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201. 题目: Investigation on the evolution of hydrothermal biochar
文章编号: N22080204
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Ming Li, Yang Wang, Zhangfeng Shen, Mingshu Chi, Chen Lv, Chenyang Li, Li Bai, Hamdy Khamees Thabet, Salah M El-Bahy, Mohamed M Ibrahim, Lai Fatt Chuah, Pau Loke Show, Xiaolin Zhao
更新时间: 2022-08-02
摘要: The objective of this study was to visualize trends and current research status of hydrothermal biochar research through a bibliometric analysis by using CiteSpace software. The original article data were collected from the Web of Science core database published between 2009 and 2020. A visual analysis network of national co-authored, institutional co-authored and author co-authored articles was created, countries, institutions and authors were classified accordingly. By visualizing the cited literature and journal co-citation networks, the main subject distribution and core journals were identified respectively. By visualizing journal co-citations, the main research content was identified. Further the cluster analysis revealed the key research directions of knowledge structure. Keyword co-occurrence analysis and key occurrence analysis demonstrate current research hotspots and new research frontiers. Through the above analysis, the cooperation and contributions of hydrothermal biochar research at different levels, from researchers to institutions to countries to macro levels, were explored, the disciplinary areas of knowledge and major knowledge sources of hydrothermal biochar were discovered, and the development lineage, current status, hotspots and trends of hydrothermal biochar were clarified. The results obtained from the study can provide a reference for scholars to gain a deeper understanding of hydrothermal biochar.

202. 题目: Humification evaluation and carbon recalcitrance of a rapid thermochemical digestate fertiliser from degradable solid waste for climate change mitigation in the tropics
文章编号: N22080203
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Naveen Leno, Amrutha Sujatha Ajayan, Kizhakke Covilakom Manorama Thampatti, Cheruvelil Rajamma Sudharmaidevi, Balasubramaniam Aparna, Rajamony Gladis, Thankamma Sajitha Rani, Biju Joseph, Aaltharackal Vikraman Meera, Sainath Nagula
更新时间: 2022-08-02
摘要: Indiscriminate, unhygienic and unscientific disposal of solid wastes poses significant risks leading to soil, water and air pollution. Abiotic and nonenzymatic rapid thermochemical processing technology provides a solution for the management of degradable solid waste at the source, converting it to organic digestate fertiliser within a day, thus overcoming the main drawback of the long time span required for composting. A study was performed to evaluate the maturity parameters and the extent of humification of the thermochemical digestate fertiliser and the raw biowaste substrate. We made an objective assessment of the recalcitrance efficiency of the added thermochemical digestate fertiliser on tropical Ultisol soil grown with two cycles of tomato and amaranthus crop sequences. Unlike the raw biowaste substrate, the thermochemical digestate complied with the threshold standards of compost maturity parameters and humification indices. Soil application of the thermochemical digestate fertiliser brought significant additions to the labile, microbial biomass and recalcitrant fractions of soil organic carbon within a year after four cycles of crop growth, as revealed by principal component analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong and significant fit of the labile and microbial biomass carbon fractions with the total dry biomass of amaranthus and tomato. The thermochemical organic fertiliser imparted a recalcitrance index of 85.57 % and enhanced the soil carbon stock by 4.81 % over the compost-based treatments with a superior soil carbon sequestration rate. The study confirmed that thermochemical digestate fertiliser is a fairly humified, high-resource organic fertiliser input with enhanced agronomic biomass production and recalcitrance efficiency, favouring soil carbon sequestration in Ultisol soils of the tropics.

203. 题目: Layered metal oxides loaded ceramic membrane activating peroxymonosulfate for mitigation of NOM membrane fouling
文章编号: N22080202
期刊: Water Research
作者: Zhaoyu Bai, Shanshan Gao, Huarong Yu, Xiwen Liu, Jiayu Tian
更新时间: 2022-08-02
摘要: Catalytic membrane can achieve sieving separation and advanced oxidation simultaneously, which can improve the effluent water quality while reducing membrane fouling. In this study, the catalytic membranes (M2+Al@AM) were fabricated by loading different binary layered metal oxides (M2+Al-LMO: MnAl-LMO, CuAl-LMO and CoAl-LMO) on alumina ceramic substrate membranes (AM) via vacuum filtration followed by calcination process. The performance of the catalytic membranes was investigated by filtering actual surface water. It was found that the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) could mitigate membrane fouling effectively, as evidenced by the increase of normalized flux from 0.28 to 0.62 in CoAl@AM/PMS system, from 0.25 to 0.52 in CuAl@AM/PMS system, and from 0.22 to 0.31 in MnAl@AM/PMS system, respectively. Correspondingly, the CoAl@AM exhibited the highest removal for UV254, TOC and fluorescent components in the surface water, followed by CuAl@AM and MnAl@AM. Quenching effect of phenol and furfuryl alcohol proposed the surface-bound radicals and singlet oxygen were the major reactive oxygen species in the M2+Al@AM/PMS systems. Interface free energy calculations confirmed the in-situ PMS activation could enhance the repulsive interactions between NOM and the membranes, thus mitigating membrane fouling. This work provides an original but simple strategy for catalytic ceramic membrane preparation and new insights into the mechanism of membrane fouling mitigation in catalytic membrane system.

