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241. 题目: Mineralization and speciation of organic phosphorus in a sandy soil continuously cropped and phosphorus-fertilized for 28 years
文章编号: N23010905
期刊: Soil Biology and Biochemistry
作者: Pablo Raguet, Barbara Cade-Menun, Alain Mollier, Dalel Abdi, Noura Ziadi, Antoine Karam, Christian Morel
更新时间: 2023-01-09
摘要:

Phosphorus (P) is essential to plants and many crops require P fertilizers to optimize yields. However, there are concerns about future scarcity of the rock phosphates used to produce P chemical fertilizers. Soil organic phosphorus (SOP) might play a significant role in plant nutrition and soil P availability, reducing fertilizer requirements, but SOP mineralization is poorly understood. This study assessed rates of SOP mineralization and SOP speciation using a long-term field experiment in France, continuously cropped (1972–2000) and fertilized at three rates (triple superphosphate). The SOP concentration was determined every 2–3 years using the Saunders and Williams ignition method and converted to stock considering the soil mass per hectare; P speciation was determined using solution P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The SOP stocks slightly increased with time, irrespective of P fertilization rates. Inorganic P stocks decreased without fertilization, but increased at the high P fertilization rate. By adapting a model describing soil organic carbon dynamics, the gross mineralization coefficient (k) was calculated with initial SOP stock (368 kg P ha−1), P in maize residues (average of 17.0 kg P ha−1 yr−1, differences across yields, plant parts and P fertilization rates) and their 17% incorporation rates into SOP (i.e. 2.9 kg P ha−1 yr−1). Irrespective of P fertilization rates, the model calibration using SOP time series gave a k-value of 0.0047 yr−1 (212 yr residence time) and a mineralization rate of 1.7 ± 1.2 kg P ha−1yr−1. Speciation of SOP was 77% of orthophosphate monoesters, and 20% of orthophosphate diesters regardless of the P fertilization rates. The predominance of inositols hexakisphosphates, known to be strongly stabilized through sorption, might explain the low SOP mineralization rate. The results for these soils suggest that SOP may only play a minor role in soil P availability and crop nutrition.

242. 题目: Efficient removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution by a novel phosphate-modified biochar supporting zero-valent iron composite
文章编号: N23010904
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Ziwei Tang, Zhongran Dai, Mi Gong, Hong Chen, Xiayu Zhou, Yating Wang, Cong Jiang, Wanying Yu, Le Li
更新时间: 2023-01-09
摘要: Uranium (U) is an important strategic resource as well as a heavy metal element with both chemical and radiotoxicity. At present, the rapid and efficient removal of uranium from wastewater remains a huge challenge for environmental protection and ecological security. In this paper, phosphate-modified biochar supporting nano zero-valent iron (PBC/nZVI) was triumphantly prepared and fully characterized. The introduction of polyphosphate can greatly increase the specific surface area of biochar pores, and then the zero-valent iron can be evenly distributed on the surface of material, thus leading to excellent removal performance of the PBC/nZVI for U(VI). The theoretical maximum U(VI) removal capacity of PBC/nZVI was up to 967.53 mg/g at pH 5. The results of adsorption kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamics showed that the adsorption of uranium by PBC/nZVI was a monolayer physical adsorption and endothermic reaction. And the PBC/nZVI has favorable selectivity toward uranium against the interference of coexisting metal ions. Further mechanism studies show that the excellent uranium removal performance of PBC/nZVI is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of physical adsorption and chemical reduction. This work proves that the PBC/nZVI has a wide application prospect in the field of uranium wastewater treatment.

