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281. 题目: Neogene burial of organic carbon in the global ocean
文章编号: N23010609
期刊: Nature
作者: Ziye Li, Yi Ge Zhang, Mark Torres, Benjamin J W Mills
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

Organic carbon buried in marine sediment serves as a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and a source of oxygen1,2. The rate of organic carbon burial through geologic history is conventionally established by using the mass balance between inorganic and organic carbon, each with distinct carbon isotopic values (δ13C)3,4. This method is complicated by large uncertainties, however, and has not been tested with organic carbon accumulation data5,6. Here we report a ‘bottom-up’ approach for calculating the rate of organic carbon burial that is independent from mass balance calculations. We use data from 81 globally distributed sites to establish the history of organic carbon burial during the Neogene (roughly 23–3 Ma). Our results show larger spatiotemporal variability of organic carbon burial than previously estimated7,8,9. Globally, the burial rate is high towards the early Miocene and Pliocene and lowest during the mid-Miocene, with the latter period characterized by the lowest ratio of organic-to-carbonate burial rates. This is in contrast to earlier work that interpreted enriched carbonate 13C values of the mid-Miocene as massive organic carbon burial (that is, the Monterey Hypothesis)10,11. Suppressed organic carbon burial during the warm mid-Miocene is probably related to temperature-dependent bacterial degradation of organic matter12,13, suggesting that the organic carbon cycle acted as positive feedback of past global warming.

282. 题目: Linking Rock-Eval parameters to soil heterotrophic respiration and microbial residues in a black soil
文章编号: N23010608
期刊: Soil Biology and Biochemistry
作者: Yan Zhang, Yan Gao, Yang Zhang, Dandan Huang, Xiujun Li, Neil McLaughlin, Xiaoping Zhang, Xuewen Chen, Shixiu Zhang, Edward Gregorich, Aizhen Liang
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

Rock-Eval pyrolysis has been applied to soil analysis over the past twenty years but still needs more study in diverse land-use and soil types. The linkage between Rock-Eval parameters and those of other soil organic carbon (SOC) analytical methods also needs further research. Our objective of this study was to evaluate the i) effects of tillage and cropping systems on Rock-Eval parameters, ii) the relationship between Rock-Eval parameters and microbial residues, and iii) effectiveness of Rock-Eval analysis in characterizing soil heterotrophic respiration. Samples were collected from a long-term field study in a black soil under tillage systems in Northeast China; the treatments included: a) no tillage with maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max Merr.) rotation (NTMS); b) moldboard plowing with maize-soybean rotation (MPMS); c) no tillage with continuous maize (NTMM); d) moldboard plowing with continuous maize (MPMM); e) conventional tillage with continuous maize (CTMM). Except for CTMM, all crop residues were returned to the soil after harvest. Thermal stability was analysed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, soil heterotrophic respiration was determined by a bioassay and microbial residues were determined by measuring amino sugars. TMAX (temperature at which the maximum rate of hydrocarbons is released during pyrolysis), T50 (temperature at which 50% of the hydrocarbons are released), HI (hydrogen index), PC/SOC (pyrolysable C/SOC), and ROC/SOC (residual carbon) were estimated from analysis by Rock-Eval. Tillage affected most of the Rock-Eval parameters, while cropping system had little or no effect. Except OIRE6, tillage affected all Rock-Eval parameters in the 0–5 cm layer including TMAX, HI, T50, PC/SOC and ROC/SOC. The higher TMAX, T50 and HI in NT than MP indicated that residue return and less soil disturbance by tillage increased SOC thermal stability. The HI index showed a strong positive relationship with heterotrophic respiration but weakened with increasing incubation time, which showed that Rock-Eval parameters better represented the heterotrophic respiration in the short-term, rather than long-term (>100 days). The strong relationship between TMAX and GluN (glucosamine) observed in this study suggests NT enriches the fungal necromass as stable soil C, which contributes to long-term C sequestration.

