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341. 题目: Reconciling carbon quality with availability predicts temperature sensitivity of global soil carbon mineralization
文章编号: N24031612
期刊: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
作者: Shuai Zhang, Mingming Wang, Liujun Xiao, Xiaowei Guo, Jinyang Zheng, Biao Zhu, Zhongkui Luo
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: Soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Its temperature sensitivity Q 10 (which is defined as the factor of change in mineralization with a 10 °C temperature increase) is crucial for understanding the carbon cycle-climate change feedback but remains uncertain. Here, we demonstrate the universal control of carbon quality-availability tradeoffs on Q 10 . When carbon availability is not limited, Q 10 is controlled by carbon quality; otherwise, substrate availability controls Q 10 . A model driven by such quality-availability tradeoffs explains 97% of the spatiotemporal variability of Q 10 in incubations of soils across the globe and predicts a global Q 10 of 2.1 ± 0.4 (mean ± one SD) with higher Q 10 in northern high-latitude regions. We further reveal that global Q 10 is predominantly governed by the mineralization of high-quality carbon. The work provides a foundation for predicting SOC dynamics under climate and land use changes which may alter soil carbon quality and availability.

342. 题目: Warming enhances the negative effects of shrub removal on phosphorus mineralization potential
文章编号: N24031611
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Zi Yang, Lihua Meng, Ziyang Liu, Jingwei Chen, Jiajia Wang, Hanwen Cui, Beenish Naz, Yajun Wang, Yifeng Xu, Hongxian Song, Lizhe An, Sa Xiao, Shuyan Chen
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: Shrubs have developed various mechanisms for soil phosphorus utilization. Shrub encroachment caused by climate warming alters organic phosphorus mineralization capability by promoting available phosphorus absorption and mediating root exudates. However, few studies have explored how warming regulates the effects of dominant shrubs on soil organic phosphorus mineralization capability. We provide insights into warming, dominant shrub removal, and their interactive effects on the soil organic phosphorus mineralization potential in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the soil microbial phosphatase genes (C and D), which can characterize the soil organic phosphate mineralization potential. We found that warming had no significant effect on the soil organic phosphate-mineralized components (total phosphate, organic phosphate, and available phosphate), genes (C and D), or enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatases). Shrub removal negatively influenced the organic phosphate-mineralized components and genes. It significantly decreased soil organic phosphate mineralization gene copy numbers only under warming conditions. Warming increased fungal richness and buffered the effects of shrub removal on bacterial richness and gene copy numbers. However, the change in the microbial community was not the main factor affecting organic phosphate mineralization. We found only C copy number had significant correlation to AP. Structural equation modelling revealed that shrub removal and the interaction between warming and shrub removal had a negative direct effect on C copy numbers. We concluded that warming increases the negative effect of shrub removal on phosphorus mineralization potential, providing a theoretical basis for shrub encroachment on soil phosphate mineralization under warming conditions.

343. 题目: Molecular Diversity and Amino Acid Evolution in Simulated Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies
文章编号: N24031610
期刊: ACS Earth and Space Chemistry
作者: Adeline Garcia, Yingfei Yan, Cornelia Meinert, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Vassilissa Vinogradoff, Jean-Christophe Viennet, Laurent Remusat, Sylvain Bernard, Michel Righezza, Louis Le Sergeant d’Hendecourt, Grégoire Danger
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: In interplanetary bodies, organics are found originating from various environments. We replicate the solid-phase conditions in a laboratory to elucidate the step-by-step evolution of organic matter, spanning from dense molecular cloud ices to processes occurring within meteorite parent bodies. The focus of our work is on amino acids, considered as potential chemical tracers of secondary alteration on asteroids. Using gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry, trace amounts of amino acids are identified in a preaccretional organic analogue formed from a dense molecular ice analogue. This analogue was subsequently exposed to aqueous alteration. This induced an increase in the formation of α- and β-amino acids over time. Supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry data, the reactions involved sugars and amine compounds, followed by amino acid destruction due to the Maillard reaction, which consumes both sugars and amino acids. Surprisingly, a second phase of amino acid formation, specifically α-amino acids, was observed, indicating the potential occurrence of the Strecker reaction. We demonstrate the intricate chemical network occurring within the presence of molecular diversity, similar to what might occur during parent body alteration. Therefore, investigations on reactivity within meteorite parent bodies have to take into account their molecular diversity, recognizing potential cross-reactions, as demonstrated in this work.

