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301. 题目: Effects of chemical additives and mature compost on reducing nitrogen loss during food waste composting
文章编号: N23010411
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Shangao Xiong, Yongdi Liu, Hao Zhang, Shaoqi Xu, Songrong Li, Xinqi Fan, Rui Chen, Guochun Ding, Ji Li, Yuquan Wei
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

This study is aimed at adding different types of mature compost and sulfur powder, as additives into food waste composting to investigate the effect on nitrogen loss and compost maturity. The composting experiment used the in-vessel composting method and was conducted continuously for 15 days. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the bacterial community during composting. Results showed that the secondary fermentation mature compost mixed with sulfur powder group had the most reduction of ammonia emission (56%) and the primary fermentation mature compost amendments were the most effective for nitrous oxide emission reduction (37%). The temperature, pH, and nitrogen forms of transformation of the pile significantly affect the nitrogen loss during composting. Firmicutes helped to promote the rapid warming of the pile, and Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria played an important role in decomposition of organic matter. Thermobifida and Ureibacillus had a main contribution to the rapid degradation of organic matter in the process of composting. The relative abundance of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was higher, and the relative abundance of predominantly ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria was lower than the control group, with the addition of different additives.

302. 题目: Effects of biochar addition and deficit irrigation with brackish water on yield-scaled N2O emissions under drip irrigation with mulching
文章编号: N23010410
期刊: Agricultural Water Management
作者: Yang Chen, Lu Wang, Ling Tong, Xinmei Hao, Xuanyi Wu, Risheng Ding, Shaozhong Kang, Sien Li
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

Biochar has been proven to have great potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and improving crop growth. However, the effects of biochar addition on yield-scaled N2O emissions in a mulched and drip-irrigated maize field using different irrigation water qualities and quantities remain unclear. A two-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of biochar addition, irrigation level and water salinity on soil N2O emissions, maize yield and grain N uptake in Northwest China. Eight treatments in total included the combination of two biochar addition rates of 0 t/ha (B0) and 60 t/ha (B1), two irrigation levels of full (W1) and deficit irrigation (W2, W2 = 1/2 W1) and two water salinity levels of freshwater (S0, 0.71 g/L) and brackish water (S1, 4 g/L). The soil properties, N2O emission fluxes, maize yield and grain N uptake, along with the abundances of N-cycle functional marker genes were measured during the two growing seasons. Soil water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NH4+-N and NO3--N contents accounted for the majority of the variation in the dynamic changes of N2O fluxes. Deficit irrigation had lower N2O emissions compared with full irrigation, which was more pronounced in the second year. Relative to freshwater irrigation, brackish water irrigation increased N2O emissions under W1, but freshwater and brackish water irrigation had similar N2O emissions under W2 in both years. Biochar addition effectively mitigated N2O emissions by 29.4–31.0% and 17.9–29.2% under different irrigation treatments in 2020 and 2021, respectively. The continuous drought induced by deficit irrigation weakened the effectiveness of biochar in reducing N2O emissions. The differences in N-cycle functional marker genes could not reflect the variation in cumulative N2O emissions among treatments. Under all irrigation treatments excluding W2S1, biochar addition improved the total maize yield and grain N uptake over the two-year period by 4.06–10.74% and 5.57–8.63%, respectively. Brackish water and deficit irrigation increased grain and grain N yield-scaled N2O emissions, whereas biochar addition reduced both of them. Overall, these findings suggest that biochar addition can effectively reduce N2O emissions and increase yield and grain N uptake under brackish water and deficit drip irrigation with mulching in a maize field system, and thus adding biochar can help with achieving the sustainability of agricultural production in areas with limited freshwater resources.

303. 题目: High black carbon episodes over a polluted metropolis near the land-sea boundary and their impact on associated atmospheric dynamics
文章编号: N23010409
期刊: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
作者: Gargi Rakshit, Pallabi Saha, Animesh Maitra
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