204. 题目: Benchmarking carbon sequestration potentials in arable soils by on-farm research on innovative pioneer farms
文章编号: N22080201
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Christoph Rosinger, Gernot Bodner, Luca Giuliano Bernardini, Sabine Huber, Axel Mentler, Orracha Sae-Tun, Bernhard Scharf, Philipp Steiner, Johannes Tintner-Olifiers, Katharina Keiblinger
更新时间: 2022-08-02
摘要: Purpose Tackling the global carbon deficit through soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural systems has been a focal point in recent years. However, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of actual on-farm SOC sequestration potentials in order to derive effective strategies. Methods Therefore, we chose 21 study sites in North-Eastern Austria covering a wide range of relevant arable soil types and determined SOC pool sizes (0–35 cm soil depth) in pioneer versus conventional management systems in relation to permanently covered reference soils. We evaluated physico-chemical predictors of SOC stocks and SOC quality differences between systems using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results Compared to conventional farming systems, SOC stocks were 14.3 Mg ha− 1 or 15.7% higher in pioneer farming systems, equaling a SOC sequestration rate of 0.56 Mg ha− 1 yr− 1. Reference soils however showed approximately 30 and 50% higher SOC stocks than pioneer and conventional farming systems, respectively. Nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon stocks showed similar patterns. While pioneer systems could close the SOC storage deficit in coarse-textured soils, SOC stocks in medium- and fine-textured soils were still 30–40% lower compared to the reference soils. SOC quality, as inferred by FTIR spectra, differed between land-use systems, yet to a lesser extent between cropping systems. Conclusions Innovative pioneer management alleviates SOC storage. Actual realized on-farm storage potentials are rather similar to estimated SOC sequestration potentials derived from field experiments and models. The SOC sequestration potential is governed by soil physico-chemical parameters. More on-farm approaches are necessary to evaluate close-to-reality SOC sequestration potentials in pioneer agroecosystems.

205. 题目: Soil carbon consequences of historic hydrologic impairment and recent restoration in coastal wetlands
文章编号: N22080105
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Meagan J Eagle, Kevin D Kroeger, Amanda C Spivak, Faming Wang, Jianwu Tang, Omar I Abdul-Aziz, Khandker S Ishtiaq, Jennifer O'Keefe Suttles, Adrian G Mann
更新时间: 2022-08-01
摘要: Coastal wetlands provide key ecosystem services, including substantial long-term storage of atmospheric CO2 in soil organic carbon pools. This accumulation of soil organic matter is a vital component of elevation gain in coastal wetlands responding to sea-level rise. Anthropogenic activities that alter coastal wetland function through disruption of tidal exchange and wetland water levels are ubiquitous. This study assesses soil vertical accretion and organic carbon accretion across five coastal wetlands that experienced over a century of impounded hydrology, followed by restoration of tidal exchange 5 to 14 years prior to sampling. Nearby marshes that never experienced tidal impoundment served as controls with natural hydrology to assess the impact of impoundment and restoration. Dated soil cores indicate that elevation gain and carbon storage were suppressed 30–70 % during impoundment, accounting for the majority of elevation deficit between impacted and natural sites. Only one site had substantial subsidence, likely due to oxidation of soil organic matter. Vertical and carbon accretion gains were achieved at all restored sites, with carbon burial increasing from 96 ± 33 to 197 ± 64 g C m−2 y−1. The site with subsidence was able to accrete at double the rate (13 ± 5.6 mm y−1) of the natural complement, due predominantly to organic matter accumulation rather than mineral deposition, indicating these ecosystems are capable of large dynamic responses to restoration when conditions are optimized for vegetation growth. Hydrologic restoration enhanced elevation resilience and climate benefits of these coastal wetlands.