283. 题目: Trees in temperate alley-cropping systems develop deep fine roots 5 years after plantation: What are the consequences on soil resources?
文章编号: N23010607
期刊: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
作者: Claire O'Connor, Bernarhd Zeller, Caroline Choma, François Delbende, Ali Siah, Christophe Waterlot, Kasaina Sitraka Andrianarisoa
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

Trees in alley-cropping systems (AC) were reported to develop deeper fine roots compared to forest trees and that they can modify soil water (SWC), mineral nitrogen (SMN) and organic matter (SOM) content. However, intercropping young trees has not been studied extensively. This study aimed to count tree fine roots abundance (TFRA) along a chronosequence of AC stands, to determine factors explaining its variability and to highlight its effects on soil resources. Seventeen alley-cropping plots ranging from 3 to 12 years old were chosen on farms in northern France. TFRA was measured by the core break method using soil samples collected at 0, 1, 3 and 10 m from a referent tree (a maple, a hybrid walnut or a hornbeam) down to 2 m depth. Before four years old, tree fine roots colonized the topsoil (0–30 cm) in rows and then mainly grew vertically from 4 to 6 years old, before laterally exploring deep soil layer (1–2 m) beyond this age. Stepwise analyses showed that stand age, tillage frequency and crop rotation duration explained 60 % of the variability of the sum of TFRA calculated for all soil layers at all distances from the tree row. The SWC was negatively correlated to TFRA suggesting that as trees get older, they dried the deep soil layer below the crop rooting zone and increased the soil depth able to store autumn and winter rainfall. No significant effect of either stand age or distance from tree rows was observed for SMN. It varied significantly with soil depth (R² = 0.3***) and was strongly correlated with soil nitrate content (R² = 0.97***). The soil ammonium content was significantly correlated with TFRA, suggesting that tree fine roots favor ammonium production or accumulation in soil, which may potentially allow for a reduction in the mineral nitrogen (N) mobility for leaching. Finally, we found a significantly high SOM correlated with TFRA only in topsoil on the tree rows at our oldest stands. No change of SOM was observed in the deep soil layer regardless of stand age. From this study, we concluded that fine root plasticity of intercropped trees occurred at early stage and may contribute with age to a better use of soil water, to managing the soil mineral N dynamic and to sequestrating carbon, at least in tree rows.

284. 题目: Controlled synthesis of distiller's grains biochar for turbidity removal in Baijiu
文章编号: N23010606
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Xiuzhen Xu, Weiqin Feng, Lijun Guo, Xin Huang, Bi Shi
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

Resource utilization of distiller's grains (DGs) is crucial for realizing sustainable development of Baijiu industry. In the prevent investigation, a low-cost activated biochar (DGABC) suitable for removing turbidity from low-alcohol Baijiu was prepared by the controlled pyrolysis of DGs, followed by steam activation. The as-prepared biochar featured a large specific surface area (320–480 m2/g) and pore volume (0.45–0.47 cm3/g). Importantly, the DGABC possessed remarkable exterior hydrophily and interior lipophilicity, which guaranteed its good dispersion in alcohol-water system as well as an efficient adsorption to the components with long lipophilic chain. As a result, the DGABC could efficiently remove the turbidity in low-alcohol Baijiu, which was mainly derived from the long lipophilic chain components, such as ethyl palmitate. Meanwhile, most of the flavor esters that had a shorter lipophilic chain and lower hydrophobicity were well kept in the low-alcohol Baijiu. Therefore, this work provided a promising strategy for DGs recycling in Baijiu industry.

285. 题目: Recent advances in biochar amendments for immobilization of heavy metals in an agricultural ecosystem: A systematic review
文章编号: N23010605
期刊: Environmental Pollution
作者: Saloni Sachdeva, Rakesh Kumar, Prafulla Kumar Sahoo, Ashok Kumar Nadda
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

Over the last several decades, extensive and inefficient use of contemporary technologies has resulted in substantial environmental pollution, predominantly caused by potentially hazardous elements (PTEs), like heavy metals that severely harm living species. To combat the presence of heavy metals (HMs) in the agrarian system, biochar becomes an attractive approach for stabilizing and limiting availability of HMs in soils due to its high surface area, porosity, pH, aromatic structure as well as several functional groups, which mostly rely on the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. Additionally, agricultural waste-derived biochar is an effective management option to ensure carbon neutrality and circular economy while also addressing social and environmental concerns. Given these diverse parameters, the present systematic evaluation seeks to (i) ascertain the effectiveness of heavy metal immobilization by agro waste-derived biochar; (ii) examine the presence of biochar on soil physico-chemical, and thermal properties, along with microbial diversity; (iii) explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for the reduction in heavy metal concentration; and (iv) possibility of biochar implications to advance circular economy approach. The collection of more than 200 papers catalogues the immobilization efficiency of biochar in agricultural soil and its impacts on soil from multi-angle perspectives. The data gathered suggests that pristine biochar effectively reduced cationic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni) and Cr mobilization and uptake by plants, whereas modified biochar effectively reduced As in soil and plant systems. However, the exact mechanism underlying is a complex biochar-soil interaction. In addition to successfully immobilizing heavy metals in the soil, the application of biochar improved soil fertility and increased agricultural productivity. However, the lack of knowledge on unfavorable impacts on the agricultural systems, along with discrepancies between the use of biochar and experimental conditions, impeded a thorough understanding on a deeper level.