The present investigation outlines the crucial factors that influence the black carbon (BC) concentrations over a polluted metropolis, Kolkata (22.57° N, 88.37° E), India. Located in the eastern part of the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) outflow region and close to the land–ocean boundary, Kolkata is subject to contrasting seasonal maritime airflow from the Bay of Bengal and continental air mass from the IGP and Tibetan plateau region, which modulates the local concentration of BC. The origin of aerosol transport and associated atmospheric dynamics with high and low BC activities over Kolkata are examined during 2012–2015 using data from multi-technique sources which include measurements of ground-based instruments of aethalometer and multi-frequency microwave radiometer, reanalysis data from ERA-5 and MEERA-2, and model outputs from HYPSLIT back trajectory model simulations. The study highlights the control of IGP wind inflow on the occurrence of anomalous enhancements in BC concentration during weekends and holidays when local emissions are low. High BC events are associated with enhanced atmospheric heating below the boundary layer (2000 m) and significant negative surface radiative forcing. The response of the boundary layer to high and low BC episodes, shown in the diurnal variation in comparison with the seasonal mean, is investigated. Dominant suppression of morning and night-time boundary layer height is observed on high BC days. During the daytime in pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons, boundary layer height peaks are found to be strongly controlled by high BC episode occurrences as obtained from the hourly data of ERA-5.

304. 题目: Exploration on the role of different iron species in the remediation of As and Cd co-contamination by sewage sludge biochar
文章编号: N23010408
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Qi Wang, Jia Wen, Lisha Yang, Hongsheng Cui, Tianjing Zeng, Jin Huang
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

Numerous studies have explored the adsorption of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) by iron (Fe)-modified biochar, but few studies have examined in-depth the similarities and differences in the adsorption behavior of different iron types on Cd and As. In this study, sewage sludge biochar (BC) was co-pyrolyzed with self-made Fe minerals (magnetite, hematite, ferrihydrite, goethite, and schwertmannite) to treat Cd and As co-contaminated water. The adsorption of Cd and As on the Fe-modified biochar was further analyzed by adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption thermodynamics combined with a series of characterization experiments. Both SEM-EDX and XRD results confirmed the successful loading of iron minerals onto BC. Both adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms experiments showed that the adsorption of Cd and As by BC and the other five Fe-modified biochar was mainly controlled by chemical interactions. The results also indicated that goethite biochar (GtBC) was the most effective for the adsorption of Cd among the five Fe-modified biochar. Ferrihydrite biochar (FhBC) formed more diverse complexes, coupled with the relatively stronger electrons accepting ability, thus making it more effective for As adsorption than the others. Additionally, GtBC and hematite biochar (HmBC) were found effective for the adsorption of both Cd and As, whereas MBC was not found effective for either metal. Furthermore, combined with XPS results, the adsorption of Cd by the materials was mainly governed by Cd2+-π interactions, complexation precipitation, and co-precipitation, while oxidation reactions also existed for As.

305. 题目: Use of phospholipid fatty acid analysis as phenotypic biomarkers for soil health and the influence of management practices
文章编号: N23010407
期刊: Applied Soil Ecology
作者: Charlotte E Norris, Mathew J B Swallow, Daniel Liptzin, Michael Cope, G Mac Bean, Shannon B Cappellazzi, Kelsey L H Greub, Elizabeth L Rieke, Paul W Tracy, Cristine L S Morgan, C Wayne Honeycutt
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

Phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) provides an easy to use and robust measure of changing soil microbial condition. The method provides data on both the quantity and composition of the soil microbial community- critical knowledge because the community is an important component of soil health. However, it is challenging for new researchers to know how to process data, how to interpret the results, and to know its effectiveness in evaluating soil health management. We set out to address these challenges using the North American Project to Evaluate Soil Health Measurements PLFA dataset. The dataset is comprised of results of over 1800 agricultural soil samples from a range of environmental regions and management practices. Using this dataset, we identified that quantifying soil PLFA biomass through summing the biomarkers from C14:0 to C20:0 yielded greater biomass results than summing specific biomarkers and was almost identical to summing C9:0 to C20:0. We utilized microbial biomass with common and novel biomarker ratios to evaluate the response of the soil microbial community to changes in the environment or changes in management practice. These ratios were based on commonly used genotypic categorization (e.g., Gram-positive to Gram-negative) or based on chemical structure with chemical ratios of either universal characteristics (e.g., unsaturated to saturated) or targeted phenotypic biomarkers known to shift with changing growth conditions (e.g., a15:0 and a17:0 to i15:0 and i17:0). One novel phenotypic ratio, the adaptation response ratio (ARR), significantly correlated with mean annual temperature and soil pH across grassland reference plots, a wheat climate transect, an intensive vegetable agricultural dataset, and a wheat-corn dataset from Mexico. Neither the common genotypic ratio nor ratios based on chemical structure demonstrated clear and consistent trends with environmental conditions. Targeted phenotypic biomarker ratios and microbial biomass also detected significant differences with soil health management practices of decreased tillage, cover crops, organic nutrients, residue retention, and rotation diversity. Therefore, with standardized microbial biomass and biomarker calculations that significantly vary with environmental conditions and management practices, these results support a wider understanding and adoption of the PLFA method in soil health management.