206. 题目: GLOBAL-LOCAL: A new approach for local predictions of soil organic carbon content using large soil spectral libraries
文章编号: N22080104
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Mervin St. Luce, Noura Ziadi, Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel
更新时间: 2022-08-01
摘要: There is much interest in the use of large visible near infrared (vis–NIR) soil spectral libraries for rapid soil analysis and to further soils research. However, the use of such large and diverse spectral libraries often provides biased predictions at local scales. Here, we present a new approach, GLOBAL-LOCAL, which aims to use large libraries to develop spectroscopic models that can fit locally. This is achieved by selecting the most common spectral neighbours of a small representative set (Lab) from the target site using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbours, followed by selection of the calibration with the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) in predicting the Lab, which is then added to the calibration to derive the GLOBAL-LOCAL. We evaluated this approach by predicting the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in two different target sites, one in Canada (Lévis, QC; N = 111) and the other in Finland (Maaninka; N = 101). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for model development and validation. The soil spectral library used was a combination of that developed by the World Agroforestry Center and International Soil Reference Information Centre (N = 3875), and that developed at the Quebec Research and Development Centre (N = 1051). Based on a preliminary analysis, we selected 25 Lab samples from each target site using conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS). Prediction accuracy by GLOBAL-LOCAL for Lévis and Maaninka (RMSE = 1.41 and 3.08 g kg−1, RPIQ = 5.9 and 4.1, respectively) were better than using the global calibration (RMSE = 20.3 and 23.6 g kg−1, RPIQ = 0.41 and 0.53, respectively). The GLOBAL-LOCAL was better or similar to calibrations with site-specific samples (RMSE = 2.38 and 4.68 g kg−1, RPIQ = 3.5 and 2.7, respectively) and Lab samples only (RMSE = 1.41 and 2.54 g kg−1, RPIQ = 5.9 and 4.9, for Lévis and Maaninka, respectively). In addition, GLOBAL-LOCAL outperformed three other approaches, RS-LOCAL, the spectrum-based learner and LOCAL. While 25 Lab samples was regarded as optimum by cLHS, further examination revealed that as little as 10 Lab samples may be sufficient for the GLOBAL-LOCAL. The method uses the information in the large spectral library so that it can substantially reduce analytical cost and greatly improve predictions on local scales.

207. 题目: Combined application of humic acid and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulates microbial community dynamics and enhances mercury-resistant genes in mercury-polluted paddy soil
文章编号: N22080103
期刊: Journal of Cleaner Production
作者: Tianxue Yang, Liang Liu, Meng Li
更新时间: 2022-08-01
摘要: Humic acid and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mercury (Hg) polluted paddy soil may individually induce changes of microbial community, which is essential to mercury (Hg) resistance. However, little is known regrading the effect of the combination of humic acid and AMF on the microbial community assembly in different rhizospheric zones along the growth stages of rice. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted by applying humic acid alone (HA) or in combination with AMF (HAAM) to examine the changes in microbial community and merA/B gene abundance. The results showed that growth stage and amendment of humic acid and AMF had important influence on the richness, diversity, and composition of bacterial and fungal communities. By contrast, a very limited rhizospheric effect on the microbial community richness and diversity was found. Diverse soil properties were responsible for the changes of bacteria, fungi, and AMF, respectively. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and redox potential (Eh) strongly affected fungi community, while the shift in bacterial community was mainly attributed to DOC (P < 0.05), pH (P < 0.05), and water-soluble Hg (WHg) (P < 0.05). The HAAM treatment promoted the diversity of AMF (14.0 ± 8.3 of Ace index, 15.6 ± 5.4 of Chao index) benefited from the input of organic carbon and total nitrogen (TN) along with the addition of humic acid and AMF inocula into soils. In addition, the HAAM treatment induced a much higher abundance of merA (6.19 × 108±2.32 × 108 copy g−1) and merB (0.52 × 107±0.09 × 107 copy g−1) genes than the HA treatment alone, suggesting the importance of a combined amendment of humic acid and AMF inocula. Our findings demonstrate the regulation of soil microbial community and the improvement of Hg-resistant genes and microbes under the combined application of humic acid and AMF with the objective to the Hg pollution control in the paddy field.