286. 题目: Molecular characteristics and biological effects of dissolved organic matter leached from microplastics during sludge hydrothermal treatment
文章编号: N23010604
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Jun Chen, Na Wan, Kewei Li, Aibin Hu, Hang He, Dongsheng Wang, Weijun Zhang
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

Previous knowledge of dissolved organic matter leached from microplastics (MP-DOM) was mainly based on aquatic environments and organisms. The molecular characteristics and biological effects of MP-DOM in other environments have rarely been examined. In this work, FT-ICR-MS was applied to identify MP-DOM leached from sludge hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at different temperatures, the plant effects and acute toxicity were investigated. The results showed that molecular richness and diversity of MP-DOM increased with rising temperature, accompanied by molecular transformation in the meantime. The oxidation was crucial whereas the amide reactions mainly occurred at high-temperatures (180-220 oC). For biological effects, MP-DOM promoted root development of Brassica rapa (field mustard) by affecting the expression of differential expressed genes and the effect was enhanced with rising temperature. The lignin-like compounds in MP-DOM down-regulated Phenylpropanoids biosynthesis, while CHNO compounds up-regulated the Nitrogen metabolism. Furthermore, correlation analysis presented that alcohols/esters leached at low-temperature (120-160 oC) were responsible for the promotion, while glucopyranoside leached at high-temperature (180-220 oC) was vital. However, MP-DOM produced at 220 oC showed obvious acute toxicity. Considering the further treatment of sludge, the optimum HTT temperature could be controlled at 180 oC. This work provides novel insight into the environmental fate and eco-environmental effects of MP-DOM in sewage sludge.

287. 题目: Exploring plant and soil microbial communities as indicators of soil organic carbon in a California rangeland
文章编号: N23010603
期刊: Soil Biology and Biochemistry
作者: Jacob Weverka, Gabriel C Runte, Elizabeth L Porzig, Chelsea J Carey
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is increasingly a focus of land management and policy initiatives, due to the dual role it plays in soil health and climate change mitigation. To manage SOC effectively, land managers would benefit from proxy indicators that can assess SOC concentrations and forecast changes through time. Because inputs and outputs to SOC are driven by plants and soil microorganisms, plant and soil microbial communities may be useful indicators of spatial or temporal SOC changes. To assess and compare the utility of these ecological communities as SOC indicators, we monitored SOC from surface and subsurface soils across a six-year period on a ranch in Central Coastal California, and measured plant, fungal, and bacterial/archaeal community composition. As expected, we observed unique relationships between each candidate indicator and SOC. Most notably, the relative abundance of putative copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacterial phyla allowed us to predict future changes in SOC concentration, as did the relative abundance of saprotrophic fungi and relative cover of perennial grass. Plant and soil microbial community structure was also related to SOC content at the time of sampling. Combining indicators improved our ability to predict SOC concentration and future changes, though we were unable to identify indicators that strongly explained historical changes in SOC concentration that preceded sampling. Our findings suggest that measurements of plant and soil microbial community structure can indicate SOC concentration and future changes, and so may be useful to inform management of healthy soils.

288. 题目: Effect of biochar addition on copper and zinc passivation pathways mediated by humification and microbial community evolution during pig manure composting
文章编号: N23010602
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Ling Zhou, Jiao Xue, Yang Xu, Wenxin Tian, Guowei Huang, Liqian Liu, Yingchao Zhang
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

The mobility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn are the main threats associated with the land application of pig manure (PM) compost products. This study investigated the impacts of biochar (BC) concentration on passivation of Cu and Zn associated with the compost maturity. The results indicated that 15% and 10% BC favoured the passivation of Cu and Zn, respectively. BC promoted passivation of Cu by accelerating HA production and optimized the abundance of Firmicutes. BC promoted the passivation of Zn by increasing the high temperature peak and the corresponding pH (8–8.5). A higher level (15% and 20%) of BC altered the dominant bacterial phylum from Firmicutes to Proteobacteria. 20% BC inhibited the passivation of Cu and Zn by reducing the highest temperature and lowering the alkalinity of substrate. These results offer new insights into understanding how the addition of BC could reduce the risk of hazardous products during PM composting.