243. 题目: Nitrogen increases soil organic carbon accrual and alters its functionality
文章编号: N23010903
期刊: Global Change Biology
作者: Bo Tang, Katherine S Rocci, Anika Lehmann, Matthias C Rillig
更新时间: 2023-01-09
摘要: Nitrogen (N) availability has been considered as a critical factor for the cycling and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC), but effects of N enrichment on the SOC pool appear highly variable. Given the complex nature of the SOC pool, recent frameworks suggest that separating this pool into different functional components, e.g. particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC), is of great importance for understanding and predicting SOC dynamics. Importantly, little is known about how these N-induced changes in SOC components (e.g. changes in the ratios among these fractions) would affect the functionality of the SOC pool, given the differences in nutrient density, resistance to disturbance and turnover time between POC and MAOC pool. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of 803 paired observations from 98 published studies to assess the effect of N addition on these SOC components, and the ratios among these fractions. We found that N addition, on average, significantly increased POC and MAOC pools by 16.4% and 3.7%, respectively. In contrast, both the ratios of MAOC to SOC and MAOC to POC were remarkably decreased by N enrichment (4.1 % and 10.1 %, respectively). Increases in the POC pool were positively correlated with changes in aboveground plant biomass and with hydrolytic enzymes. However, the positive responses of MAOC to N enrichment were correlated with increases in microbial biomass. Our results suggest that although reactive N deposition could facilitate soil C sequestration to some extent, it might decrease the nutrient density, turnover time, and resistance to disturbance of the SOC pool. Our study provides mechanistic insights into the effects of N enrichment on the SOC pool and its functionality at global scale, which is pivotal for understanding soil C dynamics especially in future scenarios with more frequent and severe perturbations.

244. 题目: Regeneration of methylene blue-saturated biochar by synergistic effect of H2O2 desorption and peroxymonosulfate degradation
文章编号: N23010902
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Hao Ding, Gongsong Tong, Jingchun Sun, Jiewei Ouyang, Fangge Zhu, Zhi Zhou, Nan Zhou, Meie Zhong
更新时间: 2023-01-09
摘要:

Biochar, as an adsorbent, is widely used for the removal of organic pollutants in water body. Hence, after saturated adsorption, regeneration treatment is required to recover the adsorption performance of biochar. In this study, a biochar (P-GBC) prepared by phosphoric acid activation showed high adsorption capacity for methylene blue (MB) with the maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of 599.66 mg/g. Then, regeneration treatments using 4 mM peroxymonosulfate (PMS), 0.2 M hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their mixture were used to regenerate MB-saturated biochar with regeneration efficiencies of 58.24%, 66.01% and 94.88%, respectively. Combining with degradation and quenching experiments, it is found that synergistic effect of H2O2 desorption and PMS degradation is responsible for the enhancement of regeneration efficiency of P-GBC in H2O2-PMS system and enables a high mineralization rate of 82.68% for the MB adsorbed on P-GBC. Furthermore, EPR tests indicate that singlet oxygen (1O2) is assigned as the primary activate species for the degradation of MB and XPS analyses confirm that graphite nitrogen and carbonyl on P-GBC are the main active sites for the activation of PMS. Compared with conventional regenerants, H2O2-PMS system has the advantages of low dosage, high mineralization efficiency, and easy accessibility, and is also effective, sustainable and environmentally friendly for the regeneration of organic pollutants-saturated biochar.

245. 题目: Interaction between biochar-dissolved organic matter and chlorophenols during biochar adsorption
文章编号: N23010901
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Jin Zhang, Nannan Huang, Hui Li, Biao Cheng, Xuan Zhou, Chen Wang
更新时间: 2023-01-09
摘要: Biochar (BC) has been widely applied in the remediation of chlorophenols (CPs) from contaminated sites in which the role and mechanisms of BC dissolved organic matter (BDOM), as a crucial component of BC, with CPs are largely unknown and thus need to be investigated. In this study, DOM was derived from peanut hulls (PDOM) and corn stalks (CDOM) as BC sources, and the interactions between PDOM/CDOM and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) were analysed using excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEM) in combination with multiple models. EEM combined with fluorescence region integration (EEM-FRI) indicated that humic-like materials were the major materials of both PDOM and CDOM (percentage fluorescence response Ri,n > 60%), and CDOM contained more protein- and fulvic-like materials than PDOM. Based on EEM in combination with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC), 4 components were obtained, and the percentage decrease in maximum fluorescence intensities (Fmax) showed that the main components interacting with TCP in PDOM/CDOM were protein- and fulvic-like components (> 25%). Moreover, the modified Stern–Volmer model was used to calculate the stability constants (Log KTCP) of PDOM/CDOM and TCP for the first time, and the mechanism of static quenching was dominant for interacting with TCP in PDOM (Log KTCP: 4.36–4.65) and CDOM (Log KTCP: 3.53–4.73). Furthermore, the sequential TCP binding of fluorescent components in BDOM generally followed the order of protein-like → short-wavelength fulvic-like → long-wavelength fulvic-like → humic-like components. These findings will provide a basis for screening biochar as a functional material for CP remediation applications and for understanding the environmental chemical behaviour of leached DOM during biochar application. Graphical 