208. 题目: Enhancement of heavy metal immobilization in sewage sludge biochar by combining alkaline hydrothermal treatment and pyrolysis
文章编号: N22080102
期刊: Journal of Cleaner Production
作者: Chunxing Li, Jie Li, Shengyu Xie, Guangyi Zhang, Lanjia Pan, Ruming Wang, Gang Wang, Xiaofang Pan, Yin Wang, Irini Angelidaki
更新时间: 2022-08-01
摘要: Heavy metals, including Cd, As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn in sewage sludge (SS) are among the greatest impediments to SS application because of their potential toxicity to living organisms and latent environmental pollution risks. In this study, hydrothermal treatment (HT)/alkaline HT combined with pyrolysis was used to treat SS for heavy metal immobilization. The heavy metal characteristics, including total, fraction, and leaching concentrations and potential ecological risks, were comprehensively investigated to ensure the safe application of biochar. The results showed that the heavy metals mainly remained in the hydrochar and biochar. Additionally, both HT and alkaline HT promoted the residual fractions of Cr, Zn, Ni, and Cu in biochar. Furthermore, alkaline HT-aided pyrolysis was more effective for immobilizing Zn and Ni with their residual fractions increasing by 100% and 60% respectively, compared with direct sludge pyrolysis. Moreover, the ecological risk of heavy metals in SS significantly decreased from 57.27 to 30.05 after alkaline HT-combined pyrolysis treatment, contributing to the low potential ecological risk of SS-based biochar. This study provides a promising strategy for converting SS to biochar with improved heavy metal immobilization.

209. 题目: Effects of clay minerals on Fe2+-induced phase transformation of ferrihydrite
文章编号: N22080101
期刊: Applied Geochemistry
作者: Fangyuan Meng, Hongling Bu, Yinheng Fei, Manjia Chen, Qinkai Lei, Dong Liu, Jian Hua, Fei Wu, Chengshuai Liu
更新时间: 2022-08-01
摘要: Ferrihydrite (Fhy) is the initial Fe-oxyhydroxide in supergene soils, and its structural instability is affected by many environmental factors. However, little attention has been paid to how these Fe-oxyhydroxide transformations are induced by Fe2+ cations when they combine with clay minerals, especially organoclay minerals, in soil solutions. This study investigated Fhy transformation in the presence of Fe2+ with and without the clay minerals montmorillonite (Mnt) and organo-Mnt (OMnt) under anaerobic conditions at pH 6.5. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize the Fhy phase transformation. The results showed that goethite (Goe), lepidocrocite (Lep), and hematite (Hem) were the main products in the pure Fhy system. While Goe and Lep were the main transformation products, Hem was not found in the presence of Mnt and OMnt. Fhy transformation was due to Fe2+ adsorption, followed by atomic exchange and electron transfer between Fe2+ and structural Fe(III) in Fhy. The presence of Mnt and OMnt dispersed Fhy particles, and some even combined with Fhy. The presence of organic matter increased the dispersion of Fhy to a greater extent, and organic matter occupied the interlayer sites of Mnt, reducing the specific surface area of Mnt. The Fe2+ adsorption capacity was thus decreased; Moreover, Fe2+ adsorption sites, the electronic transfer pathway and the atomic exchange level were also affected, which influenced the transformation products of Fhy accordingly. The presence of Mnt was more conducive to the formation of Lep, while OMnt was more conducive to the formation of Goe. These findings provide new insights into the stability of Fhy in clay-based anaerobic environments as well as the geochemical behavior of Fe in response to Fe cycling.

210. 题目: Degradation of tetracycline using persulfate activated by a honeycomb structured S-doped g-C3N4/biochar under visible light
文章编号: N22073106
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: He Xu, Tingting Zhang, Dongfang Wang, Dongqing Cai, Shiyan Chen, Huaping Wang, Shihu Shu, Yanping Zhu
更新时间: 2022-07-31
摘要: In this work, a novel S-doped g-C3N4/biochar (SCNBC) nanocomposite was fabricated to activate persulfate (PS) under visible light for tetracycline (TC) abatement. The maximum photocatalytic degradation efficiency of TC by the SCNBC/PS system exhibited 2.34 and 2.32 times of individual biochar (BC) and g-C3N4, respectively. This was mainly because the honeycomb tubular structure facilitated electrons transfer along the linear direction, favoring electron-hole (e--h+) pair separation. Meanwhile, BC could serve as an electron reservoir to further inhibit e--h+ recombination. Radical scavenging tests and electron paramagnetic resonance measurement revealed that h+ and O2•- were the dominant oxidizing radicals in TC removal. Three possible degradation pathways of TC were proposed, the mechanism of which mainly included dealkylation, deamidation, dehydration, hydroxylation and ring-cleavage reactions. Overall, this work provides a facile photocatalyst to activate PS for removal of organic pollutants.