289. 题目: Role of extracellular polymeric substances in the aggregation and biological response of micro(nano)plastics with different functional groups and sizes
文章编号: N23010601
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Sicheng Xiong, Xuesong Cao, Ian Eggleston, Yuantong Chi, Aoze Li, Xia Liu, Jian Zhao, Baoshan Xing
更新时间: 2023-01-06
摘要:

In this work, the effects of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the aggregation and biological responses of different micro(nano)plastics (MNPs, <1000 µm) were investigated. EPS increased the colloidal stability of PS MPs in NaCl or CaCl2. For the three PS NPs (PS-NH2, PS-COOH, and PS-naked), EPS also enhanced their colloidal stabilities in the presence of NaCl. However, the effect of CaCl2 on the colloidal stabilities of PS NPs in the presence of EPS depended on their surface functional groups. In CaCl2, both Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory and molecular bridging explained the interaction between MNPs (both NPs and MPs) and EPS. Laser Direct Infrared and scanning electron microscope imaging showed that opalescent EPS corona formed on PS MPs via intermolecular-bridging by Ca2+, and the critical coagulation concentrations (70 mM in NaCl, 1.5 mM in CaCl2) in EPS were much lower than that for PS NPs (1000 mM for NaCl; 65 mM for CaCl2). PS-NH2 NPs showed the highest increase in the growth of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), followed by PS MPs and PS-naked NPs, while PS-COOH NPs had no significant effect. Biological response of PS NPs was unaffected by EPS, while EPS further enhanced the positive effects of PS MPs on bacterial growth.

290. 题目: Individual and combined effect of ions species and organic matter on the removal of microcontaminants by Fe3+-EDDS/solar-light activated persulfate
文章编号: N23010509
期刊: Water Research
作者: Alejandro Cabrera-Reina, Marina Aliste, María Inmaculada Polo-López, Sixto Malato, Isabel Oller
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要:

This work is focused on improving the understanding of the complex water matrix interactions occurring during the removal of a microcontaminants mixture (acetamiprid, carbamazepine and caffeine) by solar/Fe3+-EDDS/persulfate process. The individual and combined effects of sulfates (100-500 mg/L), nitrates (20-160 mg/L), bicarbonates (77-770 mg/L) and chlorides (300-1500 mg/L) were assessed by comparing the outcomes obtained in different synthetic and actual water matrices. In general, the results showed negligible effects of the different anions on Fe3+-EDDS concentration and PS consumption profiles, while the combination of bicarbonates and chlorides seemed to be the key for the MC removal efficiency decrease found when working with complex matrixes. Finally, the influence of dissolved organic matter on process performance was evaluated. It was concluded that there is neither any influence of this variable on Fe3+-EDDS concentration and PS consumption profiles. In contrast, there was a general negative effect on MC removal efficiency, which strongly depended on both the concentration and composition of the dissolved organic matter.

291. 题目: Dark transformation from 17β-estradiol to estrone initiated by hydroxyl radical in dissolved organic matter
文章编号: N23010508
期刊: Water Research
作者: Lihua Yang, Weiqi Su, Yingyao He, Binhua Yan, Lijuan Luo, Tiangang Luan
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要:

The occurrence and fate of 17β-estradiol (E2) in natural water have gained extensive attention owing to its high ecotoxic risk to wildlife. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous water constituent and contributes significantly to E2 removal, although the reaction mechanism is rarely clarified. The present study aims to investigate E2 transformation in water containing fresh or aged DOM surrogates at environmentally relevant concentrations in the dark. Experiments along with radical probes of benzene and furfuryl alcohol reveal that reactive radicals, particularly hydroxyl radical (•OH), formed non-photochemically at higher concentrations in aged DOM than in fresh DOM. The contribution of •OH in E2 removal is indicated by the decreases in the removal of radical probes in the presence of E2; moreover, E2 removal is inhibited in the presence of radical scavengers. The dose-dependent inhibitive effect of substrate concentrations, including E2 and coexistent propylparaben, shows that the radical concentration is a limiting factor for E2 removal, which could be enhanced by increasing DOM concentration, dissolved oxygen, and light supply. As the main byproduct, estrone (E1) is persistent in the current DOM water in the dark, but it can be easily photodegraded when exposed to light. Theoretical analysis reveals that the initial step is •OH-initiated H- abstraction on the hydroxyl group in the cyclopentane ring of E2. The formed singlet excited state of E2 undergoes further intramolecular rearrangement and oxidative dehydrogenation to generate E1 and the hydroperoxy radical (•HO2). Considering the universal occurrence of E2 in DOM-rich aquatic matrices, the present findings have special implications for the biogeochemical cycle and risk assessment of this pollutant in natural aquatic environments, particularly those beyond the photic zone.