246. 题目: An integrated solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence model for more accurate soil organic carbon content estimation in an Alpine agricultural area
文章编号: N23010806
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Qing Yu, Hongwei Lu, Tianci Yao, Wei Feng, Yuxuan Xue
更新时间: 2023-01-08
摘要:

Background and aims

Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is closely related to vegetation photosynthesis and can sensitively reflect the growth and health of vegetation. Using the advantages of SIF in photosynthetic physiological diagnosis, this study carried out a collaborative study of SIF, land attributes and image reflectance spectra to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) content in typical agricultural areas of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (QTP).

Methods

The spectral reflectance (R), first derivative of reflectance (FDR), second derivative of reflectance (SDR) of spectral band of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data were selected together with land attributes (i.e. elevation, slope, soil temperature, and soil moisture content) and SIF index and vegetation indices to establish the SOC content estimation models using the random forest (RF), back propagation neural network (BPNN) and partial least squares regression (PLSR), respectively.

Results

SIF index can significantly improve the SOC content estimation compared to the vegetation indices. The accuracy of the BPNN model established by combining SIF index with the FDR of Landsat 8 OLI data and land attributes was the highest (R2 = 0.977, RMSEC = 2.069 g·kg− 1, MAE = 0.945 g·kg− 1, RPD = 3.970, d-factor = 0.010).

Conclusion

This study confirmed the good effect of BPNN model driven by SIF index, land attributes, and Landsat 8 OLI data on the estimation of SOC content, which can provide a new way for the accurate estimation of the soil internal components in the agricultural areas.

247. 题目: Coagulation and membrane fouling mechanism of Al species in removing humic acid: Effect of pH and a dynamics process analysis
文章编号: N23010805
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: Wenyu Wang, Ruihua Li, Fan Bu, Yue Gao, Baoyu Gao, Qinyan Yue, Min Yang, Yi Li
更新时间: 2023-01-08
摘要:

The pH conditions affected the binding sites and complexation ability of Al species and humic acid (HA), resulting in the difference of coagulation and membrane fouling mechanism. It is important to explore the dynamic process of coagulation for the mechanisms of Al species and HA. In this study, three Al species (Ala/Alb/Alc) were used in coagulation process to compare the pollution degree of ultrafiltration (UF). Then, the removal efficiency of Ala for DOC was better than that of Alb and Alc, that is, the removal performance of suspended and dissolved organic matter was better for Ala. Through the analysis of coagulation dynamic process and membrane resistances, the flocs formed were smaller size and grow slowly to the equilibrium stage at pH 4, which was easy to cause membrane fouling by concentration polarization. With the pH increasing to a neutral condition, the flocs had a large size and loose structure, and then the porous cake layer was easy to be removed by physical cleaning, leading to the membrane fouling mainly due to pore plugging. Under alkaline conditions, flocs with small size and dense structure were mainly formed by sweeping, which resulted in the cake layer as the main cause of membrane fouling. This study is helpful to optimize the process of HA removal by coagulation-UF, and provides technical support for the coagulation and membrane mechanism of Al species and HA under different pH conditions.