211. 题目: One-step preparation of Fe/N co-doped porous biochar for chromium(VI) and bisphenol A decontamination in water: Insights to co-activation and adsorption mechanisms
文章编号: N22073105
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Jianhua Qu, Xiubo Zhang, Shiqi Liu, Xiaojuan Li, Shuyue Wang, Zihan Feng, Zhihuan Wu, Lei Wang, Zhao Jiang, Ying Zhang
更新时间: 2022-07-31
摘要: Herein, magnetic nitrogen doped porous biochar (Fe/N-PBC) was prepared by mixing KHCO3, K2FeO4 and CO(NH2)2 through one-step pyrolysis, and was employed for adsorbing Cr(VI) and BPA in water. The whole co-activated process was accompanied with pore-forming, carbon thermal reduction and element doping. Specifically, the developed microporous structures and high surface area of Fe/N-PBC (1093.68 m2/g) were achieved under synergistic activation of KHCO3 and K2FeO4. Meanwhile, carbon thermal reduction process successfully converted K2FeO4 to Fe0 with introduction of heterocyclic-N (pyrrolic N and pyridinic N) structures by CO(NH2)2 doping. Fe/N-PBC exhibited outstanding uptake for Cr(VI) (340.96 mg/g) and BPA (355.14 mg/g), and possessed favorable regeneration properties after three cycles. Notably, the high-performance Cr(VI) removal was associated to reduction, electrostatic interaction, complexation, pore filling and ion exchange, while pore filling, hydrogen-bonding interaction and π-π stacking were responsible for BPA binding. This work presents reasonable design of Fe/N-carbon materials for Cr(VI)/BPA polluted water remediation.

212. 题目: Declining total carbon stocks in carbonate-containing agricultural soils over a 62-year recultivation chronosequence under humid conditions
文章编号: N22073104
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Yi Zhao, Rüdiger Reichel, Michael Herbst, Yajie Sun, Nicolas Brüggemann, Ramona Mörchen, Gerd Welp, Fanqiao Meng, Roland Bol
更新时间: 2022-07-31
摘要: Replanting of mining soils is necessary for utilizing soil resources and increasing cultivated land areas. However, limited information exists on the long-term temporal trends of carbon accrual in agricultural systems containing carbonate-rich soil material. We examined changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), soil inorganic carbon (SIC), and total carbon (TC) stocks in an agricultural soil containing carbonate over a 62-year recultivation chronosequence. The most critical differences in the SOC, SIC, and TC stocks were observed in the 0–30 cm soil layer. The results revealed that the SOC stock increased rapidly during the first 10–20 years, but only slowly thereafter. The SIC stock decreased over 62-year from approximately 40 Mg C ha−1 to 2 Mg C ha−1. According to soil δ13CTC data, the SIC to TC ratio decreased from 83% (year 0) to 7% (year 62). Overall, the average sequestration rates were 0.30 Mg C ha−1 y−1 for SOC and −0.61 Mg C ha−1 y−1 for SIC over the 62 years after recultivation. Total carbon ultimately declined by approximately 19.5 Mg C ha−1 in recultivated carbonate soils. Topsoil SOC model (Rothamsted Carbon Model) outputs predicted an equilibrium value of 38.6 Mg C ha−1 after 197 years, which was less than the SIC stock lost in the first 70 years. Therefore, an overall TC increase in these carbonate-containing agricultural soils will only occur (i) during the initial rapid SOC sequestration accumulation phase (first 20 years of recultivation); and (ii) after the soils are fully decalcified (after ∼62 years), but when SOC still slowly increases before SOC stocks reached full equilibrium (after ∼197 years). However, compared with starting TC stocks, when we consider periods over a semicentennial and beyond, we will likely lose more TC than we gain in these recultivated agricultural soils if there are no additional TC sequestration measures.

