez-González, Gonzalo Almendros
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) content is crucial for soil fertility, conservation, and combating climate-related issues by sequestering CO. While existing studies explore the total content of SOC, few of them investigate the factors that favor its sequestration and the impact of land use type and management. This research aims to study the spatial variation of the total content and the quality or maturity (in terms of aromaticity) of the humic acid (HA) fraction, along with the factors that enhance its formation and conservation for a longer time in the soil. In addition, the study tries to evaluate the performance of the Regression Kriging (RK) method in producing interpolation maps that describe the natural variation of the SOC and its quality with the aim of defining and preventing soil degradation. Finally, the study aims to evaluate the impact of the land use type and the importance of dense vegetation in the sequestration of the organic carbon (OC) in the soil.

72. 题目: Controlling organic carbon increase in oxygenated marine sediment by using decarburization slag
文章编号: N24041514
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Mukseet Mahmood, Natsuki Kato, Satoshi Nakai, Takehiko Gotoh, Wataru Nishijima, Akira Umehara
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: The chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan has increased in the recent decades due to the increase of bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration which stimulated several autotrophic microorganisms, specially sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). This increased SOB activity due to the oxygenation of the bottom sediment synthesized new organic matter (OM) which contributed dissolved organic carbon to the overlying seawater. This phenomenon further led to hypoxia in some subareas in the Seto Inland Sea. Higher pH or alkaline environment has been found to be an unfavorable condition for SOB. In this research, we used decarburization slag to elevate the pH of sediment to control the SOB activity and consequently reduce OM production in the sediment. Ignition loss of the surface sediment increased from 5.14% 6.38% after 21 days of incubation with aeration; whereas the sediment showed the less ignition loss of 5.71% after 21 days when the slag was incubated in the same experimental setup. Microbial community analysis showed less SOB activity in the slag added aerated sediment which accounts for the controlled increase of OM in the sediment. An additional experiment was conducted with magnesium oxide to confirm whether elevated pH can control the OM increase in sediment due to rising DO. All these results showed that decarburization slag can elevate the pH of the sediment to a certain level which can control the SOB activity followed by controlled increase of OM in the sediment. The findings may be beneficial to control accumulation of sedimentary OM which can act as a source of organic carbon in the overlying seawater.

73. 题目: The inhibitory effect of natural organic matters and ions on 17ɑ-ethinylestradiol removal over new TiO2(B)/Bi5O7I and mesoporous carbon/TiO2(B)/BiOI composites: The role of mesoporous carbon
文章编号: N24041513
期刊: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
作者: Lijun Luo, Weiwei Zou, Hualei Jin, Lihong Xia, Xi Ma, Wei Tan, Hongbin Wang, Fengzhi Jiang
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: The natural organic matters (NOMs) and ions prevalent in water matrixes always inhibits photocatalytic degradation of pollutants by TiO. Herein, we prepared TiO(B)/BiOI and mesoporous carbon/TiO(B)/BiOI composites to investigate the inhibitory effect of NOMs and ions on photocatalytic degradation of 17ɑ-ethinylestradiol (EE2). The results show that BiOI or BiOI is tightly anchored onto the large surface of TiO(B) nanobelt to form heterojunction, and metallic Bi forms on the surface of TiO(B) in MC/TiO(B)/BiOI composite. This intimate contact is beneficial for the separation of hole-electron pairs and stability. More importantly, the introduction of mesoporous carbon (MC) not only improve the EE2 removal but also eliminate obvious inhibitory effect of NOMs and inorganic ions. The main cause is that MC component in MC/TiO(B)/BiOI composite can preferentially adsorb EE2 molecules from water via π-π and hydrophobic interaction forces between EE2 and MC. Quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance confirm that •O and h are main reactive species for EE2 degradation over both TiO(B)/BiOI and MC/TiO(B)/BiOI composites. Besides, the degradation mechanism was investigated, and degradation pathways are proposed based on intermediates identification. The MCF-7 cell test shows that the estrogenic activity of the treated solution can be rapidly eliminated. More importantly, MC/TiO(B)/BiOI has excellent anti-interference capacity for the EE2 removal in real complex water matrixes.