248. 题目: Synergism of Fe and Al salts for the coagulation of dissolved organic matter: Structural developments of Fe/Al-organic matter associations
文章编号: N23010804
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Kai-Yue Chen, Yu-Ting Liu, Jui-Ting Hung, Yi-Cheng Hsieh, Yu-Min Tzou
更新时间: 2023-01-08
摘要:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is distributed ubiquitously in water bodies. Ferric ions can flocculate DOM to form stable coprecipitates; however, Al(III) may alter the structures and stability of Fe-DOM coprecipitates. This study aimed to examine the coprecipitation of Fe, Al, and DOM as well as structural developments of Fe-DOM coprecipitates in relation to changes in Fe/Al ratios and pHs. The results showed that the derived Fe/Al/DOM-coprecipitates could be classified into three categories: (1) at pH 3.0 and 4.5, the corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra associated with Fe–C bonds with Fe/(Fe + Al) ratios ≥0.5; (2) the Fe–C bonds along with single Fe octahedra having Fe/(Fe + Al) ratios of 0.25; (3) at pH 6.0, the ferrihydrite-like Fe domains associated with Fe–C bonds with Fe/(Fe + Al) ratios ≥0.5. At pH 3.0, the Fe and C stability of the coprecipitates increased with increasing Al proportions; nonetheless, pure Al-DOM coprecipitates were unstable even if they exhibited the maximum ability for DOM removal. The associations of Al-DOM complexes and/or DOM-adsorbed Al domains with external surfaces of Fe domain or Fe-DOM coprecipitates may stabilize DOM, leading to lower C solubilization at pH 4.5. Although the preferential formation of Fe/Al hydroxides decreased Fe/Al solubilization at pH 6.0, adsorption instead of coprecipitation of DOM with Fe/Al hydroxides may decrease C stabilization in the coprecipitates. Aluminum cations inhibit DOM releases from Fe/Al/DOM-coprecipitates, promoting the treatment and reuse efficiencies of wastewater and resolving water shortages. This study demonstrates that Al and solution pH greatly affect the structural changes of Fe-DOM coprecipitates and indirectly control the dynamics of Fe, Al, and C concentrations in water.

249. 题目: In-situ activities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in shallow lakes over the Anthropocene: A case study of Lake Wuliangsu
文章编号: N23010803
期刊: Chemical Geology
作者: Yuxin He, Qingfeng Zhao, Dayang Sun, Huanye Wang
更新时间: 2023-01-08
摘要:

Understanding microbial activities in shallow lake system under anthropogenic interference is very important for evaluation on organic carbon (OC) source-sink behaviors. Theoretically, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) could signal in-situ anaerobic microbial activities in shallow lakes. Here we test this theory by analyzing GDGTs of sediment samples collected in Lake Wuliangsu, a typical large and shallow lake located in the Yellow River Reaches. According to different occurrences and distribution patterns in lake surface sediments and lake shore and riverine sediments, brGDGTs and GDGT-0 should be mainly produced by heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria (Acidobacteria) and methanogenic archaea (Euryarchaeota) within the lake, while crenarchaeol from the soil OC transported through the Yellow River system. With the assistant of a two end-member model, in-situ and soil-derived brGDGTs can be quantitatively evaluated. Following these discoveries, we further utilized GDGT-based records from a well-dated sedimentary core to disentangle the past ~180-year history of anaerobic microbial activities in Lake Wuliangsu. The in-situ anaerobic microbial activities started to increase at CE 1926 and showed stronger predominance over soil-derived tetraether lipids after CE 1954, largely due to a combined effect from hydrological change and in-situ OC production resulting in OC-rich and anaerobic conditions for heterotrophic anaerobic microorganisms to prosperous. However, the relative contribution of in-situ anaerobic microbial GDGTs to overall sedimentary OC show complex relations with both OC production and recycling behaviors, tentatively suggesting that anaerobic microbial activities only conduct a minor impact on OC burial in the shallow and eutrophic Lake Wuliangsu over the Anthropocene.

250. 题目: Activating soil nitrification by co-application of peanut straw biochar and organic fertilizer in a rare earth mining soil
文章编号: N23010802
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Min Wang, Min Yang, Tingting Fan, Dengjun Wang, Jianzhou He, Haotian Wu, Dunfeng Si, Mei Wang, Song Wu, Dongmei Zhou
更新时间: 2023-01-08
摘要:

The intensive mining activities to extract rare earth elements from ion-adsorption rare earth deposits have introduced massive amounts of ammonium into the tailing soils in southern China. Compared to the ubiquitous soil nitrification in cropland, forest, and grassland soils, however, there is no feasible strategy to alleviate the ammonium contamination in tailing soil. Herein, the feasibility to remove ammonium by adding ammonium adsorbents (e.g., biochar, activated carbon, and zeolite), alkaline materials, and organic fertilizer to the rare earth mining soil was explored. The amendment of rice straw biochar, activated carbon, or zeolite in combination with CaCO3 and organic fertilizer showed no significant effect on ammonium removal due to their limited capacity to elevate soil pH. However, the co-application of peanut straw biochar (PSBC), CaCO3, and organic fertilizer activated both the ammonia volatilization and soil nitrification processes. Specifically, the three components functioned as follows: organic fertilizer supplied active ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB); PSBC stimulated AOB proliferation by elevating soil pH above 7.75; CaCO3 ameliorated soil acidity and reduced the lag time for activating soil nitrification. The soil ammonium removal and nitrate accumulation rates were positively correlated to the acid neutralization capacity of PSBC prepared at 400 °C–800 °C. The qPCR and microbial community analysis results indicated that Nitrosomonas europaea was the dominant AOB that was responsible for enhanced soil nitrification. Our findings pave the way for developing cost-effective strategies to remediate ammonium contamination in rare earth mining soils.

251. 题目: Soil warming decreases carbon availability and reduces metabolic functions of bacteria
文章编号: N23010801
期刊: Catena
作者: Pingxing Wan, Feng Zhang, Kaiping Zhang, Yufei Li, Rongzhu Qin, Jianjun Yang, Chao Fang, Yakov Kuzyakov, Shiqing Li, Feng-Min Li
更新时间: 2023-01-08
摘要:

Plastic film mulch (PFM) is effective to save soil water and increase temperature and consequently, to increase crop yield. Therefore, PFM has become one of the most widely used on-farm management practices for maize cultivation in semi-arid regions. The effects of PFM-induced warming on the labile carbon (C) pools and microorganisms remain unclear. We used high-throughput genomic sequencing to assess bacterial community structure and metabolic functions in soils after short- (2 years) and long-term (10 years) cover with PFM in a dryland agriculture system. Strong decrease of dissolved organic C (DOC) pool (14–18 % less than in Control soil) by warming (2.4 °C) raised bacterial ⍺-diversity. The short-term mulch reduced the absolute abundance of bacteria by 36–43 % due to the temperature rise and labile C reduction. Bacteria developed with lower abundance (e.g., smaller colonies) but with higher diversity in soils with less available resources. During the long-term mulching and microbial acclimation to increased temperature and the reduced labile C, the bacterial community strongly changed towards an oligotrophic life history. The PFM increased the abundance of bacterial species with high nutrient uptake (e.g. Patescibacteria increased by 83 %), while chemotrophs that prefer eutrophic conditions were reduced in the PFM soil (e.g. Actinobacteriota by 11 %). The PFM increased the complexity of co-occurring networks of bacterial communities and decreased their stability. Almost all bacterial marker taxa screened by random forest algorithm differed between Control and Mulch soils. Long-term mulching reduced the rate of bacterial metabolism associated with organic matter degradation, such as metabolism of carbohydrates, esters (propanoate and butanoate decreased strongly), lipids (the greatest reduction was for fatty acids), and amino acids (lysine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation pathways dropped the most). Structural equation modeling indicated that bacterial metabolism was mainly influenced by bacterial community structure. Consequently, the metabolic functions of bacteria were reduced after the decrease of C availability induced by warming under PFM, and this reduction was dependent on the duration of PFM application.

252. 题目: Quantifying mineral-associated organic matter in wetlands as an indicator of the degree of soil carbon protection
文章编号: N23010719
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Anthony J Mirabito, Lisa G Chambers
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要:

As atmospheric carbon (C) concentrations increase, so too has interest in understanding the mechanisms that preserve C within the soil organic matter (SOM). Mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) is one pool of SOM recently shown to protect soil organic C from mineralization. However, most MAOM research has been in agriculture and forest mineral soils. Given the magnitude of soil C stored in wetlands, this study sought to determine the abundance of MAOM in wetlands. A standard method for quantifying MAOM in terrestrial soils was tested, modified, and optimized with three unique wetland soils. Using a physical fractionation method followed by a density fractionation, it was concluded that field moist soils and a dispersant were necessary for fractionating wetland soils (0–50 cm). The Bayhead Swamp soil had the greatest total C (484.07 ± 1.25 mg C g soil -1), but the smallest MAOM pool (0.63 %); most of the C was in the light fraction as particulate organic matter (POM, >98 %). The sandy-peat Cypress Dome soil also lacked MAOM (1.09 %) and was dominated by POM (66.26 %). The silt-rich Brackish Marsh had the least total C (94.37 ± 1.67 mg C g soil -1), but the largest fraction of protected C (24.60 % MAOM). Nitrogen (N) followed similar trends to C, except in the Brackish Marsh where nearly half the total N was MAOM. This research represents the first step in evaluating the role of MAOM in C persistence in organic-rich wetland soils; future work should consider C physical fraction, in addition to C quantity.