306. 题目: Molecular-level exploration of properties of dissolved organic matter in natural and engineered water systems: A critical review of FTICR-MS application
文章编号: N23010406
期刊: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology
作者: Mingqi Ruan, Fengchang Wu, Fuhong Sun, Fanhao Song, Tingting Li, Chen He, Juan Jiang
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains complex molecular compounds that dominate its heterogeneous dynamics and behaviors in aquatic environments. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) with ultra-high resolution has proven to be effective in characterizing aquatic DOM. However, a systematic summary of molecular-level compositions and behaviors of DOM in natural and engineered water systems remains insufficient. This study provides a critical review of DOM characterization by FTICR-MS, with emphasis on composition diversity, chemical properties, transformation, and dynamics in the natural and engineered water systems. First, FTICR-MS strategies for DOM characterization are introduced on data interpretation and collaborative analysis of complementary datasets (e.g. spectroscopic data). Second, DOM characteristics, including spatiotemporal distribution, photochemical activity, microbial modification, and interface adsorption in natural water environments were comprehensively summarized based on current FTICR-MS findings. Third, DOM molecular changes caused by different engineered treatment methods were reviewed to highlight the molecular variation, reaction, and transformation by focusing on the FTICR-MS results. Finally, we summarized current limitations, biases, and future directions of FTICR-MS, and future extended studies of natural/engineered-derived DOM behavior. This FTICR-MS application review provides favorable strategies for understanding the molecular chemistry and behaviors of aquatic DOM.

307. 题目: Spatial–seasonal characteristics and influencing factors of dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Poyang Lake
文章编号: N23010405
期刊: Environmental Earth Sciences
作者: Jian Xu, Zhengjun Jian, Yeqiao Wang, Chaoyang Fang, Qiwu Hu
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

As the largest organic carbon pool in water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a key role in the carbon cycle. In inland rivers and lakes, DOC is closely related to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) with optical attenuation. In this study, the spatial distribution and seasonal variations of DOC and CDOM in Poyang Lake in 2014–2016 were investigated. The results demonstrated that the DOC concentration in Poyang Lake had a range of 1.34–5.56 mg/L with an average of 2.12 ± 0.54 mg/L. The absorption coefficient of CDOM at 355 nm had a range of 1.24–5.70 m−1 with an average of 2.71 ± 0.83 m−1. In terms of the spatial distribution, the concentrations of DOC and CDOM in the south of Poyang Lake were higher than those in the north of the lake. In terms of seasonal variations, the concentrations of DOC and CDOM were higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. The absorption coefficients of CDOM and DOC concentrations in Poyang Lake exhibited a significant linear correlation. The correlation between DOC and CDOM in some sections of Poyang Lake varied spatially and seasonally. The highest correlation was observed in wetland waters of the southern Poyang Lake in spring, while there was no significant correlation in northern section of the lake in most of the periods. The results revealed that water level, precipitation and the vegetation cover pattern had determining effects on the spatial heterogeneity of DOC and CDOM. The spectral characteristic parameters demonstrated that the main source of the CDOM in Poyang Lake was from terrestrial input.

308. 题目: Highly Efficient Removal of Cadmium by Sulfur-Modified Biochar: Process and Mechanism
文章编号: N23010404
期刊: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
作者: Kai Zhang, Yang Chen, Zhanqiang Fang
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

The problems of biochar such as low adsorption capacity and slow adsorption rate limit its application in removing cadmium from water. However, the modification for enhancing the efficiency and expanding the application of biochar is a good way. In this paper, sulfur-modified biochar (SBC) derived from bagasse was prepared by impregnation pyrolysis at 500 °C. Sulfur was successfully loaded on the surface of biochar by SEM–EDS analysis and the specific surface area of SBC could be significantly increased by BET analysis. Batch experiments showed that the cadmium removal efficiency by SBC could reach more than 90% within 10 min, and the maximum adsorption capacity of cadmium was 268.2 mg g−1, which was 22.35 times as high as that of unmodified biochar. Ion exchange with Na+, surface precipitation (CdCO3 and CdS), complexation with C-SH, S–O, and COOH, and electrostatic interaction were the main mechanisms by XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis.