344. 题目: Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Uranium Hosting Aquifers and Potential Molecular Transformation During Neutral In Situ Leaching
文章编号: N24031609
期刊: Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences
作者: Chongsheng Lu, Wei Xiu, Bing Yang, Guoxi Lian, Tianjing Zhang, Erping Bi, Huaming Guo
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is widespread in uranium (U) hosting aquifer, a key substance affecting CO2 + O2 in situ leaching (ISL) of U by consuming injected O2. However, molecular composition and molecular transformation of DOM are poorly understood in this aquifer during the U mining. To address this issue, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was applied to investigate DOM molecules in groundwater samples and rock samples collected from a U mining aquifer. The high proportion of labile tyrosine-like component and BIX value in monitoring wells (BM) indicated the biological origin of DOM. CHOS and aliphatic were the major components of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in U-bearing rocks, but CHO and highly unsaturated structures with high oxygen (HUSHO) were the main components of DOM in BM. The ISL led to the release of WSOM and the oxidation of DOM, which accounted for 24.5%–57.4% and 39.1%–65.7% of expected DOM, respectively. Potential molecular transformations (PMTs) results showed that the intragroup transformations dominated, and remarkable transformations from CHON and CHONS to CHO occurred during ISL. The positive net PMTs of condensed aromatic structure (CAS), aromatic structures (AS), and aliphatic suggested that they were transformed from HUSLO and HUSHO. A gradual decrease in (DBE−O)/Cwa and a gradual increase in NOSCwa indicated that the saturated degree and oxidation state of DOM increased during mining. This work successfully identified molecular characteristics of DOM in U hosting aquifer, and proposed a paradigm of DOM transformation pathways during ISL.

345. 题目: Soil organic carbon enrichment in the particulate matter emitted by rural soils: A laboratory assessment
文章编号: N24031608
期刊: Land Degradation & Development
作者: Nancy B Ramirez Haberkon, Mariano J Mendez
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: The aim of this study was to assess the organic carbon (OC) content in the PM10 emitted by agricultural soils and rural roads under controlled conditions. Samples were collected from agricultural soils and rural roads. The PM10 was generated and collected using an electrostatic precipitator coupled with the Easy Dust Generator (EDG). This procedure ensures that the PM10 collected come specifically from soil. OC contents were measured in both the soil and PM10. The enrichment ratio (ER) was calculated as the ratio between OC content in the PM10 and OC content in the soil. The results showed that OC content in the PM10 ranged from 2.7% to 3.5% in agricultural soils and from 1.4% to 2.9% in rural roads. These values were comparable with the OC contents observed in fine particles transported by the wind, but lower than OC contents observed in PM10 samples collected in rural areas using active samplers and filters. A quadratic function described the association between OC in PM10 and OC in the soil. A negative potential function described the association between ERs and OC in the soil. Both associations suggested a saturation of OC in PM10 when the OC content in the soil was high. This information is crucial for a better comprehending of the dust emission role in the redistribution of OC within terrestrial ecosystems and to the atmosphere and oceans.

346. 题目: Different responses of lipids and lignin phenols to nitrogen addition in meadow grassland soil
文章编号: N24031607
期刊: Journal of Soils and Sediments
作者: Zhifu Pei, Qinguo Shen, Xingling Shang, Mei Hong
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要:

Purpose

Nitrogen (N) enrichment can affect the composition and stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools by altering vegetation and soil properties. However, the response of plant-derived carbon components in soil to different N addition levels is unclear. We investigated the changes and potential driving processes of plant-derived carbon components (especially lignins and lipids) in meadow grassland soils under long-term N addition in eastern Inner Mongolia, China.

Materials and methods

Biomarker technology was utilised to analyse changes in plant-derived carbon components (C>20 free lipids, bound lipids, and lignin phenols) in soil under different N addition levels, including changes in soil chemical properties, enzyme activity, plant biomass, and diversity under N addition, as well as the specific pathways involved.

Results and discussion

We found that high levels of N addition significantly reduced the concentration of soil lignin phenols whereas increased the accumulation of lipids (free and bound lipids). Compared with changes in plant biomass and diversity, soil chemical properties and enzyme activity play a more significant role in regulating the accumulation and degradation of plant-derived carbon. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that decreases in lignin phenol concentration were related to specific biochemical decomposition processes (increased polyphenol oxidase activity and decreased C/N). The increase in lipids associated with the protective effects of minerals mediated by pH.