253. 题目: Carbonization characteristics of co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and corn stalks and its agricultural benefits
文章编号: N23010718
期刊: Journal of Soils and Sediments
作者: Yiping Zou, Jiahui Hu, Shuyue Zhang, Kunxiao Shi, Xingchen Liu, Shijin Zhao, Haojun Yang, Jianli Jia
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要:

Purpose

Conversion of sewage sludge and corn stalks into biochars via co-pyrolysis is a promising strategy for resource recycling. We hypothesized that the condition of co-pyrolysis would change the biochars’ properties, which would have different agronomic benefits in coal mining area. The aims of this study were to (i) explore the difference in physicochemical properties, pore structure, and surface chemistry and (ii) identify agronomic benefits to promote corn growth and sequester C.

Materials and methods

Biochars were prepared via co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and corn stalks using an orthogonal test (sewage sludge:corn stalks (w/w) (10:0, 7:3, 5:5), pyrolysis temperature (450 ℃, 550 ℃, 650 ℃), and residence time (60 min, 90 min, 120 min)). We characterized biochars and investigated their effects on the germination rates of corn and SOC mineralization.

Results and discussion

The content of C and N in biochars increased with the addition of corn stalks. The pore structure of biochars was improved with the increases of corn stalks and pyrolysis temperature. The corn germination rates increased with the increases in pyrolysis temperature and the addition of corn stalks, which was consistent with the change of biochar pore structure. The optimized SSC9 (sewage sludge/corn stalks 5:5 (w/w), pyrolysis temperature 650 ℃, and residence time 120 min) was simply produced where the key indicators germination rates reached 80%. Applying 1% and 2% SSC9 (H/C was 0.04 and O/C was 0.27) did not affect CO2 emissions.

Conclusions

Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and corn stalks produces different carbonization characteristics under different conditions, which has the agricultural benefit potential to promote corn growth and sequester C in coal mining area.

Graphical

254. 题目: Biochar combined with Bacillus subtilis SL-44 as an eco-friendly strategy to improve soil fertility, reduce Fusarium wilt, and promote radish growth
文章编号: N23010717
期刊: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
作者: Wumei Chen, Zhansheng Wu, Changhao Liu, Ziyan Zhang, Xiaochen Liu
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要:

Bacillus subtilis as microbial fertilizers contribute to avoiding the harmful effects of traditional agricultural fertilizers and pesticides. However, there are many restrictions on the practical application of fertilizers. In this study, microbial biochar formulations (BCMs) were prepared by loading biochar with B. subtilis SL-44. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the BCMs on soil fertility, Fusarium wilt control, and radish plant growth. The application of BCMs dramatically improved soil properties and favored plant growth. Compared with SL-44 and biochar treatments, the BCMs treatments increased radish plant physical-chemical properties and activities of several enzymes in the soil. What’s more, Fusarium wilt incidence had decreased by 59.88%. In addition, the BCMs treatments exhibited a significant increase in the abundance of bacterial genera in the rhizosphere soil of radish. Therefore, this study demonstrated that BCMs may be an eco-friendly strategy for improving soil fertility, reducing Fusarium wilt, and promoting radish plant growth.

255. 题目: Oxygen priming induced by elevated CO2 reduces carbon accumulation and methane emissions in coastal wetlands
文章编号: N23010716
期刊: Nature Geoscience
作者: Genevieve L Noyce, Alexander J Smith, Matthew L Kirwan, Roy L Rich, J Patrick Megonigal
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要:

Warming temperatures and elevated CO2 are inextricably linked global change phenomena, but they are rarely manipulated together in field experiments. As a result, ecosystem-level responses to these interacting facets of global change remain poorly understood. Here we report on a four-year field manipulation of warming and elevated CO2 in a coastal wetland. Contrary to our expectations, elevated CO2 combined with warming reduced the rate of carbon accumulation due to increases in plant-mediated oxygen flux that stimulated aerobic decomposition via oxygen priming. Evidence supporting this interpretation includes an increase in soil redox potential and a decrease in the nominal oxidation state of the dissolved organic carbon pool. While warming alone stimulated methane (CH4) emissions, we found that elevated CO2 combined with warming reduced net CH4 flux due to plant–microbe feedbacks. Together, these results demonstrate that ecosystem responses to interacting facets of global change are mediated by plant traits that regulate the redox state of the soil environment. Thus, plant responses are critical for predicting future ecosystem survival and climate feedbacks.