309. 题目: Biogeochemical controls on climatically active gases and atmospheric sulfate aerosols in the western Pacific
文章编号: N23010403
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Feng Xu, Hong-Hai Zhang, Shi-Bo Yan, Ming-Xin Sun, Jin-Wei Wu, Gui-Peng Yang
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

The Pacific Ocean plays an important role in regulating the budget of climatically active gases and the burden of sulfate aerosols. Here, a field investigation was conducted to clarify the key processes and factors controlling climatically active gases, including dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), in both surface seawater and the lower atmosphere of the western Pacific. In addition, the relative contributions of different sources to atmospheric sulfate aerosols were quantitatively estimated, and their causes were explored. The maximum concentrations of DMS, OCS and CS2 and the minimum partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were observed in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension. Kuroshio-induced mesoscale eddies brought abundant nutrients and organic matter from the subsurface layer of Oyashio into the euphotic layer, thus enhancing primary productivity and accelerating the photoreaction of organic matter. These processes led to higher concentrations of DMS, OCS and CS2 and lower pCO2. However, the oligotrophic subsurface layer in the subtropical gyre and the strong barrier layer in the equatorial waters suppressed the upward fluxes of nutrients and organic matter, resulting in lower surface concentrations of DMS, OCS, and CS2 in these areas. Being far from the continents, atmospheric concentrations of DMS, OCS and CS2 and pCO2 in the western Pacific generally were observed to depend on the local sea-to-air exchange and may be regulated by atmospheric oxidation and mixing of air masses. In general, oceanic DMS emissions played an important role in the formation of sulfate aerosols in the western Pacific (accounting for ∼19.5% of total sulfate aerosols), especially in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension (∼32.3%). These processes in seawater may also determine the variations and emissions of other climatically active gases from biogenic and photochemical sources.

310. 题目: Ecological water replenishment to the Yongding River, China: effects of different water sources on inorganic ions and organic matter characteristics
文章编号: N23010402
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Ling Bai, Yijuan Bai, Ying Hou, Shurong Zhang, Shengrui Wang, Aizhong Ding
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要:

Ecological water replenishment is considered to be an important project to adjust river ecosystems with water shortages and degradation, and its impact on the water quality of the target river section deserves attention. By investigating the characteristics of inorganic ions and organic components of the Beijing section of the Yongding River (YDR) from upstream to downstream, the sources of inorganic ions and dissolved organic matter (DOM) during an ecological water replenishment event were analysed and discussed. This study illustrated the hydrochemical response to different supplemental water sources in three sections of the YDR (mountain gorge section (MGS), urban plain section (UPS), and suburb plain section (SPS)). The results showed that the total dissolved solids (TDS) and ion concentrations were significantly different (p < 0.001) in the three river sections due to different supplemental water sources. The highest concentration of TDS was found in the UPS (870.92 mg/L) replenished by reclaimed water, while the lowest concentration of TDS was found in the SPS (306.95 mg/L) replenished by the water of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWD). Despite the differences in the water sources of replenishment, the optical parameters of DOM and fluorescent components showed similar protein-like dominated endogenous source characteristics in the three river sections of the YDR, which was due to the influence of reservoir water (MGS and SPS) and reclaimed water (UPS). Our study emphasizes the importance of understanding the impact of different water sources on the water replenishment process, which provides a scientific reference for the management of ecological water replenishment.

