361. 题目: Effect of fenton-like reactions on the hydrolysis efficiency of lignocellulose during rice straw composting based on genomics and metabolomics sequencing
The purposes of this study were to explore the effect of Fenton-like reactions on the hydrolysis efficiency of lignocellulose and the formation mechanism of humic substance (HS) during rice straw composting based on genomics and metabolomics sequencing. The inoculation of Aspergillus fumigatus and adding Fe (II) into compost were used to establish Fenton-like reactions. Fenton-like reactions have been successfully established in vitro and in the composting process. In addition, Fenton-like reactions increased HS and humic acid concentration by 96.38% and 255.80%, respectively, further promoting the humification process. The key differential lignocellulose-degrading products in the Fenton-like reactions, especially for maltose, glucose, xylose, galactose, phenols, butyrophenone, vanillin, syringe acid, vanillic acid hydroxycinnamic acid and benzoic acid, were identified. Additionally, network analysis was divided into four modular microbes in the fungal network. The functional fungal modules' functions and their related influencing factors showed essential roles in the hydrolysis efficiency of lignocellulose and HS formation during composting. This research provides new insight into the hydrolysis efficiency of lignocellulose and then promotes the formation of HS in the Fenton-like reactions during agricultural waste composting.
362. 题目: Introducing the soil mineral carbon pump
363. 题目: Increased soil carbon storage through plant diversity strengthens with time and extends into the subsoil
364. 题目: Chemodiversity of soil organic matters determines biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by a graphene oxide-assisted bacterial agent
A promising strategy for degrading persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in soil is amendment with nanomaterial-assisted functional bacteria. However, the influence of soil organic matter chemodiversity on the performance of nanomaterial-assisted bacterial agents remains unclear. Herein, different types of soil (Mollisol soil, MS; Ultisol soil, US; and Inceptisol soil, IS) were inoculated with a graphene oxide (GO)-assisted bacterial agent (Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110, B. diazoefficiens USDA 110) to investigate the association between soil organic matter chemodiversity and stimulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation. Results indicated that the high-aromatic solid organic matter (SOM) inhibited PCB bioavailability, and lignin-dominant dissolved organic matter (DOM) with high biotransformation potential was a favored substrate for all PCB degraders, which led to no stimulation of PCB degradation in MS. Differently, high-aliphatic SOM in US and IS promoted PCB bioavailability. The high/low biotransformation potential of multiple DOM components (e.g., lignin, condensed hydrocarbon, unsaturated hydrocarbon, etc.) in US/IS further resulted to the enhanced PCB degradation by B. diazoefficiens USDA 110 (up to 30.34%) /all PCB degraders (up to 17.65%), respectively. Overall, the category and biotransformation potential of DOM components and the aromaticity of SOM collaboratively determine the stimulation of GO-assisted bacterial agent on PCB degradation.
365. 题目: Non-metal activated peroxydisulfate by straw biochar for tetracycline hydrochloride oxidative degradation: catalytic activity and mechanism.
366. 题目: Differential trends in iron concentrations of boreal streams linked to catchment characteristics
367. 题目: Role of environmental factors on concentrations and ratios of subsoil C–N–P in subtropical paddy fields
Environmental controls of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the subsoil are important for understanding nutrient cycles; however, these are poorly understood in subtropical paddy soils, especially lacking systematic regional soil profile investigations in the subsoil. The study aims to evaluate the role of environmental factors on concentrations and ratios of SOC, TN, and TP in subsoil (20–100 cm) vs. topsoil (0–20 cm).
We sampled 166 soil cores (1-m depth) from paddy fields across 10 typical counties in 4 provinces of subtropical China. Soil properties of SOC, TN, TP, pH, bulk density, and clay were determined in each soil layer. Spearman correlation analysis and random forest model were performed to correlate environmental factors with soil nutrients and to rank their relative importance throughout the soil profile.
SOC was strongly coupled with TN and both decreased with soil depth. However, TP was high in topsoil and did not change in the subsoil. Thus, the soil C to N ratio (12.88–14.93) exhibited minimal variation, whereas N to P (30.93–68.99) and C to P (2.52–5.59) ratios decreased markedly with the soil depth. As compared with topsoil, subsoil revealed similar dominant negative effects of climate (temperature, precipitation) and bulk density on the concentrations and ratios of SOC, TN, and TP. The soil clay had no effect on SOC and TN, but was the dominant control on TP throughout the soil profile. The influences of straw incorporation and chemical fertilization on SOC and TN were primarily observed in topsoil.
There were dominant climate controls (temperature and precipitation) of soil C–N–P concentrations and ratios in the subsoil, although different soil factors control SOC and TN vs. TP. These findings highlight the importance of managing subsoil nutrients in subtropical paddy soils, since they are consistently sensitive to climate as topsoil nutrients.