Conclusions

In general, plant-derived carbon components showed inconsistent responses to N addition, lignin phenol concentration decreased and lipid concentration increased, which was mainly related to the change of soil biochemical properties. Plant-derived carbon components only showed significant changes under high N addition levels. Furthermore, our research indicates that SOC sequestration and functioning are highly dependent on soil biochemical properties, which weakens the influence of changes in plant carbon input on soil carbon storage.

347. 题目: One-step synthesis of a core-shell structured biochar using algae (Chlorella) powder and ferric sulfate for immobilizing Hg(II)
文章编号: N24031606
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Yiming Ge, Shishu Zhu, Ke Wang, Feiyu Liu, Shiyu Zhang, Rupeng Wang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Jo-Shu Chang
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: Mercury (Hg) pollution poses a significant environmental challenge. One promising method for its removal is the sorption of mercuric ions using biochar. FeS-doped biochar (FBC) exhibits effective mercury adsorption, however may release excess iron into the surrounding water. To address this issue, a novel magnetic pyrrhotite/magnetite-doped biochar with a core-shell structure was synthesized for the adsorption of 2-valent mercury (Hg(II)). The proposed synthesis process involved the use of algae powder and ferric sulfate in a one-step method. By varying the ratio of ferric sulfate and alga powder (within the range of 0.18 - 2.5) had a notable impact on the composition of FBC. As the ferric sulfate content increased, the FBC exhibited a higher concentration of oxygen-containing groups. To assess the adsorption capacity, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to the experimental data. The most effective adsorption was achieved with FBC-4, reaching a maximum capacity (Q) of 95.51mg/g. In particular, at low Hg(II) concentrations, FBC-5 demonstrated the ability to reduce Hg(II) concentrations to less than 0.05mg/L within 30minutes. Additionally, the stability of FBC was confirmed within the pH range of 3.8 - 7.2. The study also introduced a model to analyze the adsorption preference for different Hg(II) species. Calomel was identified in the mercury saturated FBC, whereas the core-shell structure exhibited excellent conductivity, which most likely contributed to the minimal release of iron. In summary, this research presents a novel and promising method for synthesizing core-shell structured biochar and provides a novel approach to explore the adsorption contribution of different metal species. Mercury as a toxic heavy metal is fatal to ecological environmental, which could cause serve neurologic disease even death. In this article we researched the adsorption behaviours of mercury by ferrous sulfide doped biochar in water. Our research aims on a new method of synthesizing low-cost sorbent for mercury adsorption in water, and can remove mercury from water effectively without other metal introduced. A new model was proposed to analyze the contribution of different mercury species made in the adsorption process.

348. 题目: Ecosystem function associated with soil organic carbon declines with tropical dry forest degradation
文章编号: N24031605
期刊: Land Degradation & Development
作者: Laura L de Sosa, Inmaculada Carmona, Marco Panettieri, Daniel M Griffith, Carlos I Espinosa, Andrea Jara-Guerrero, César Plaza, Engracia Madejón
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: Forest degradation is increasingly recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity and the multiple ecosystem services forests provide. This study examined the impacts of forest degradation on soil quality and function in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) of Ecuador. Previous studies of SDTFs have focused on the impacts of land-use conversion on soils, while this study assessed the less visible but pervasive effects of degradation. We compared soil physical–chemical properties, enzymatic activity, particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC) along a gradient of SDTF degradation in both the dry and rainy season. Our findings showed a consistent and steady reduction in soil quality (total C and N) and function (dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase activity) that paralleled the loss of vegetative structure and diversity along the degradation gradient. Soil physical–chemical properties were less variable and enzymatic activity was generally higher in the dry season compared to the rainy season. We also showed for the first time a significant and uniform decrease in POC and MAOC with degradation in SDTF. The relative proportion of these two components was constant along the gradient except in the most degraded state (arid land), where POC was higher in proportion to MAOC, suggesting that extreme forest degradation may cause this ecosystem to cross a functional tipping point. These findings address an important knowledge gap for SDTFs by showing a consistent loss of soil quality and functionality with degradation, and suggest that extreme degradation can result in an alternate state with compromised resilience.