311. 题目: Inducing Inorganic Carbon Accrual in Subsoil through Biochar Application on Calcareous Topsoil
文章编号: N23010401
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Yang Wang, Stephen Joseph, Xiang Wang, Zhe H Weng, David R G Mitchell, Mitchell Nancarrow, Sarasadat Taherymoosavi, Paul Munroe, Guitong Li, Qimei Lin, Qing Chen, Markus Flury, Annette Cowie, Olivier Husson, Lukas Van Zwieten, Yakov Kuzyakov, Johannes Lehmann, Baoguo Li, Jianying Shang
更新时间: 2023-01-04
摘要: Biochar amendments add persistent organic carbon to soil and can stabilize rhizodeposits and existing soil organic carbon (SOC), but effects of biochar on subsoil carbon stocks have been overlooked. We quantified changes in soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and SOC to 2 m depth 10 years after biochar application to calcareous soil. The total soil carbon (i.e., existing SOC, SIC, and biochar-C) increased by 71, 182, and 210% for B30, B60, and B90, respectively. Biochar application at 30, 60, and 90 t ha–1 rates significantly increased SIC by 10, 38, and 68 t ha–1, respectively, with accumulation mainly occurring in the subsoil (below 1 m). This huge increase of SIC (mainly CaCO3) is ∼100 times larger than the inorganic carbon present in the added biochar (0.3, 0.6, or 0.9 t ha–1). The benzene polycarboxylic acid method showed that the biochar-amended soil contained more black carbon particles (6.8 times higher than control soil) in the depth of 1.4–1.6 m, which provided the direct quantitative evidence for biochar migration into subsoil after a decade. Spectral and energy spectrum analysis also showed an obvious biochar structure in the biochar-amended subsoil, accompanied by a Ca/Mg carbonate cluster, which provided further evidence for downward migration of biochar after a decade. To explain SIC accumulation in subsoil with biochar amendment, the interacting mechanisms are proposed: (1) biochar amendment significantly increases subsoil pH (0.3–0.5 units) 10 years after biochar application, thus forming a favorable pH environment in the subsoil to precipitate HCO3; and (2) the transported biochar in subsoil can act as nuclei to precipitate SIC. Biochar amendment enhanced SIC by up to 80%; thus, the effects on carbon stocks in subsoil must be understood to inform strategies for carbon dioxide removal through biochar application. Our study provided critical knowledge on the impact of biochar application to topsoil on carbon stocks in subsoil in the long term.

312. 题目: The role of dissolved pyrogenic carbon from biochar in the sorption of As(V) in biogenic iron (oxyhydr)oxides
文章编号: N23010309
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Matheus B Soares, Owen W Duckworth, Luís R F Alleoni
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

Water contamination by arsenic (As) affects millions of people around the world, making techniques to immobilize or remove this contaminant a pressing societal need. Biochar and iron (oxyhydr)oxides [in particular, biogenic iron (oxyhydr)oxides (BIOS)] offer the possibility of stabilizing As in remediation systems. However, little is known about the potential antagonism in As sorption generated by the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from biochar, or whether DOC affects how As(V) interacts with BIOS. For this reason, our objectives were to evaluate the i) As(V) sorption potential in BIOS when there is presence of DOC from pyrolyzed biochars at different temperatures; and ii) identify whether the presence of DOC alters the surface complexes formed by As(V) sorbed in the BIOS. We conducted As(V) sorption experiments with BIOS at circumneutral pH conditions and in the presence of DOC from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw biochar at pyrolyzed 350 (BC350) and 750 °C (BC750). The As(V) content was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the BIOS structure and As(V) sorption mechanisms were investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition, the organic moieties comprising the DOC from biochars were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The addition of DOC did not change the biomineral structure or As(V) oxidation state. The presence of DOC, however, reduced by 25 % the sorption of As(V), with BC350 being responsible for the greatest reduction in As(V) sorption capacity. Structural modeling revealed As(V) predominantly formed binuclear bidentate surface complexes on BIOS. The presence of DOC did not change the binding mechanism of As(V) in BIOS, suggesting that the reduction of As(V) sorption to BIOS was due to site blocking. Our results bring insights into the fate of As(V) in surface waters and provide a basis for understanding the competitive sorption of As(V) in environments with biochar application.

313. 题目: Crawfish shell- and Chinese banyan branch-derived biochars reduced phytoavailability of As and Pb and altered community composition of bacteria in a contaminated arable soil
文章编号: N23010308
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Shaoru Gu, Xing Yang, Hanbo Chen, Paramsothy Jeyakumar, Junhui Chen, Hailong Wang
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

Globally, soil contamination with arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) has become a severe environmental issue. Herein, a pot experiment was conducted using pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) to investigate the effects of biochars derived from Crawfish shell (Procambarus clarkia) (CSB) and branches of Chinese banyan (Ficus microcarpa) (CBB) on the phytoavailability of As and Pb, and bacterial community composition in soils. Our results showed that the application of CSB and CBB decreased the concentrations of DTPA-extractable Pb in soils ranging from 26.8 to 28.8 %, whereas CSB increased the concentration of NH4H2PO4-extractable As in soils, compared to the control. Application of both biochars reduced the uptake of As and Pb in the edible part of pak choi. In addition, application of CBB significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, fibro disaccharide hydrolase, and acid phosphomonoesterase by 55.0 %, 54.4 %, 195.1 %, and 76.7 %, respectively, compared to the control. High-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the predominant bacteria at the phyla level in both biochar-treated soils were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteriota. Redundancy and correlation analyses showed that the changes in bacterial community composition could be related to soil organic carbon content, As availability, and nutrient availability in soils. Overall, the tree brunch biochar was more suitable than the crawfish shell biochar as a potential amendment for the remediation of soils co-contaminated with As and Pb.