74. 题目: The impact of global cropland irrigation on soil carbon dynamics
文章编号: N24041512
期刊: Agricultural Water Management
作者: Xiaochen Yao, Zhiyu Zhang, Fenghui Yuan, Changchun Song
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Irrigation can increase crop yields and could be a key climate adaptation strategy. At present, under the background of increasing food demand and continuous expansion of irrigation cropland, there still uncertainties about the soil carbon dynamics under the change of irrigation water volume and irrigated area in view of large-scale spatial heterogeneity. Therefore, this paper uses space-for-time + meta-analysis and a two-step methodology based on the residual trend analysis to quantitatively analyze the relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil respiration (Rs) in response to fluctuations in irrigation water volume and irrigated land extents. Here we show that the irrigation water volume within 100–1000 mm had a negative impact on SOC, and the impact was correlated with the irrigation water volume. Different levels of irrigation water manifest distinct effects on SOC content across varying soil depths. When irrigation water quantities are less than 700 mm, the impact on SOC content in the 0–30 cm depth layer surpasses that in the 30–200 cm depth layer. Conversely, when irrigation water quantities equal or exceed 700 mm, this pattern is reversed. The overall impact of irrigation on SOC stock at a depth of 0–200 cm was −14.88±6.7%. Tillage, planting intensity, topography, and soil type within irrigated cropland all exert variable impacts on SOC content. Whether these influences are deleterious or beneficial hinges predominantly upon the balance between the augmentation of SOC stock due to heightened carbon inputs from crops and the reduction of SOC through alterations in microbial activity. Mann-Kendall trend analysis showed that from 2000 to 2015, the overall Rs of cropland showed an increasing trend, with an increase rate of 3.67 g/m/year. The increase of global Rs is mainly driven by climate change factors (temperature, precipitation and solar radiation), while the decrease of Rs in a small number of areas is mainly driven by management practices (fertilizer nitrogen, irrigation, and tillage). Our study further quantifies the impact of irrigation on soil carbon dynamics, thereby offering potential pathways and data support for the advancement of sustainable agriculture.

75. 题目: Size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon and its significant contribution to aerosol liquid water
文章编号: N24041511
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Min Xu, Bo Hu, Shuman Zhao, Guangxuan Yan, Tianxue Wen, Xiaoxi Zhao
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Size-segregated aerosols collected in Beijing from 2021 to 2022 were used to investigate the contribution of organic aerosols to the aerosol liquid water content (ALWC), the influencing factors of ALWC, and the concentrations and size distribution characteristics of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) after clean air actions. The results showed that the concentration of WSOC in particulate matter (PM) was 3.52 ± 2.43 μg/m during the sampling period. Obvious changes were observed in the size distribution of WSOC after clean air actions, which may be attributed to the enhancement of atmospheric oxidation capacity and the decrease in PM concentration. The contribution of organic aerosols to the ALWC in fine PM was 18.1 % during the sampling period, which was more significant at lower particles concentration and smaller particle size ranges. The ambient relative humidity (RH) and the ratio of NO/SO had an apparent influence on ALWC. The continuous increase in the nitrate proportion significantly reduced the deliquescence point of the aerosols, making them prone to hygroscopic growth at lower RH. Analysis of the relation among nitrogen oxidation ratio (sulfur oxidation ratio), ALWC and PM mass concentrations suggests that organic matter has a significant effect on the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols in the initial phase of pollution formation and plays a crucial role in aerosol pollution formation in Beijing. These results are conducive to understanding the formation mechanism of aerosols and provide scientific data and theoretical support for the formulation of more effective emission-reduction measures.