349. 题目: Rivers and tidal flats as sources of dissolved organic matter and trace metals in the German Bight (North Sea)
文章编号: N24031604
期刊: Biogeochemistry
作者: Linn G Speidel, Roger Carvalho da Silva, Melanie Beck, Olaf Dellwig, Jochen Wollschläger, Thorsten Dittmar, Michael Seidel
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要:

The German Bight in the southern North Sea receives nutrients, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and trace metals from rivers, porewater reflux, and porewater outwelling. We studied the marine, riverine, and porewater sources analyzing molecular transformations of solid-phase extracted (SPE) DOM in the German Bight. We applied a combination of ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) with quantitative data of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS), dissolved black carbon (DBC), dissolved trace metals (Ba, Co, Gd, Mo, Mn, W), and nutrients (nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silicate). While aromatic DOM and DBC mainly originated from the rivers, nitrogen-containing, more saturated DOM was enriched offshore suggesting greater contributions of marine (algal) sources. Except for dissolved Mo, rivers were the primary source of trace metals and nutrients. However, tidal flats contributed to dissolved nutrient (e.g., dissolved phosphate), trace metal and DOS inventories of the southern North Sea. The input of DOS from intertidal flats was identified by the molecular index derived from sulfidic porewaters (ISuP), non-conservative behavior of elemental sulfur-to-carbon ratio and sulfur content of molecular formulae (from FT-ICR-MS). Dissolved Mn and Si were removed in the German Bight, likely due to precipitation as Mn(hydr)oxides and biological uptake, respectively. Preliminary estimates suggest that DOS from porewater outwelling is approximately four times higher than DOS discharged by the three main rivers in the region. Our study therefore highlights the need to consider porewater discharge in addition to riverine sources to comprehensively assess elemental budgets within the complex interplay and transformations of DOM, nutrients, and trace metals in coastal ecosystems.

350. 题目: Emerging ecological trends in West Africa: implications on soil organic matter and other soil quality indicators
文章编号: N24031603
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Samuel Ayodele Mesele, Caleb Melenya Ocansey, Amelie Bougma, Jamiu O Azeez, Godwin A Ajiboye, Vincent Logah, Halidou Compaore, Elmar M Veenendaal, Jonathan Lloyd
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要:

Aims

In West Africa, savannas are changing to either forest islands or arable lands arising from anthropogenic interference with the natural ecosystem. This study aimed at quantifying the trade-offs of this land use conversion on major soil quality indicators.

Methods

We evaluated soil organic matter (SOM) and other soil quality indicators such as macro- and micronutrients (including the absence of some hazardous trace metals) using standard methodologies across 11 settlements in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Nigeria. The degree of soil quality improvement/degradation and soil quality were assessed using empirical models.

Results

The effects of savanna conversion were manifold and varied depending on the type of land use change, soil depth, and soil quality indicator. In savanna-forests, there was a substantial rise in SOM (37%—794%) and exchangeable cations (15% to 800%) and changes in SOM in the topsoil quadrupled that of the subsoil. A general loss in SOM (1% -74%) and soil macro-and micronutrients occurred under savanna-arable lands. Potassium, calcium and magnesium increased by ≥ 12%, ≥ 15% and 27% respectively while increases in Mn and Zn were 37% and ≥ 250% in the forests over the savannas. Trace quantities of Pb were detected which were below the contamination threshold. About 63% forest islands, 18% arable land, and 9% savannas had SQI % ≥ 50.

Conclusion

In marginal lands, land use conversion to forest islands presents great potential for improving soil fertility and overall ecosystem health as shown in the high organic matter and improved soil quality.