292. 题目: Effects of biochar and vermicompost on microorganisms and enzymatic activities in greenhouse soil
文章编号: N23010507
期刊: Frontiers in Environmental Science
作者: Qianqian Wu, Jie Zhang, Xinna Liu, Tingting Chang, Qian Wang, Hiba Shaghaleh, Yousef Alhaj Hamoud
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要: The effects of different contents of biochar and vermicompost on the microbial and enzymatic activities of greenhouse soil were determined to provide a theoretical basis for improving the quality of greenhouse soil. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using potted tomatoes. Five treatments consisted of different amount ratios of organic amendments: 1% biochar (BC1), 3% biochar (BC3), 5% biochar (BC5), 3% vermicompost (VC3), and 5% vermicompost (VC5), with no addition of organic amendments as the control (CK). Compared with CK, the pH, organic matter content, and DOC concentration increased in treatment groups. The organic matter content of BC3 and BC5 significantly increased by 54.6% and 72.8%, respectively, and DOC concentration of BC3 significantly increased by 43.9%. Biochar and vermicompost significantly increased the diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in soil, as well as the abundance of Actinomycetes, Acidobacteria, Ascomycetes, and Aspergillus, and reduced the abundance of Aspergillus. The activities of urease and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased, and the activity of nitrate reductase was inhibited in all treatment groups compared with CK. In addition, a highly significant positive correlation was observed among pH, Acidobacteria phylum abundance, and alkaline phosphatase activity in all treatments. DOC concentration was positively correlated with pH, organic matter content, Acidobacteria phylum abundance and alkaline phosphatase activity. Biochar and vermicompost were effective in improving the physicochemical properties of greenhouse soil, enhancing microbial diversity, and affecting enzymatic activities. Therefore, BC3 (3% biochar) had the most significant effect on community diversity and alkaline phosphatase and nitrate reductase activities. VC5 (5% vermicompost) had the best promotion effect on urease activity. This study highlights that biochar and vermicompost as organic amendments are recommended to improve the quality of greenhouse soils.

293. 题目: Environmental factors driving the formation of water-soluble organic aerosols: A comparative study under contrasting atmospheric conditions
文章编号: N23010506
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Yujue Wang, Zeyu Feng, Qi Yuan, Dongjie Shang, Yuan Fang, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Chao Zhang, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, Min Hu
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要:

Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), as major fractions of atmospheric aerosols, have gained attention due to their light-absorption properties. To illustrate the sources and key environmental factors driving WSOC formation under different atmospheric conditions, a comparative study was conducted by summarizing the results obtained from five field campaigns at inland (urban, suburban or regional) sites and a coastal site during different seasons. Organic carbon concentrations varied from 8.5 μg/m3 at the summer regional site to 17.5 μg/m3 at the winter urban site, with 46 %- 89 % of the mass as WSOC. Based on correlation analysis, primary combustion emissions were more important in winter than in summer, and secondary formation was an important source of WSOC during winter, summer and autumn. Atmospheric oxidants (NO2, O3), aerosol liquid water (ALW) and ambient RH were important factors influencing the WSOC formation, while their roles varied in different atmospheres. We observed a seasonal transition of atmospheric oxidants dominating the WSOC formation from O3 and NO2-driven conditions in summer to NO2-driven conditions in winter. Elevated ALW or ambient RH generally favor the WSOC formation, while the WSOC dependence of ALW varied among different ALW ranges. As the increasing of ALW or ambient RH, a transition of WSOC formation from “RH/ALW-limited regime” under low-ALW conditions, to “RH/ALW and precursor-driven regime” under medium-ALW/RH, and to “precursor-limited (RH/ALW-excess) regime” were observed for the inland atmospheric conditions. Under the high-RH and ALW conditions in coastal areas, ALW or ambient RH was generally not a limiting factor for WSOC formation.