76. 题目: Visualization of phenanthrene effect on biochar colloids transport in porous media
文章编号: N24041510
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Ying Zhao, Da Fan, Jiabin Ma, Heng Li, Zhuqing Liu, Fan Yang
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Biochar colloids (BCs) can be used as adsorbent materials for remediation of phenanthrene due to their high specific surface area and other characteristics. Understanding the effects of phenanthrene on the transport of BCs contributes to facilitate the removal of phenanthrene in soil and water habitats. In this work, the influence of phenanthrene on the transport of BCs under different environmental factors (pH, ionic strength (IS), media size) in a one-dimensional sand column was firstly explored together with a real-time visualization system to explore the transport mechanism of BCs in two-dimensional sand tank. The results show that phenanthrene adsorbed on the surface of BCs, shielded its surface charge and reduced the mobility of BCs in porous media. Acidic conditions promoted the agglomeration of BCs and adsorption of phenanthrene, resulting in a 51.03 % decrease in the maximum breakthrough rate of BCs compared to alkaline conditions. The same was true for the high IS condition, where the maximum breakthrough rate of BCs was only 0.95 % at IS = 50. Additionally, there was a substantial and positive correlation between media particle size and BCs mobility. As the quartz sand particle size increased, the maximum breakthrough rates of BCs were 2.67 %, 33.28 %, and 52.27 % in the 1-D experiment, and 0, 13.88 %, and 13.10 % in the 2-D experiment, respectively. The contact area of BCs with the medium expands under the fine particle size condition, leading to a significant decrease in the mobility of BCs at low potentials influenced by phenanthrene. This finding is significant for biochar application in phenanthrene contaminated soil and groundwater remediation.

77. 题目: High biodegradability of microbially-derived dissolved organic matter facilitates arsenic enrichment in groundwater: Evidence from molecular compositions and structures
文章编号: N24041509
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Yao Li, Huaming Guo, Bo Zhao, Zhipeng Gao, Chen Yu, Chaoran Zhang, Xiong Wu
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Although biodegradation of organic matter is well-known to trigger enrichment of arsenic (As) in groundwater, the effects of DOM sources and biodegradability on As enrichment remain elusive. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from the Hetao basin to identify DOM source and evaluate biodegradability by using spectral and molecular techniques. Results showed that in the alluvial fan, DOM was mainly sourced from terrestrially derived OM, while DOM in the flat plain was more originated from microbially derived OM. Compared to terrestrially derived DOMs, microbially derived DOMs in groundwater, which had relatively higher H/C ratios, NOSC values and more biodegradable molecules, exhibited higher biodegradability. In the flat plain, microbially derived DOMs with higher biodegradability encountered stronger biodegradation, facilitating the reductive dissolution of Fe(III)/Mn oxides and As enrichment in groundwater. Moreover, the enrichment of As depended on the biodegradable molecules that was preferentially utilized for primary biodegradation. Our study highlights that the enrichment of dissolved As in the aquifers was closely associated with microbially derived DOM with high biodegradability and high ability for primary biodegradation.

78. 题目: Role of low-molecular-weight organic compounds on photochemical formation of Mn(III)-ligands in aqueous systems: Implications for BPA removal
文章编号: N24041508
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Song Gao, Xinghao Wang, Xinhao Wang, Xiru Chen, Sijia Liang, Ziyan Zhou, Shuxia Xu, Yanfen Fang, Juan Gao, Cheng Gu
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Aqueous trivalent manganese [Mn(III)], an important reactive intermediate, is ubiquitous in natural surface water containing humic acid (HA). However, the effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the formation, stability and reactivity of Mn(III) intermediate is still unknown. In this study, six LMWOAs, including oxalic acid (Oxa), salicylic acid (Sal), catechol (Cat), caffeic acid (Caf), gallic acid (Gal) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), were selected to investigate the effects of LMWOAs on the degradation of BPA induced by in situ formed Mn(III)-L in the HA/Mn(II) system under light irradiation. The chromophoric constituents of HA could absorb light radiation and generate superoxide radical to promote the oxidation of Mn(II) to form Mn(III), which was further involved in transformation of BPA. Our results implied that different LMWOAs did significantly impact on Mn(III) production and its degradation of BPA due to their different functional group. EDTA, Oxa and Sal extensively increased the Mn(III) concentration from 50 to 100 μM compared to the system without LMWOAs, following the order of EDTA > Oxa > Sal, and also enhanced the degradation of BPA with the similar patterns. In contrast, Cat, Caf and Gal had an inhibitory effect on the formation of Mn(III), which is likely because they consumed the superoxide radicals generated from irradiated HA, resulting in the inhibition of Mn(II) oxidation and further BPA removal. The product identification and theoretical calculation indicated that a single electron transfer process occurred between Mn(III)-L and BPA, forming BPA radicals and subsequent self-coupling products. Our results demonstrated that the LMWOAs with different structures could alter the cycling process of Mn via complexation and redox reactions, which would provide new implications for the removal of organic pollutants in surface water.