351. 题目: The long-term release and particle fracture behaviors of nanoplastics retained in porous media: Effects of surfactants, natural organic matters, antibiotics, and bacteria
文章编号: N24031602
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Mingzhi Zhang, Jun Hou, Jun Xia, Jun Wu, Guoxiang You, Lingzhan Miao
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: The transport of nanoplastics (NPs) in porous media has received a lot of attention, but the studies on the long-term release of NPs retained in porous media and the particle fracture during this process are seriously lacking. For filling this deficiency, we examined the individual or synergistic effects of surfactants, natural organic matters (NOMs), antibiotics, and bacteria on the desorption, long-term release, and particle fracture behaviors of polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs) retained in porous media. It was found that the change in hydrophilicity of PS-NPs dominated the long-term release of PS-NPs retained in porous media when surfactants were present. In the single system of surfactants and the dual system of surfactants and NOMs, the release of PS-NPs were improved owing to the increasing hydrophilicity of PS-NPs, although cationic surfactants also reduced the electrostatic repulsion between PS-NPs and porous media. Increasing antibiotic concentration reduced the electrostatic repulsion between PS-NPs and porous media to inhibit the release of PS-NPs. When bacteria were present whether containing antibiotics or not, the effects on roughness of PS-NPs dominated the release of PS-NPs. The effects of surfactants and NOMs on the PS-NP desorption were similar with the long-term release, with changes in hydrophilicity dominating the process. Whereas the effects of antibiotics and bacteria on the PS-NP desorption were different with the long-term release. Surfactants and NOMs in the presence of surfactants inhibited the fracture of PS-NPs by increasing the hydrophilicity of PS-NPs brought about the coating of water molecules on PS-NPs for protection. Antibiotics had no significant effects on the fracture of PS-NPs due to unaltered vertical forces on PS-NPs and no protective effect. Bacteria in the presence or absence of antibiotics inhibited the fracture of PS-NPs by coating PS-NPs retained in porous media to protect PS-NPs from fracture.

352. 题目: How does exotic Spartina alterniflora affect the contribution of iron-bound organic carbon to soil organic carbon in salt marshes?
文章编号: N24031601
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Weixiang Chen, Weiting Zhang, Ying Qiu, Zihao Shu, Jin-e Liu, Xinhou Zhang, Khan Waqas, Ge Song
更新时间: 2024-03-16
摘要: Iron-bound organic carbon (OC-Fe) is important for the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) in salt marshes, and the invasion reshaped local salt marshes and changed the SOC pool. To evaluate the effects of invasion on the contribution of OC-Fe to SOC, we determined the OC-Fe content and soil characteristics in the 0–50 cm soil profile along the vegetation sequence, including mudflats (MF), marshes established in 2003 (SA03) and 1989 (SA89), the ecotone of and (SE), marsh (SS), and marsh (PA). The SOC content was 6.55–17.5 mg g in the marshes. Reactive iron oxides (Fe, Fe, Fe) accumulated significantly in the and salt marshes. PA and marshes had higher DOC contents of 0.28–0.77 mg g. The OC-Fe content in the 0–50 cm soil profile in these ecosystems ranged from 0.3 to 3.29 mg g, with a contribution to the SOC content () of approximately 11 %, which was highest in SA03 (16.3 % ~ 18.8 %), followed by SA89, SE, and PA. In addition, the molar ratios of OC-Fe to Fe were <1, indicating that the iron oxides were associated with SOC through sorption more than coprecipitation. According to the structural equation model, SOC, DOC and iron oxides were the direct driving factors of OC-Fe formation, while the vegetation zone indirectly functioned by regulating organic C inputs, iron oxide formation, and pH. This study suggested that invasion promotes iron-bound organic carbon accumulation by increasing organic C inputs and regulating iron oxide formation in salt marshes, but such promotion will degenerate with development duration.

353. 题目: Effects of foliar application of Zn combined with organic matters on Cd accumulation and its chemical forms in rice
文章编号: N24031520
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Qinhui Lu, Zhidong Xu, Zhuo Chen, Guangle Qiu
更新时间: 2024-03-15
摘要:

Rice consumption is a key Cd exposure pathway, which poses a health risk to humans. Reducing cadmium (Cd) concentrations in rice remains challenging. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to examine the effects of foliar spray of Zn combined with organic matters (including Zn–lysine (Zn-Lys), Zn–fulvic acid (Zn-FA), Zn–amino acid (Zn-AA), and Zn combined with glutathione (Zn + GSH)) on Cd accumulation in rice grains. Compared with the control group, all treatment groups exhibited reduced Cd concentration in rice grains, while improving plant growth, and reducing Cd transport from other tissues to the grains. Zn–FA was found to be the most effective fertilizer, which considerably reduced Cd concentrations in grains from 0.77 ± 0.068 to 0.14 ± 0.021 mg/kg and yielded reductions of up to 81%, which is within the Chinese food maximum tolerable limit of 0.2 mg/kg. Furthermore, the analysis of the chemical forms of Cd of rice tissues indicated that the treatment groups had increased proportions of integrated with pectates and protein in the stems. Except for the group treated with Zn–Lys spray, the percentages of undissolved Cd phosphate in the leaves were increased in all treatment groups, which reduced Cd toxicity to rice plants. The foliar application of Zn combined with organic matters may be a promising strategy to decrease Cd concentration in rice grains cultivated in severely Cd-contaminated agricultural soil, particularly in the karst area in southwest China with limited available cultivable agricultural land.