294. 题目: An autopsy study of hollow fiber and multibore ultrafiltration membranes from a pilot-scale ultra high-recovery filtration system for surface water treatment
文章编号: N23010505
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Yong-Gu Lee, Jaegwan Shin, Seung Joon Kim, Kyung Hwa Cho, Paul Westerhoff, Hojung Rho, Kangmin Chon
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要:

The organic fouling characteristics of hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) and multibore ultrafiltration (MBUF) membranes from long-term ultrafiltration (UF) membrane systems were systemically investigated in this study. The objective was to obtain insights into the fouling behavior of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a pilot-scale ultra-high-recovery membrane filtration system (p-UHMS) used for surface water treatment. The pilot system consisted of a series of two different UF membranes (1st stage: polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HFUF and 2nd stage: polyethersulfone (PES) MBUF). It was designed to feed the HFUF concentrate to the MBUF membranes to achieve ≥99.5 % total water recovery for surface water treatment, as these advances might enhance the production efficiencies of drinking water. The experimental results confirmed that hydrophobic DOM controlled the formation of HFUF membrane organic fouling, whereas hydrophilic DOM, including polysaccharide-like and protein-like matter, promoted MBUF membrane fouling. These opposing trends were attributed to the hydrophilic characteristics of the MBUF membrane surfaces (contact angle: PVDF = 90–130° and PES ≤ 80°), which reduced the hydrophobic interactions between the UF membrane surfaces and foulants. The performance declines of the MBUF membrane due to fouling layer formation was considerably severer than those of the HFUF membrane, decreasing total permeate water in the p-UHMS. Moreover, the quantity of the desorbed MBUF membrane foulants via 0.1 N NaOH was roughly 7.2 times larger than that of the desorbed HFUF membrane foulants through 0.1 N NaOH, indicating that alkaline-based cleaning agent could much more efficiently recover the performance of the fouled MBUF membranes. Hence, adequate cleaning strategies using alkaline-based agent for the MBUF membrane appeared to be essential for preventing the performance deterioration of the p-UHMS.

295. 题目: Formation of microorganism-derived dissolved organic nitrogen in intermittent aeration constructed wetland and its stimulating effect on phytoplankton production: Implications for nitrogen mitigation
文章编号: N23010504
期刊: Water Research
作者: Xiaoning Wang, Jie Wang, Jingyi Chen, Jieyu Chen, Yabing Lv, Ruiya Chen, Juchen Xu, Dapeng Li, Xugang He, Jie Hou
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要:

To control eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems, enhancing nitrogen removal in the constructed wetland (CW) by upgrading conventional CW to aeration CW is commonplace. However, regulatory efforts have only focused on reducing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) discharge and disregarding dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Here, we used experimental mesocosms to investigate the effect of aeration mode on the characteristics of effluent DON in CW. The results showed that intermittent aeration is prone to introduce large amounts of DON and bioavailable DON (ABDON) in the effluents, although it greatly decreases effluent total nitrogen (TN). Analysis of DON fluorescent components and molecular characteristics indicated that suddenly shifting the environment from anoxic condition to aerobic condition in the intermittent aeration CW (IACW) would stimulate microorganisms to release tryptophan and simple aromatic proteins-like substances, which does not occur in the limited continuous aeration CW (CACW). Consequently, the abundance of DON resembling lipids, proteins/amino sugars, and carbohydrates-like molecules in IACW were about 2.1 times higher than that in CACW. Bioassay results showed that Selenastrum capricornutum and Microcystis aeruginosa incubated with effluent from IACW both generate larger phytoplankton biomass than that with CACW effluent, even though IACW effluent contains less TN than its counterpart. Moreover, Microcystis aeruginosa can simultaneously utilize DON and DIN, while Selenastrum capricornutum seem to utilize the DON only when DIN was not available. This result implies that increasing DON discharge may also influence phytoplankton composition and stimulate harmful phytoplankton species. Overall, this study indicates that upgrading CW solely depending on DIN removal level cannot ensure a mitigation of nitrogen-related eutrophication, and more efforts should be paid to curb DON discharge.