79. 题目: Urban and agricultural influences on the coastal dissolved organic matter pool in the Algoa Bay estuaries
文章编号: N24041507
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Jarmo-Charles J Kalinski, Xavier Siwe Noundou, Daniel Petras, Gwynneth F Matcher, Alexandros Polyzois, Allegra T Aron, Emily C Gentry, Thomas G Bornman, Janine B Adams, Rosemary A Dorrington
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: While anthropogenic pollution is a major threat to aquatic ecosystem health, our knowledge of the presence of xenobiotics in coastal Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) is still relatively poor. This is especially true for water bodies in the Global South with limited information gained mostly from targeted studies that rely on comparison with authentic standards. In recent years, non-targeted tandem mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool to collectively detect and identify pollutants and biogenic DOM components in the environment, but this approach has yet to be widely utilized for monitoring ecologically important aquatic systems. In this study we compared the DOM composition of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa, and its two estuaries. The Swartkops Estuary is highly urbanized and severely impacted by anthropogenic pollution, while the Sundays Estuary is impacted by commercial agriculture in its catchment. We employed solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to annotate more than 200 pharmaceuticals, pesticides, urban xenobiotics, and natural products based on spectral matching. The identification with authentic standards confirmed the presence of methamphetamine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, -acetylsulfamethoxazole, imazapyr, caffeine and hexa(methoxymethyl)melamine, and allowed semi-quantitative estimations for annotated xenobiotics. The Swartkops Estuary DOM composition was strongly impacted by features annotated as urban pollutants including pharmaceuticals such as melamines and antiretrovirals. By contrast, the Sundays Estuary exhibited significant enrichment of molecules annotated as agrochemicals widely used in the citrus farming industry, with predicted concentrations for some of them exceeding predicted no-effect concentrations. This study provides new insight into anthropogenic impact on the Algoa Bay system and demonstrates the utility of non-targeted tandem mass spectrometry as a sensitive tool for assessing the health of ecologically important coastal ecosystems and will serve as a valuable foundation for strategizing long-term monitoring efforts.

80. 题目: Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances in agricultural contexts and mitigation of their impacts using biochar: A review
文章编号: N24041506
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Pia Ramos, Daniel J Ashworth
更新时间: 2024-04-15
摘要: Growing concern over the presence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in agricultural compartments (e.g., soil, water, plants, soil fauna) has led to an increased interest in scalable and economically feasible remediation technologies. Biochar is the product of pyrolyzing organic materials (crop waste, wood waste, manures, grasses) and has been used as a low-cost adsorbent to remove contaminants including PFAS. This review frames biochar as a strategy for mitigating the detrimental impacts of PFAS in agricultural systems and discusses the benefits of this strategy within the framework of the needs and challenges of contaminant remediation in agriculture. To gauge the optimal physicochemical characteristics of biochar in terms of PFAS adsorption, principal component analysis using >100 data points from the available literature was performed. The main biochar-based PFAS treatment strategies (water filtration, soil application, mixing with biosolids) were also reviewed to highlight the benefits and complications of each. Life cycle analyses on the use of biochar for contaminant removal were summarized, and data from selected studies were used to calculate (for the first time) the global warming potential and net energy demand of various agriculturally important biochar classes (crop wastes, wood wastes, manures) in relation to their PFAS adsorption performance. This review serves to identify key gaps in our knowledge of (i) PFAS adsorption by biochars in agricultural remediation applications and (ii) environmental costs/benefits of biochars in relation to their adsorptive properties toward PFAS. The concepts introduced in this review may assist in developing large-scale biochar-based PFAS remediation strategies to help protect the agricultural food production environment.

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