213. 题目: Independent response of soil DOM to MAT and MAP: Evidence from a large-scale survey of moss crusts in mainland China
文章编号: N22073103
期刊: Ecological Indicators
作者: Siwan Liu, Linhua Fan, Chao Chang, Zhengkui Ge, Ning Ma, Wenbin Chen, Fang Yang, Baozhu Pan, Ming Li, Li Gao
更新时间: 2022-07-31
摘要: It is known soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in global biogeochemical cycle and is an important factor in soil-forming processes. However, the linkage between the diversity of chemical composition and properties of DOM molecules and the climatic conditions (temperature, precipitation) at regional scales is still not well studied. Therefore, in our study, we selected 33 soil DOM samples which were, divided into temperature-variation and precipitation-variation groups, and used Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to analyze the influence of climate on the chemical characterizations of DOM. Our results showed that although the factors affecting the chemical properties of DOM are complex, mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) can explain part of the chemical changes of DOM, and the two data sets in this study can well separate the effects of MAP and MAT on DOM, respectively. The results showed that the content of lignin and tannin were positively related to MAP, while carbohydrate, lipid, unsaturated hydrocarbon and protein decreased with the increase in MAP. The content of nitrogen-containing molecules gradually decreased with the increase in MAT. Meanwhile, the content of sulfur-containing molecules was almost unaffected by the MAP and MAT. In terms of DOM composition, the content of protein decreased with the increase in MAT. The results suggested that the chemical characteristics of DOM is an ecosystem attribute that is closely related to the environment and may be used to predict large-scale soil biochemical processes in the soil carbon cycle.

214. 题目: Particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon turnover revealed by modelling their long-term dynamics
文章编号: N22073102
期刊: Soil Biology and Biochemistry
作者: Xiaowei Guo, Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel, Guocheng Wang, Liujun Xiao, Mingming Wang, Shuai Zhang, Zhongkui Luo
更新时间: 2022-07-31
摘要: Particulate (POC) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MOC) are measurable carbon pools with distinct function. Their turnover properties have been rarely assessed because of their contrasting stabilization and destabilization processes and the difficulty of in situ monitoring. In this study we used two carbon models (a three-pool and a four-pool model) driven by measured POC, MOC and a more resistant charred organic carbon (COC) pool to obtain insights into the turnover of POC and MOC and to predict long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The models were constrained by measurements of POC, MOC and COC at 159 long-term trials (average trial duration is 22 years) across Australian agricultural regions. Results showed that POC-, MOC- and COC-constrained models, particularly the three-pool model, have less parameter collinearity and predict less uncertainties in most model parameters as well as in SOC dynamics and its vulnerability, compared with the models constrained by total SOC alone. The three-pool model estimated an average decay rate of 0.46 and 0.044 yr−1 for POC and MOC, respectively, across the trials. The four-pool model provided additional insights that on average a large fraction of MOC (28% on average across the trials) is physically protected against decomposition, and the remaining fraction is labile with an average decay rate of 0.068 yr−1. The existence of protected MOC results in prolonged overall residence time of MOC. Additionally, we found that the turnover of POC and MOC are distinctly influenced by climate and soil properties with involvement of non-linear relationships. These results shed new lights on the dynamics of measurable functional SOC pools and demonstrate that models constrained by these pools can provide more accurate predictions of model parameters thereby more accurate projections of SOC dynamics compared to models constrained by total SOC only.

215. 题目: Precipitation drives the accumulation of soil organic carbon in the sandy desert of the Junggar Basin, Northwest China
文章编号: N22073101
期刊: Ecological Indicators
作者: Huixia Liu, Zongjiu Sun, Yiqiang Dong, Helong Yang, Panxing He, Bingjie Yu, Huawei Ye, Siyuan Li, Lei Zhou
更新时间: 2022-07-31
摘要: Accurate quantitative estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its storage is crucial for ecosystem response over desert areas, and is an important component of understanding dryland climate change, which can effectively reflect the processes and regulatory mechanisms in the carbon cycle. Nevertheless, the relationship between carbon sources and carbon sinks in sandy soils is a hotly debated subject. In particular, how plants and environmental conditions interact to affect SOC remains unclear in sandy deserts. Here, we investigated 77 sites at depths of 0–100 cm (soil depth was divided by 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, 10–20 cm,20–30 cm, 30–50 cm, 50–70 cm and 70–100 cm intervals), collected 1617 soil samples, and obtained the climatic conditions, vegetation types, and edaphic factors associated with the sampling sites. This study aims to determine whether there are divisions in the allocation strategies of SOC by various vegetation types, and to analyze the mechanisms of environmental factors on the soil carbon pool in sandy deserts. Our results found that (1) the mean value of SOC in the sandy desert was 2.19 g·kg−1, which differed significantly among different vegetation types (P < 0.05), yet there were no significant changes in aboveground biomass and litter biomass. (2) SOC did not significantly differ among soil layers except for the Ceratoides latent (P = 0.04), and Seriphidium terrae-albae (P = 0.02) communities. (3) The mean value of soil organic carbon density (SOCD) was 3.38 kg·m−2 and increased exponentially with soil depth (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.05). (4) Mean annual precipitation controlled the spatial distribution of SOC variation in sandy desert. Vegetation types, soil variables, topographic factors did not control SOC, but had a strong interactive effect with climatic factors. The explanatory power of interaction effects often showed an improvement over single variables, manifested as nonlinear enhancement and bivariate enhancement. Our results highlighted the nature of the desert’s position in the global carbon cycle and provide key information on missing carbon sinks in the driest zone.