354. 题目: Rapid removal of ofloxacin with peroxymonosulfate activation process mediated by Co3O4/Sludge-derived biochar composite: Unveiling the enhancement of biochar
文章编号: N24031519
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: Zhengxu Liu, Yihui Hu, Yushi Huang, Zhengrui Zhang, Yuancai Lv, Minghua Liu
更新时间: 2024-03-15
摘要: In this study, sludge-derived biochar loaded Co3O4 composite (Co3O4@SDBC) were successfully synthesized through cobalt impregnation and secondary calcination of sludge-derived biochar precursors. The experimental results demonstrated that the Co3O4@SDBC catalyst performed exceptionally well for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation, with a high degradation efficiency (>99 %) of ofloxacin (OFL) within 10 min under the optimal conditions (a catalyst dose of 0.10 g•L−1, a PMS dose of 0.975 mM and an initial pH = 6.4), and showed good adaptability across a broad pH spectrum, under the interference of the anions and humic acid (HA), as well as in various water matrices. The results of quenching experiments revealed that the non-radical pathway (especially 1O2 and electron transfer) was the dominated reactive ingredients in the PMS activation process induced by Co3O4@SDBC. Notably, the online electrochemical tests and density functional theory (DFT) results indicated the presence of biochar carrier not only effectively lowered the escape of Co ions, while enhanced the steadiness of Co3O4@SDBC, but also accelerated the electron transfer, promoted the adsorption and cleavage of PMS, facilitated the redox cycle between Co(II) and Co(III), reduced the reaction energy barriers simultaneously, thereby making it more favourable for the generation of 1O2. Furthermore, the toxicity assessment suggested that the cumulative toxicity of OFL decreased throughout degradation. Overall, this work mechanistically revealed the enhancement of biochar on the Co3O4@SDBC catalyst, offering a viable method to activate PMS for antibiotic removal and achieving a mutually beneficial strategy for sludge waste resource utilization and environmental remediation.

355. 题目: The positive effect of the enzyme inducer (MnSO4) on the formation of humic substance in rice straw composting by stimulating key microorganisms
文章编号: N24031518
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Linying Mu, Runshi Dong, Jiaqi Wang, Jieyu Yue, Lina Pan, Caihong Song, Zimin Wei
更新时间: 2024-03-15
摘要: This study investigated the impact of adding enzyme inducer (MnSO) on humic substance (HS) formation during straw composting. The results demonstrated that both enzyme inducer treatment group (Mn) and functional microorganism treatment group (F) led to an increase in the content of HS compared to the treatment group without enzyme inducer and functional microorganism (CK). Interestingly, the enzyme inducer exhibited a higher promoting effect on HS (57.80 % ~ 58.58 %) than functional microbial (46.54 %). This was because enzyme inducer stimulated the growth of key microorganisms and changed the interaction relationship between microorganisms. The structural equation model suggested that the enzyme inducer promoted the utilization of amino acids by the fungus and facilitated the conversion of precursors to humic substance components. These findings provided a direction for improving the quality of composting products from agricultural straw waste. It also provided theoretical support for adding MnSO to compost.