368. 题目: Characterizing the effects of stormwater runoff on dissolved organic matter in an urban river (Jiujiang, Jiangxi province, China) using spectral analysis.
369. 题目: The characteristic difference between non-drilosphere and drilosphere-aged biochar: Revealing that earthworms accelerate the aging of biochar
Numerous researches have been conducted on the effects of biotic and abiotic-induced aging on the physicochemical characteristics and functions of biochar; however, the impacts of earthworm-induced aging on biochar have not been reported. Hence, we conducted a microscopic experiment simulating a ‘drilosphere’ to explore the influence of earthworm activity on the natural aging of rice husk biochar (RHBC) through the difference in biochar characteristics after aging in drilosphere and non-drilosphere. The earthworm activity increases the available nitrogen (AN) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) contents of aged RHBC and changes its composition. The increase of DOM and AN content may recruit more microorganisms to colonize biochar and accelerate the biological oxidation of biochar. Furthermore, earthworm activity significantly increased the contents of oxygen (O) and O-containing functional groups in the aged RHBC and decreased the stability (aromaticity) of the aged RHBC, suggesting that the earthworm activity accelerates the natural aging of biochar. Earthworm feeding promotes physical damage to biochar. Besides, the earthworm activity decreased the pH, hydrophilicity and specific surface area (SSA) of aged RHBC but enhanced the adsorption capacity of aged RHBC for heavy metals. The higher content of O-containing functional groups on the surface of drilosphere-aged RHBC was the main reason for its higher adsorption performance. Earthworm feeding promotes physical damage to biochar. These results indicate that earthworm activity can accelerate the natural aging of biochar and alter its physicochemical characteristics and functions. This study illustrates how biochar characteristics change in earthworm-soil systems, which will help scientifically evaluate the long-term effectiveness of biochar.
370. 题目: Machine learning models for the prediction of total yield and specific surface area of biochar derived from agricultural biomass by pyrolysis
Organic biomass pyrolysis to produce biochar is a viable approach to sustainably convert agricultural residues. The yield and SSA of biochar are contingent upon the biomass type and pyrolysis conditions, and their quantification necessitates the investment of time, energy, and resources. Therefore, in this study, data from 46 different types of biomass were extracted from the published literature and modelled based on a supervised machine learning approach with five different regression algorithms to predict the total yield and SSA of biochar. In general, the collected data were processed using a data exploration technique to remove outliers. The correlation between input variables was examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient method to eliminate highly correlated input variables, and the assorted data was further imputed for developing predictive models. The yield and SSA of biochar were predicted by feature importance analysis to reduce the computational complexity and latency of the model. Out of the 14 input variables, 9 were selected based on feature importance and redundancy, wherein pyrolysis temperature demonstrated the greatest relative importance of 33.6% in predicting targets. Compared to other models developed to predict total biochar yield and SSA, Random Forests performs better, having a maximum R2 value of 85% and a minimum absolute root mean squared error (RMSE) for both biochar yield and SSA. Therefore, the developed models could help predict total biochar yield and SSA for a variety of agricultural biomasses without the need for complex and energy-intensive pyrolysis experiments.
371. 题目: Soil amended with Algal Biochar Reduces Mobility of deicing salt contaminants in the environment: An atomistic insight
Soil-based filter media in green infrastructure buffers only a minor portion of deicing salt in surface water, allowing most of that to infiltrate into groundwater, thus negatively impacting drinking water and the aquatic ecosystem. The capacity of the filter medium to adsorb and fixate sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions has been shown to improve by biochar amendment. The extent of improvement, however, depends on the type and density of functional groups on the biochar surface. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to show the merits of biochar grafted by nitrogenous functional groups to adsorb Cl−. Our group has shown that such functional groups are abundant in biochar made from protein-rich algae feedstock. DFT is used to model algal biochar surface and its possible interactions with Cl− through two possible mechanisms: direct adsorption and cation (Na+)-bridging. Our DFT calculations reveal strong adsorption of Cl− to the biochar surface through hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attractions between the ions and active sites on biochar. MD results indicate the efficacy of algal biochar in delaying chloride diffusion. This study demonstrates the potential of amending soils with algal biochar as a dual-targeting strategy to sequestrate carbon and prevent deicing salt contaminants from leaching into water bodies.