256. 题目: Sedimentary Accumulation of Black Carbon on the East Coast of The United States
文章编号: N23010715
期刊: Geophysical Research Letters
作者: Ita Wulandari, Samuel Katz, Roger Patrick Kelly, Rebecca S Robinson, Rainer Lohmann
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要: The occurrence, trends and sources of soot black carbon (BC) in coastal sediments are poorly understood, particularly during the Anthropocene. Two sediment cores, covering the last ∼100 years from the US East Coast, off North Carolina and in the Florida Straits, were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), BC fluxes and BC sources. BC fluxes were 0.1 g cm−2 year−1 at both sites and accounted for 8%–22% of total OC. Carbon stable isotope values indicated OC to be of marine origin, while the BC was mostly terrestrially derived, C3-plant material. Radiocarbon values revealed BC originating mostly from fossil fuels or pre-aged carbon (fraction modern of 14%–31%) at North Carolina, while in the Florida Strait the BC was mostly derived from biomass burning (fraction modern of 70%–74%), in-line with continental (NC) or marine (FS) air mass origins. Ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons broadly supported different BC sources at the two sites.

257. 题目: Valid inferences about soil carbon in heterogeneous landscapes
文章编号: N23010714
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Paige Stanley, Jacob Spertus, Jessica Chiartas, Philip B Stark, Timothy Bowles
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要:

Using soil organic carbon (SOC) to generate carbon offsets requires reliably quantifying SOC sequestration. However, accuracy of SOC measurement is limited by inherent spatial heterogeneity, variability of laboratory assays, unmet statistical assumptions, and the relatively small magnitude of SOC changes over time, among other things. Most SOC measurement protocols currently used to generate offsets for C markets do not adequately address these issues, threatening to undermine climate change mitigation efforts. Using analyses and simulations from 1,117 soil samples collected from California crop and rangelands, we quantified measurement errors and sources of uncertainty to optimize SOC measurement. We demonstrate that (1) spatial heterogeneity is a primary driver of uncertainty; (2) dry combustion assays contribute little to uncertainty, although inorganic C can increase error; (3) common statistical methods—Student’s t-test and its relatives—can be unreliable for SOC (e.g. at low to medium sample sizes or when the distribution of SOC is skewed), which can lead to incorrect interpretations of SOC sequestration; and (4) common sample sizes (10–30 cores) are insufficiently powered to detect the modest SOC changes expected from management in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. To reduce error and improve the reliability of future SOC offsets, protocols should: (1) require power analyses that include spatial heterogeneity to determine minimum sample sizes, rather than allowing arbitrarily small sample sizes; (2) minimize the use of compositing; (3) require dry combustion analysis, by the same lab for all assays; and (4) use nonparametric statistical tests and confidence intervals to control Type I error rates. While these changes might increase costs, they will make SOC estimates more accurate and more reliable, adding credibility to soil management as a climate change mitigation strategy.

258. 题目: Biomass inherent metal interfere carbothermal reduction modification of biochar for Cd immobilization
文章编号: N23010713
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Fulin Yang, Zhelin He, Fengbo Yu, Shoubiao Zhou, Xiangdong Zhu
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要:

Metal salt laden are frequently used to enhance the heavy metal adsorption capacity of biochar. The present study indicates that CaS loading biochar can be modified from the carbothermal reduction reaction between CaSO3 (modification agent) and carbon matrix. The CaS transformation ratio as indicated by XPS spectra was significantly improved by the CaSO3 loading content. The coprecipitation reaction induced by the CaS in biochar can significantly enhance the adsorption capacity of heavy metals (Cd). And, the Cd adsorption capacity can be enhanced up to >100 mg/g and increases with increasing CaS ratio in the biochar. In addition, the adsorption process was rapid and could be balanced within several minutes (~ 5 min). Furthermore, the interaction reaction between the modification agent and the inherent metal in the biomass was examined in the biochar pyrolysis preparation process. Interestingly, MgCl2 inherent metal salt can combine with the original CaSO3 to produce a new mineral, resulting in a decrease in CaS. However, KCl, a more thermally stable biomass-derived metal salt, exhibited a weak combination ability with the modification agent. Accordingly, this type of secondary reaction reduces the Cd adsorption capacity owing to the decrease in the number of adsorption sites (CaS).

259. 题目: Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in runoff discharge under different rainfall patterns in a representative agricultural catchment
文章编号: N23010712
期刊: Journal of Hydrology
作者: Ke Liang, Tianyang Li, Binghui He, Tian Qian
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要:

Rainfalls transported plentiful terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to downstream waters by runoff, significantly regulating the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in downstream waters. However, the dynamics of DOC exporting from agricultural catchments in response to different rainfall patterns remain largely unknown. This study aimed to understand the effects of rainfall patterns on the runoff DOC quantity and quality in a representative agricultural catchment in Southwest China. Six rainfall events producing runoff, including three moderate rainfalls, two heavy rainfalls, and one rainstorm, were recorded to investigate the shifts in runoff DOC concentration and its quality indicators, i.e., SUVA254 (indicating the aromaticity content), C:C ratio (denoting the proportion of colored substances to uncolored substances), and E4:E6 ratio (denoting the fulvic acid to humic acid of DOC). The results showed that DOC concentration in runoff discharge was highest in the moderate and heavy rainfalls occurring at the early rainy season, while was lowest in the rainstorm. Exported DOC flux reached 1.82 kg hm-2 h-1 in the rainstorm, which was 3.95-60.67 times that in the other rainfall events. SUVA254 and C:C ratio fluctuated softly during the moderate rainfalls and rainstorm, and changed strongly during the heavy rainfall with long duration. The moderate and heavy rainfalls with longer antecedent dry day and the rainstorm delivered DOC with higher SUVA254 and C:C ratio than the other rainfall events did. Discharge was positively correlated with DOC concentration during rainfall across all rainfall patterns, while was negatively correlated with SUVA254 and C:C ratio under moderate and heavy rainfalls. Forward stepwise regression analysis showed that DOC flux per hour was only positively linearly correlated with rainfall intensity. Our results were valuable for understanding the biogeochemical cycling of DOC in analogous catchments worldwide.

260. 题目: Small biochar particles hardly disintegrate under cryo-stress
文章编号: N23010711
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Gabriel Sigmund, Andrea Schmid, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Nikolas Hagemann, Thomas D Bucheli, Thilo Hofmann
更新时间: 2023-01-07
摘要:

Physical disintegration of biochar has been postulated to determine the persistence and mobility in soil of this recalcitrant carbon pool. Therein, freeze–thaw cycling can induce substantial physical stress to biochars. We here investigated the physical disintegration and subsequent mobilisation of five different biochars under “realistic worst-case scenarios” in a laboratory soil column setup as well as in shaking and sonication batch experiments. The mobilization of carbon from biochar particles (0.25–1 mm) was investigated in the absence of clay at a pH of 6.3 with and without 80 freeze–thaw cycles. The small biochar particles used in this study did not strongly disintegrate after freeze–thaw cycling, possibly because of freezing point depression in biochar micropores. Our results in comparison with findings in literature suggest that freeze–thaw-induced physical disintegration of biochar is a process more pronounced for large biochar particles containing substantial meso- and macropores. Biochars with larger ash fractions disintegrated more, presumably because of the ash-associated formation of unstable cavities within the biochar. Physical stability of biochars produced from the same feedstock at different pyrolysis temperatures decreased with increasing aromaticity, which may be linked to a higher rigidity of more aromatic structures. Moisture content in the soil increased carbon mobilization from biochar more than physical stress such as freeze–thaw cycling. The physical disintegration of biochar and subsequent mobilization of micro-and nanosized carbon should thus be considered of minor relevance and is often not a driving factor for biochar stability in soil.

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