356. 题目: Co-influence of biochar-supported effective microorganisms and seasonal changes on dissolved organic matter and microbial activity in eutrophic lake
文章编号: N24031517
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Siqun Tang, Jilai Gong, Biao Song, Juan Li, Weicheng Cao, Jun Zhao
更新时间: 2024-03-15
摘要: DOM (dissolved organic matter) play a crucial role in lakes' geochemical and carbon cycles. Eutrophication evolution would influence nutrient status of waters and investigating the DOM variation helps a better understanding of bioremediation on environmental behavior of DOM in eutrophic lakes. In our study, the contents, compositions and characteristics of systematic DOM&SOM (sediment organic matter) were greatly influenced by seasonal changes. But the effective bioremediations obviously reduced the DOM concentration and thus mitigated the eutrophication outbreak risks in water bodies due to the increased MBC (microbial biomass carbon), microbial activity and metabolism. In early summer, the overall DOM in each treatment were readily low levels and derived from both autochthonous and exogenous origins, dominated by fulvic acid-like. In midsummer, the DOM contents and characteristics in each treatment increased significantly as phytoplankton activity improved, and the majority of DOM were humic acid-like and mainly of biological origin. The greatest differences of enzymes, MBC, microbial metabolism and DOM&SOM removal among different treatments were observed in summer months. In autumn, the systematic DOM&SOM slightly reduced due to the deceased microbial activity, in which the microbial humic acids were main component and derived from endogenous sources. Additionally, the gradually decreased SOM with cultivated time in each treatment was a result of microbiological conversion of SOM into DOM. For various treatments, BE, BE.A, BE.C and BE.E increased the MBC, enzymatic and microbial activities due to the application of biochar-supported EMs. Among these, BE and BE.A, especially BE.A with oxygen supplement, achieved the most desirable effect on reducing systematic DOM&SOM levels and increasing enzymatic and microbial activities. The group of EM also reduced the levels of DOM&SOM as improved degradation of EMs for DOM. However, BC, BE.C and BE.E finally did not achieved the desirable effect on reducing DOM&SOM due to the suppression of microbial activities, respectively, from high dose of biochar, weakening of dominant species and additional introduction of EMs in low liveness.

357. 题目: Mass variations and transfer process of shrimp farming pollutants in aquaculture drainage systems: effects of DOM features and physicochemical properties
文章编号: N24031516
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Tianming Zheng, Peifang Wang, Bin Hu, Tianli Bao, Xingmin Qin
更新时间: 2024-03-15
摘要: The expansion of aquaculture produces increasing pollutant loads, necessitating the use of drainage systems to discharge wastewater into surface water. To assess the mass variations and transfer process of aquaculture wastewater, an entire aquaculture drainage investigation lasting for 48h was conducted, focusing on the nutrients, heavy metals, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and physicochemical properties of drainage in a commercial shrimp farm. The findings revealed that early drainage produced more heavy metals, total nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and feed-like proteins from aquaculture floating feed and additives, whereas late drainage produced more PO-P and total dissolved phosphorus (TP). A few pollutants, including DON, Cu, and feed-like proteins, were effectively removed, whereas the contents of TN, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and Zn increased in the multi-level aquaculture drainage system. Limited dilution indicated that in-stream transfer was the main process shaping pollutant concentrations within the drainage system. In the lower ditches, NO-N, heavy metals, and feed-like proteins exhibited evident in-stream attenuation, while TN and NH-N underwent significant in-stream enrichment processes, especially in ditch C, with the transfer coefficient values () of –1.74E-5 and –2.04E-5. This indicates that traditional aquaculture drainage systems serve as nitrogen sinks, rather than efficient nutrient purge facilitators. Notably, DOM was identified as a more influential factor in shaping the in-stream transfer process in aquaculture drainage systems, with an interpretation rate 40.79% higher than that of the physiochemical properties. Consequently, it is necessary to eliminate the obstacles posed by DOM to pollutant absorption and net zero emissions in aquaculture drainage systems in the future. Nutrients, heavy metals, and dissolved organic matter are hazardous pollutants originating from high-density aquaculture. As the sole conduit to natural waters, aquaculture drainage systems have pivotal functions in receiving and purifying wastewater, in which the in-stream transfer process is affected by ambient conditions. This field study investigated the spatial variations, stage distinctions, effects of physicochemical properties, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) features. This finding suggests that the aquaculture drainage system as a nitrogen sink and DOM source. While the DOM is the key factor in shaping the in-stream transfer process, and obstacles for pollutant elimination. This study helps in understanding the fate of aquaculture pollutants and reveals the drawbacks of traditional aquaculture drainage systems.