314. 题目: How do tree species with different successional stages affect soil organic nitrogen transformations?
文章编号: N23010307
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Lei Gao, Andrew R Smith, Davey L Jones, Yafen Guo, Baodong Liu, Zhongling Guo, Chunnan Fan, Jinping Zheng, Xiaoyang Cui, Paul W Hill
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

Organic nitrogen (N) is the most important N component of soil organic matter. However, knowledge on how tree species with different successional stages affect organic N transformations in soils remains limited. To address this issue, we sampled mineral soils (0–10 cm) under monocultures composed of tree species from different successional stages, including early (black alder and silver birch), early to mid (sycamore and European ash), and late (sweet chestnut, pedunculate oak and European beech), and measured the potential protease activity, the microbial uptake and respiration of 14C-labeled organic N (l-alanine and l-trialanine), and the mineralization of l-alanine N. The activities of alanine aminopeptidase and leucine aminopeptidase (153.8–341.9 and 91.6–147.9 nmol/g/h, respectively), the half-life of the uptake of alanine and trialanine (26.7–39.6 and 60.8–78.6 min, respectively), the half-life of the mineralization of alanine and trialanine (1.98–2.45 and 2.98–4.13 h, respectively) by soil microbes were altered by tree species from different successional stages, systematically changing the transformation chain of soil organic N. The turnover rates of soil organic N under trees of early to late successional stage appeared to decrease and the half-life appeared to increase significantly. The C:N ratio of soil microbial biomass was positively related to the half-life of 14C-labeled alanine and trialanine mineralization, and was negatively related to the carbon (C) use efficiency of alanine, suggesting that microbial demand for C could partially drive the assimilation of soil organic N. These results suggest that the successional stage of tree species play an important role in regulating the turnover rates of soil organic N. An improved understanding of how tree species from different successional stages influence microbial function and soil organic N cycling is beneficial to future afforestation and forest management, alleviating the impacts of global change on the ecosystem.

315. 题目: Hydrological transport pathways of dissolved organic nitrogen and their seasonal changes in an agricultural watershed
文章编号: N23010306
期刊: Journal of Hydrology
作者: Qiyu Xu, Limei Zhai, Xinru Liu, Xinzhong Du, Hongbin Liu
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

The role of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in the eutrophication of surface water and the potential risk to drinking water safety as a precursor of disinfection by-products is gradually emphasized. Therefore, accurate estimates of watershed DON load fluxes and identifying thresholds of streamflow that cause abrupt changes in riverine DON concentration are important. Here, we adopted the load estimator model (LOADEST) and nonparametric change-point analysis (nCPA) to comprehensively investigate the variation of DON load from 2011 to 2016 in different seasons in the Fengyu River watershed, Southwest China. Results indicated that the wet season is the hot moment of DON loss, and the average cumulative load reaches 14.1 t, accounting for 72.5 % of the annual load. Meanwhile, baseflow is the main pathway of DON export, accounting for about 74.4 % of the stream export load. Furthermore, the abrupt threshold of streamflow on DON concentration is 2.03 m3/s to 2.15 m3/s. When the stream flow is below 2.15 m3/s, the concentration of river DON increases rapidly and poses a great threat to human drinking water safety. This study will provide a scientific basis for regulating DON at the watershed scale and water quality protection in drinking water source areas.

316. 题目: Impacts of dissolved organic matter on the aggregation and photo-dissolution of cadmium pigment nanoparticles in aquatic systems
文章编号: N23010305
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Shuxue Yang, Peiyun Wei, Jiaxue Wang, Yi Tan, Xiaolei Qu
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