216. 题目: Photodissolution of submillimeter-sized microplastics and its dependences on temperature and light composition
文章编号: N22073014
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Mengyue Wu, Yini Ma, Huixiang Xie, Rong Ji
更新时间: 2022-07-30
摘要: Photodissolution has the potential to efficiently remove microplastics from the surface ocean. Here, we examined the effects of temperature and incident sunlight composition on the photodissolution of submillimeter-sized microplastics of polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) in seawater. The photoproduction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chromophoric dissolved organic matter, and dissolved nitrogen (TPU only) was observed to increase exponentially within 7 days of full-spectrum irradiation. The temperature dependence of photodissolution increased with irradiation time for PP and PS but remained relatively constant for TPU. A 20 °C increase in temperature enhanced DOC photoproduction by 10 times for PP, three times for PS, and four times for TPU at 7-d irradiation, giving activation energies of 59.4–84.8 kJ mol−1. Photodissolution of all three polymers was exclusively driven by ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation. PS-derived DOC was photomineralizable, while PP- and TPU-derived DOC appeared photo-resistant. Extrapolating the lab-based DOC photoproduction rates to warm surface oceans yields lifetimes of 6.5 years for PP, 3.6 years for PS, and 3.7 years for TPU. This study demonstrates that photodissolution of the tested microplastics is restricted to the thin UVB-penetrable surface ocean and that water temperature plays a critical role in controlling the photodissolution of these microplastics.

217. 题目: Nitrogen fertilization weakens the linkage between soil carbon and microbialdiversity: a global meta‐analysis
文章编号: N22073013
期刊: Global Change Biology
作者: Yang Yang, Xinli Chen, Liangxu Liu, Ting Li, Yanxing Dou, Jiangbo Qiao, Yunqiang Wang, An Shaoshan, Scott X Chang
更新时间: 2022-07-30
摘要: Soil microbes make up a significant portion of the genetic diversity and play a critical role in belowground carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbial diversity and organic C are often tightly coupled in C cycling processes; however, this coupling can be weakened or broken by rapid global change. A global meta-analysis was performed with 1148 paired comparisons extracted from 229 articles published between January 1998 and December 2021 to determine how nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the relationship between soil C content and microbial diversity in terrestrial ecosystems. We found that N fertilization decreased soil bacterial (–11%) and fungal diversity (–17%), but increased soil organic C (SOC) (+19%), microbial biomass C (MBC) (+17%), and dissolved organic C (DOC) (+25%) across different ecosystems. Organic N (urea) fertilization had a greater effect on SOC, MBC, DOC, and bacterial and fungal diversity than inorganic N fertilization. Most importantly, soil microbial diversity decreased with increasing SOC, MBC and DOC, and the absolute values of the correlation coefficients decreased with increasing N fertilization rate and duration, suggesting that N fertilization weakened the linkage between soil C and microbial diversity. The weakened linkage might negatively impact essential ecosystem services under high rates of N fertilization; this understanding is important for mitigating the negative impact of global N enrichment on soil C cycling.