358. 题目: Gaining insight into the effect of laccase expression on humic substance formation during lignocellulosic biomass composting
文章编号: N24031515
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Xingyu Qiao, Peiju Li, Jinghan Zhao, Zonglin Li, Chunhao Zhang, Junqiu Wu
更新时间: 2024-03-15
摘要: The aim is to enhance lignin humification by promoting laccase activities which can promote lignin depolymerization and reaggregation during composting. 1-Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) is employed to conduct laccase mediator system (LMS), application of oxidized graphene (GO) in combination to strengthen LMS. Compared with control, the addition of GO, HBT, and GH (GO coupled with HBT) significantly improved laccase expression and activities ( < 0.05), with lignin humification efficiency also increased by 68.6 %, 36.7 %, and 107.8 %. GH treatment induces microbial expression of laccase by increasing the abundance and synergy of core microbes. The unsupervised learning model, vector autoregressive model and Mantel test function were combined to elucidate the mechanism of action of exogenous materials. The results showed that GO stabilized the composting environment on the one hand, and acted as a support vector to stabilize the LMS and promote the function of laccase on the other. In GH treatment, degradation of macromolecules and humification of small molecules were promoted simultaneously by activating the dual function of laccase. Additionally, it also reveals the GH enhances the humification of lignocellulosic compost by converting phenolic pollutants into aggregates. These findings provide a new way to enhance the dual function of laccase and promote lignin humification during composting. It could effectively achieve the resource utilization of organic solid waste and reduce composting pollution.

359. 题目: Nitrate-induced hydroxyl radical releases deep soil organic carbon by opening the ‘enzyme latch’ under micro-aerobic conditions
文章编号: N24031514
期刊: Soil Biology and Biochemistry
作者: Wei Song, Timothy Clough, Honghuan Hou, Shuping Qin
更新时间: 2024-03-15
摘要: Deep soils (defined here as soil layers >1 m beneath the ground) contain a significant amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) with a relatively slow turnover rate. In oxygen (O) limit conditions, terms here as “micro-aerobic environment”, a high concentration of phenol usually suppresses SOC decomposition by inhibiting hydrolase activities, a mechanism known as the ‘enzyme latch’. Here, we showed that the addition of nitrate (NO) into deep soil significantly decreased the soil phenol content. This reduction alleviated the inhibitory effect of phenol on hydrolase activities, resulting in an increased rate of deep soil SOC decomposition. NO addition enhanced deep soil SOC decomposition by opening the ‘enzyme latch’ under micro-aerobic conditions. Under micro-aerobic conditions, NO addition increased the concentration of hydroxyl radicals (•OH), with the extent of increase negatively correlated with the soil phenol content. Quenching •OH using terephthalic acid removed the suppressing effect of NO on phenol content, indicating that NO addition opened the ‘enzyme latch’ by promoting •OH generation, which oxidized phenol. Additionally, the addition of NO promoted the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and hydrogen peroxide (HO) in deep soil. The extent of their increase was significantly positively correlated with •OH, suggesting that the enhanced •OH generation under NO addition was caused by the Fenton reaction. Overall, our results shed light on a new pathway through which NO leaching affected SOC stability in micro-aerobic deep soils. Reducing nitrate leaching is beneficial for the conservation of deep soil SOC.

360. 题目: Effective degradation of synthetic micropollutants and real textile wastewater via a visible light-activated persulfate system using novel spinach leaf-derived biochar
文章编号: N24031513
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Mohamed Mohamed Gaber, Mahmoud Samy, Hassan Shokry
更新时间: 2024-03-15
摘要:

A novel biochar (BC), derived from spinach leaves, was utilized as an activator for persulfate (PS) in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under visible light conditions. Thorough analyses were conducted to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the biochar. The (BC + light)/PS system exhibited superior MB degradation efficiency at 83.36%, surpassing the performance of (BC + light)/hydrogen peroxide and (BC + light)/peroxymonosulfate systems. The optimal conditions were ascertained through the implementation of response surface methodology. Moreover, the (BC + light)/PS system demonstrated notable degradation ratios of 90.82%, 81.88%, and 84.82% for bromothymol blue dye, paracetamol, and chlorpyrifos, respectively, under optimal conditions. The predominant reactive species responsible for MB degradation were identified as sulfate radicals. Notably, the proposed system consistently achieved high removal efficiencies of 99.02%, 96.97%, 94.94%, 92%, and 90.35% for MB in five consecutive runs. The applicability of the suggested system was further validated through its effectiveness in treating real textile wastewater, exhibiting a substantial MB removal efficiency of 98.31% and dissolved organic carbon mineralization of 87.49%.

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