Cadmium pigments are a group of inorganic pigments used in consumer products. The aggregation behavior and photo-dissolution process of cadmium pigment nanoparticles in aquatic systems control their environmental fate, which is largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the aggregation behavior and photo-dissolution process of CdS nanoparticles in aquatic systems. Bare CdS nanoparticles are prone to aggregation in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. DOM can remarkably increase the colloidal stability of CdS nanoparticles owing to the steric hindrance and enhanced electrostatic repulsion. With 10 mg/L Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), the colloidal stability of CdS nanoparticles is significantly enhanced in NaCl solutions (i.e., the critical coagulation concentration, CCCNa, is 707.2 mM). Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) has a stronger stabilization effect than SRNOM due to its higher molecular weight and aromaticity. The Ca2+ cations can induce charge neutralization and structural compacting of DOM corona, efficiently reducing the colloidal stability of CdS nanoparticles. The CCCCa is 10.8 mM and 14.9 mM with 10 mg/L SRNOM and SRHA, respectively. Upon solar irradiation, the presence of low concentrations of SRNOM (< 3 mg/L) can enhance the photo-dissolution of CdS nanoparticles and the consequent Cd2+ leaching. This is caused by the facilitated electron transfer from CdS nanoparticles to O2 induced by SRNOM corona, leading to better electron-hole separation. However, a high concentration of SRNOM inhibited the photo-dissolution of CdS nanoparticles due to the strong inner filter effect and the scavenging of phototransients. The colloidal stability of SRNOM-coated CdS nanoparticles increases in NaCl but decreases in CaCl2 solutions after irradiation owing to the oxidation of SRNOM corona. Our results highlight the decisive role of DOM in the environmental fate of cadmium pigments.

317. 题目: Recycled biochar adsorption combined with CaCl2 washing to increase rice yields and decrease Cd levels in grains and paddy soils: A field study
文章编号: N23010304
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Yao Shi, Fengjiao Zhang, Chengqiong Du, Zezhou Zhao, Yi Zhong, Hongbo Li, Huijie Hou, Linling Wang, Xiaohui Wu, John C Crittenden, Jing Chen
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

Field-scale trials were conducted to remove cadmium (Cd) from paddy soil by using recycled hydroxyapatite modified biochar (HBC) plus low-level CaCl2 washing. Synergistic reduction efficiencies of total and available Cd in soil (45.6 % and 36.8 %) were achieved by the combined amendments compared with only HBC or CaCl2. The release of Cd from soil particulates was facilitated by CaCl2 washing and the increased soluble Cd in soil water (hardly removed by drainage) could be removed efficiently by recycled HBC adsorption. Significantly decreases in Cd translocation and accumulation in rice plants benefited from the decrease of Cd level and availability in soil and the increase of available silicon (Si). As a result, Cd contents in early/late rice grains decreased by ~85 % and met the Chinese national food standard. SOM, CEC, and soil nutrients after remediation were increased due to 10 %–15 % of HBC residual. Grain yields of the early and late rice increased by 34.1 % and 9.91 %, respectively. The collected HBC (>85 % of the total used HBC) was in-situ regenerated and could be used in the next field trials. The generated wastewater together with drainage from field treatment could be reused as irrigation water after the treatment with a small-scale reclamation ecosystem. The work provides a novelty remediation strategy for Cd-contaminated paddy soil. The noticeable remediation efficiency for Cd reduction in soil and grains, and improved productivity-relevant soil properties have important implications for paddy soil with poor fertility, severe desilicification, and Cd contamination in South China whereas the application of biochar or chemical washing alone did not.

318. 题目: Natural organic matter flocculation behavior controls lead phosphate particle aggregation by mono- and divalent cations
文章编号: N23010303
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Juntao Zhao, Riya A Mathew, David S Yang, Peter G Vekilov, Yandi Hu, Stacey M Louie
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

Phosphate addition is commonly applied to remediate lead contaminated sites via the formation of lead phosphate with low solubility. However, the effects of natural organic matter (NOM) with different properties, as well as the contributions of specific interactions (particle-particle, particle-NOM, and NOM-NOM) in enhanced stabilization or flocculation of the particles, are not currently well understood. This study investigates the influence of two aquatic NOM and two soil or coal humic acid (HA) extracts on the aggregation behavior of lead phosphate particles and explores the controlling mechanisms. All types of NOM induced disaggregation and steric stabilization of the particles in the presence of Na+ (100 mM) or low (1 mM) Ca2+ concentrations, as well as at low NOM concentrations (1 mgC/L). However, for the soil and coal HA, a threshold at NOM concentrations of 10 mgC/L and high (3 mM) Ca2+ concentrations was observed where bridging flocculation (rather than steric stabilization) occurred. In situ attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared characterization confirmed adsorption of the soil and coal humic acid extracts (10 mgC/L) onto the surface of the lead phosphate particles in 3 mM Ca2+, whereas dynamic and static light scattering demonstrated extensive HA flocculation that dominated the overall scattered light intensities. These results imply that the accelerated aggregation was induced by a combination of HA adsorption and bridging flocculation by Ca2+. Overall, this research demonstrates that the type of NOM is critical to predict the colloidal stability of lead phosphate particles. Aquatic NOM stabilized the particles under all conditions evaluated, but soil or coal HA with higher molecular weight and aromaticity showed highly variable stabilization or flocculation behavior depending on the HA and Ca2+ concentrations available to adsorb to the particles and participate in bridging. These results provide new mechanistic insights on particle stabilization or destabilization by NOM.