296. 题目: Nitrogen retention potentials of magnesium oxide- and sepiolite-modified biochars and their impacts on bacterial distribution under nitrogen fertilization
文章编号: N23010503
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Muhammed Mustapha Ibrahim, Dongming Liu, Fengying Wu, Yulin Chen, Zhengxuan He, Weiting Zhang, Shihe Xing, Yanling Mao
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要:

Mitigating the loss and negative impacts of reactive N from fertilized soils remains a global environmental challenge. To optimize N retention by biochar, bamboo and pig manure biochars were modified as MgO- and sepiolite-biochar composites and characterized. Novel soil application of the modified biochars and their raw forms were comparatively evaluated for N-retention in a fertilized soil leached for 90 days in a column experiment. Changes in N-cycling-related enzyme and bacterial structure were also reported after 90 days. Results revealed low leaching losses of NH4+, which reduced over time across all the treatments. However, while sole fertilizer (F) increased the initial and cumulative NO3 leached from the soil, the MgO-bamboo biochar (MgOBF) and sepiolite-bamboo biochar (SBF) treatments reduced leachate NO3 by 22.1 % and 10.5 % compared to raw bamboo biochar (BBF) treatment. However, 15.5 % more NO3 was leached from the MgO-pig manure biochar-treated soil (MgOPF) compared to its raw biochar treatment (PMBF) after 90 days. Dissolved organic N leached was reduced by 9.2 % and 0.5 % in MgOBF and SBF, as well as 15.4 % and 40.5 % in MgOPF and SPF compared to their respective raw forms. The total N of the biochars, adjustment of surface charges, cation exchange capacity, surface area, pore filling effects, and the formation of potential MgsingleN precipitates on the modified-biochar surfaces regulated N leaching/retention. In addition, the modified biochar treatments reduced the hydrolysis of urea and stimulated some nitrate-reduction-related bacteria crucial for NO3 retention. Hence, unlike the raw biochar and MgOPF treatments, MgOBF, SBF, and SPF hold promise in mitigating inorganic-N losses from fertilized soils while improving the soil's chemical properties.

297. 题目: Comparative life-cycle energy and environmental analysis of sewage sludge and biomass co-pyrolysis for biofuel and biochar production
文章编号: N23010502
期刊: Chemical Engineering Journal
作者: Carol Huang, Badr A Mohamed, Loretta Y Li
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要:

To address the gaps in current research on sewage sludge (SS) pyrolysis, this study examined the feasibility of the environmental and energy demands of co-pyrolysis as an SS treatment process. The analyses included a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment, carbon emission and credit assessment, energy recovery calculations, and sensitivity analysis. Sawdust (SD) and wheat straw (WS) were chosen as co-feeds for the co-pyrolysis scenarios; four mixing ratios (20, 40, 60, and 80 wt%) were examined for each co-feed. The functional unit was 1000 kg of bio-oil. Mixing the co-feed biomass with SS reduced the overall environmental burden by 58–83%; WS/SS co-pyrolysis performed better than SD/SS in this respect. All examined scenarios reduced the global warming potential (GWP) and achieved a net positive energy balance; SD/SS co-pyrolysis was more desirable owing to high energy recovery. The additional gas turbine operation generated a process energy demand of 23–224%. GWP and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential are indicators that are significantly affected by co-feed material transportation. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the transportation of feedstock and pyrolysis products should be prioritised to limit the environmental burden of the process. Co-pyrolysis is an eco-friendly SS treatment method, and its economic viability should be further investigated.

298. 题目: Changes in soil CO2 and N2O emissions in response to urea and biochar-based urea in a subtropical Moso bamboo forest
文章编号: N23010501
期刊: Soil and Tillage Research
作者: Shaobo Zhang, Jiashu Zhou, Ji Chen, Tida Ge, Yanjiang Cai, Bing Yu, Hailong Wang, Jason C White, Yongfu Li
更新时间: 2023-01-05
摘要:

The application of biochar-based fertilizers is an effective strategy for enhancing plant growth and soil organic carbon stocks; however, the impacts of such practices on soil CO2 and N2O emissions and associated mechanisms in subtropical forests are poorly understood. A two-year field trial was conducted to determine effects of urea and biochar-based urea on variations in soil CO2 and N2O emissions, as well as various soil environmental factors in a subtropical Moso bamboo forest. Five treatments were established: a control (without fertilization), urea with low and high application rates (100 and 300 kg N ha−1, LU and HU), and biochar-based urea with low and high application rates (100 and 300 kg N ha−1, LBU and HBU). The soil CO2 emissions were increased by LU, HU, and HBU treatments during the first year compared to controls (P < 0.05). However, this stimulatory response was observed only under the HU treatment during the second year. The soil N2O emissions increased under the LU and HU treatments during the first year but were decreased under HBU (P < 0.05); during the second year, only HU had a stimulatory effect. Importantly, the soil CO2 emissions and their Q10 values under the biochar-based urea treatment were lower than those with urea (P < 0.05). The application of urea increased contents of NH4+-N, NO3-N, water soluble organic C/N (WSOC/WSON), as well as activities of invertase, β-glucosidase, urease, and protease (P < 0.05). In comparison, application of biochar-based urea enhanced contents of WSOC, NH4+-N, and NO3-N but decreased WSON and activities of β-glucosidase, urease, and protease (P < 0.05). Regardless of treatment, the CO2 emissions were correlated with WSOC concentration and invertase/β-glucosidase activities; the N2O emissions were associated with (P < 0.05) NH4+-N, NO3-N, WSON and urease/protease activities. Structural equation models revealed application of urea/biochar-based urea influenced the soil CO2/N2O emissions primarily through altering the pool size of labile C/N fractions and the activities of enzymes regarding C/N cycling. In conclusion, compared with urea, application of biochar-based urea provided more advantages for mitigating soil CO2/N2O emissions in subtropical forest ecosystems.

299. 题目: Isotopic characteristics and sources of suspended particulate organic matter in a reservoir of Chinese desert grassland areas: the influence of dry and wet seasons and the role of atmospheric deposition
文章编号: N23010413
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Xiaojing Zhang, Shengwei Zhang, Junping Lu, Ruishen Li, Xi Lin, Wenlong Gao
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要: It is essential to study the sources of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) for a comprehensive understanding of the carbon and nitrogen cycles in reservoir located in desert grassland areas. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway for human and natural nutrients to enter water ecosystems. Previous studies have focused on hotspot areas, but neglected the impact of atmospheric deposition on reservoirs in desert grassland regions with little rainfall, long freezing periods, and a dusty climate. In this study, we measured the contents of organic carbon, total nitrogen, the isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N), and the ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N ratios) for SPOM in the reservoir and its watershed across both dry and wet seasons using carbon and nitrogen isotope techniques. We also analyzed the sources of SPOM in the reservoir using the end-member mixing model. The results showed that the variation range in SPOM for δ13C was − 28.3 to − 21.8‰; for δ15N, it was 2.3 to 8.7‰; and the C/N ratios were 8.12 to 19.12. The variation range of δ13C for atmospheric particulate matter was − 20.0 to − 25.0‰; for δ15N, it was 2.3 to 11.9‰; and the C/N ratios ranged from 7.22 to 17.81. The main sources of carbon in the SPOM were atmospheric deposition and terrestrial C3 plants. The origins were significantly different between the wet and dry periods. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil erosion were the primary sources of particulate nitrogen in the reservoir.

300. 题目: Remove humic acid from water quickly using only oxygen and sulfite at nickel cobalt spinel catalyst
文章编号: N23010412
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Qi Jing, Jiabai Cai, Kai Feng, Huan Li
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

The typical refractory organic pollutant, humic acid (HA), causes many water and wastewater treatment obstacles. In this study, a novel method was proposed to degrade HA based on the low-temperature (<100 °C) catalytic air oxidation technology (LTCAO) using the NiCo-spinel (NCO) as a catalyst and the sulfite as a promoter. Sulfite enhanced the quantity of mineralized HA to 2.4 times that without sulfite assistance, and the removal rate of total organic carbon reached 93.1% within 60 min at 90 °C. HA gradually degrades into small organic molecules and is mineralized through interfacial reactions and radical paths. Sulfite plays a triple role in these reactions. Sulfite sulfonated HA destroyed its pseudomicellar structure, making HA easily oxidized. Sulfite also coordinated with NCO and promoted the internal electronic hopping conduction of NCO because of the fast electron transfer between SO32− and the h+sites, thus accelerating the electron transfer between HA and O2 mediated by NCO. In addition, the coordinated SO32− was activated to form the radical ∙SO3, which strengthened the oxidation of HA. This study supports a simple and green method for efficiently cleaning water and wastewater rich in HA.

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