218. 题目: Hydrous zirconium oxide modified biochar for in situ remediation of arsenic contaminated agricultural soil
文章编号: N22073012
期刊: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
作者: Juanjuan Zhou, Yanwei Liu, Bingqian Li, Wenyun Huang, Junhao Qin, Huashou Li, Guikui Chen
更新时间: 2022-07-30
摘要: In-situ immobilization is a fast soil remediation method that can recover the value of As-contaminated land quickly. Hydrous zirconium oxide was reported for its efficient arsenic adsorption properties in wastewater treatment, but has not been reported in soil remediation with As contamination. Herein, hydrous zirconium oxide modified biochar (BC-Zr) was synthesized along with hydrous ferric oxide modified biochar (BC-Fe) and hydrous titanium oxide modified biochar (BC-Ti). After comparing their As(III)/As(V) adsorption performance under diverse conditions, BC-Zr showed superior As-immobilization potential in both simulated water and real soil leachate environment. To evaluate its performance in soil remediation, pot experiments were conducted in real As-contaminated agricultural soil using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) as an indicator plant. Although all these modified BC could improve the growth of cowpea, the shoot biomass treated by BC-Zr increased by 115.8% than CK, while the As concentration in the stem and leaves decreased by 30.8% and 42.6%, respectively. Interestingly, BC-Zr promoted the root nodule system of cowpea in real As-contaminated soil while BC-Fe and BC-Ti failed. The observation of improved root nodule symbiotic system is significant for further development of soil remediation using in-situ remediation technology. This first successful trial of Zr-based soil amendment indicates the superior As-immobilization property of hydrous zirconium oxide in in-situ remediation of As-contaminated soil, implying the great potential applications of BC-Zr in soil remediation.

219. 题目: The influence of shellfish farming on sedimentary organic carbon mineralization: A case study in a coastal scallop farming area of Yantai, China
文章编号: N22073011
期刊: Marine Pollution Bulletin
作者: Miao Zhao, Shenghui Zhang
更新时间: 2022-07-30
摘要: This study quantified the rate and relative contribution of each sedimentary organic carbon (OC) mineralization pathway in the Yantai coastal area. The results showed that scallop farming activities with raft-breeding facilities led to increased accumulation of OC and reactive Fe(III), which in turn promoted OC aerobic mineralization, Fe reduction, and competitively inhibited sulfate reduction. In the scallop farming area (SFA), O2 reduction, dissimilatory Fe reduction, and sulfate reduction contributed 32.17 %, 27.77 %, and 30.18 % of the total OC mineralization, 1.6 times, 1.2 times, and 0.6 times those of the non-farming area, respectively. Nevertheless, scallop harvesting and resuspension by water currents will increase the short-term risk of dissolved inorganic carbon accumulation in the water column. The OC budget showed that the Yantai coastal area exhibited more OC mineralization than storage, with only 5.0–7.2 % of the net settled OC being permanently buried in the sediment.

220. 题目: Effect of humic acid on bioreduction of facet-dependent hematite by Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32
文章编号: N22073010
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Yang Lu, Shiwen Hu, Hanyue Zhang, Qingmei Song, Wenjing Zhou, Xinyue Shen, Di Xia, Yang Yang, Huiyan Zhu, Chongxuan Liu
更新时间: 2022-07-30
摘要: Interfacial reactions between iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide surfaces and the activity of bacteria during dissimilatory Fe reduction affect extracellular electron transfer. The presence of organic matter (OM) and exposed facets of Fe (hydr)oxides influence this process. However, the underlying interfacial mechanism of facet-dependent hematite and its toxicity toward microbes during bioreduction in the presence of OM remains unknown. Herein, humic acid (HA), as typical OM, was selected to investigate its effect on the bioreduction of hematite {100} and {001}. When HA concentration was increased from 0 to 500 mg L−1, the bioreduction rates increased from 0.02 h−1 to 0.04 h−1 for hematite {100} and from 0.026 h−1 to 0.05 h−1 for hematite {001}. Since hematite {001} owned lower resistance than hematite {100} irrespective of the HA concentration, and hematite {100} was less favorable for reduction. Microscopy-based analysis showed that more hematite {001} nanoparticles adhered to the cell surface and were bound more closely to the bacteria. Moreover, less cell damage was observed in the HA-hematite {001} treatments. As the reaction progressed, some bacterial cells died or were inactivated; confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that bacterial survival was higher in the HA-hematite {001} treatments than in the HA-hematite {100} treatments after bioreduction. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that facet-dependent binding was primarily realized by surface complexation of carboxyl functional groups with structural Fe atoms, and that the binding order of HA functional groups and hematite was affected by the exposed facets. The exposed facets of hematite could influence the electrochemical properties and activity of bacteria, as well as the binding of bacteria and Fe oxides in the presence of OM, thereby governing the extracellular electron transfer and concomitant bioreduction of Fe (hydr)oxides. These results provide new insights into the interfacial reactions between OM and facet-dependent Fe oxides in anoxic, OM-rich soil and sediment environments.

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