319. 题目: Investigation of biochar amendments on odor reduction and their characteristics during food waste co-composting
文章编号: N23010302
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Minh Ky Nguyen, Chitsan Lin, Hong Giang Hoang, Xuan Thanh Bui, Huu Hao Ngo, Van Giang Le, Huu-Tuan Tran
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

The odor emission such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during the composting process is a severe problem that adversely affects the environment and human health. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the variation of physicochemical characteristics during the co-composting of food waste, and sawdust mixed biochar; (2) assess the efficiency of biochar-composting combined amendment materials for reducing odor emissions and their maturity. The raw materials including food waste (FW), straw dust (SD), and biochar (BC) were prepared and homogeneously mixed with the weight ranging from 120.0 kg to 135.8 kg with five treatments, BC0 (Control), BC1 (5 % biochar), BC2 (5 % distilled water washed biochar), BC3 (10 % biochar), BC4 (20 % biochar). Adding biochar could change physicochemical properties such as temperature, moisture, and pH during composting. The results indicated applying biochar-composting covering to minimalized NH3 and H2S aided by higher porous structure and surface functional groups. Among trials, biochar 20 % obtained the lowest NH3 (2 ppm) and H2S (3 ppm) emission on day 16 and stopping their emission on day 17. The NH3/NH4+ adsorption on large specific surface areas and highly porous micro-structure of biochar lead to reduced nitrogen losses, while nitrification (NH4+ ➔ NO2 ➔ NO3) may also contribute to nitrogen retention. The H2S concentration decreased with increasing the biochar proportion, suggesting that biochar could reduce the H2S emission. Correlation analysis illustrated that temperature, moisture, and oxygen are the most critical factors affecting H2S and NH3 emissions (p < 0.05). The physicochemical properties and seed germination index indicated that the compost was mature without phytotoxicity. These novelty findings illustrated that the biochar amendment is an effective solution to reduce odor emission and enhances the maturity of compost mixture, which is promising to approach in real-scale conditions and could apply in agricultural fields.

320. 题目: Integrated microbiological and metabolomics analyses to understand the mechanism that allows modified biochar to affect the alkalinity of saline soil and winter wheat growth
文章编号: N23010301
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Manli Duan, Rupan Yan, Quanjiu Wang, Beibei Zhou, Hongyan Zhu, Guohuan Liu, Xu Guo, Zhenshi Zhang
更新时间: 2023-01-03
摘要:

In order to understand the mechanism that allows modified biochar (BC) to enhance the salt tolerance and growth of crops in saline-alkali soil, we tested the effects of ordinary BC, nanoparticle-size BC, acidified BC (HBC), and acidified nanoparticle-size BC on winter wheat growth and the soil properties by combining microbiological and metabolomics analyses. The results showed that compared with the control with no BC, the plant height increased by 17.33 % under HBC and the proportion of large soil aggregates increased by 1.25–2.83 times. HBC increased the relative abundances of some dominant genera of bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus) and fungi (e.g., Mycothermus), as well as functions such as bacterial metabolic genetic information processing and cellular processes, and reduced the abundance of pathotrophic fungi. Metabolomics analysis showed that HBC upregulated various metabolites (including amino acids and their derivatives, lipids, flavonoids, and organic acids) and five main metabolic pathways. Among the KEGG pathways, the pyrimidine metabolism pathway was significantly upregulated, as well as crop leaf metabolism, β-alanine metabolism, and valine, leucine, and isoleucine metabolism, and the antioxidant levels and resistance to salt-alkali stress were enhanced in winter wheat leaves. Partial least squares-path modeling suggested that HBC affected the growth of winter wheat by significantly changing the soil physicochemical properties and microbial structure (path coefficients of 0.566 and 0.512, respectively).

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