372. 题目: Reconciling the paradox of soil organic carbon erosion by water
373. 题目: Variation in soil organic carbon over time in no-till versus minimum tillage dryland wheat-fallow
Interest in soil organic carbon (SOC) levels is focused on both soil quality and sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Farmers have developed minimum tillage systems and no-till systems. This study carefully measured SOC at three sites where long-term, randomized, replicated studies compared minimum tillage and no-till rotations in the low-precipitation inland Pacific Northwest, USA. To overcome seasonal, annual, and rotational effects, a soil sample was taken from each plot monthly for three years. The top 250 kg m-2 dry soil mass (representing the 0- to 20-cm depth) from each core was analyzed for SOC. Averages of monthly samples revealed the tilled treatment had 7.21 g kg-1 of SOC compared to 7.04 for the no-till treatment (p < 0.004). Examining variation month-to-month, 93% of sample variation was due to sample date, and 7% due to blocks (replications) within sites. Of 77 individual site-by-date samples, only six produced significant t-tests (p < 0.05) but SOC differences were 46–31 in favor of tillage and those 46 had larger differences. Power calculations estimated 34–100 samples would be required to detect a relative difference of 5% given the data’s standard deviation. Soil water and soil temperature to 30 cm was measured at the time of sampling, and while no-till more often had greater water, temperature differences were inconsistent. We conclude that no-till did not result in more soil carbon in these systems and judicious tillage is an option for sustainable production.
374. 题目: An evaluation of topsoil carbon storage in Chinese deserts
Deserts are important components of the terrestrial ecosystem, and significantly affect the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, their carbon storage is poorly understood. To evaluate the topsoil carbon storage in Chinese deserts, we systematically collected topsoil samples (to a depth of 10 cm) from 12 deserts in northern China and analyzed their organic carbon storage. We used partial correlation and boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to analyze the factors influencing the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon density based on climate, vegetation, soil grain-size distribution, and element geochemistry. The total organic carbon pool of Chinese deserts was 4.83 × 108 t, the mean soil organic carbon density was 1.37 ± 0.18 kg C m−2, and the mean turnover time was 16.50 ± 2.66 yr. With the largest area, the Taklimakan Desert had the highest topsoil organic carbon storage (1.77 × 108 t). The organic carbon density was high in the east and low in the west, whereas the turnover time showed the opposite trend. The soil organic carbon density was >2 kg C m−2 in the four sandy lands in the eastern region, and was greater than the values for the eight deserts (0.72 to 1.22 kg C m−2). Grain-size (i.e., the silt and clay contents) had the strongest influence on the organic carbon density in Chinese deserts, followed by element geochemistry. Precipitation was the main climatic factor that affected the distribution of organic carbon density in the deserts. Based on climate and vegetation cover trends during the past 20 years, Chinese deserts have a high potential for future organic carbon sequestration.
375. 题目: Mining activities accelerate the decomposition of organic matter from aquatic ecosystems through soil microbes
376. 题目: Composition of organic matter‑iron‑phosphorus associations in sediments of algae- and macrophyte-dominated zones in Lake Taihu
The biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus (P) and organic matter (OM) are significantly influenced by iron (Fe) through forming OM-Fe-P associations. The sources and compositions of organic matter in the two typical states (algae-dominated and macrophyte-dominated) of shallow lakes are different, which could modulate the formation of OM-Fe-P associations and influence the internal loadings of P in lakes. In this study, OM and P bound with Fe were extracted from the sediments of algae-dominated zone (A-zone) and macrophyte-dominated zone (M-zone) in Lake Taihu via the citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) reduction method, and were subsequently analyzed to elucidate the differences in OM-Fe-P associations between the two zones. The results showed that OM-Fe-P associations in the sediments of M-zone had higher a molar C/Fe ratio but a lower molar P/Fe ratio. Four components identified by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) in OM-Fe-P associations in the two zones were all humic-like substances and the relative abundance of the corresponding PARAFAC components had no significant difference between the two zones. However, the total fluorescence intensity of the humic-like components was higher in M-zone than those in A-zone. This could be attributed to the higher aromaticity of OM produced from macrophyte than that from algae, as evidenced by the difference in the easily-desorbed OM between two zones. In M-zone, high aromatic compounds which are preferentially associated with Fe, could be more produced from macrophyte plants than from algae and resulted in the higher C/Fe molar ratio. The higher C/Fe molar ratio (2.1 ± 0.9) of OM-Fe-P associations in M-zone reflected that more OM originated from macrophyte could be involved in the coprecipitation with Fe (III) and OM-Fe-P associations in M-zone were probably more resistant to the microbial and chemical reduction. Our results from the real situation confirmed the mechanism related to the reduction of OM-Fe-P associations for the lower internal loading of P in M-zone than that in A-zone.
377. 题目: Selective Exclusion of Aromatic Organic Carbon During Lake Ice Formation
378. 题目: Key drivers regulating arsenic enrichment in shallow groundwater of the Pearl River Delta: Comprehensive analyses of iron, competitive anions, and dissolved organic matter
Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater is a global environmental geochemical problem that threatens over 100 million people around the world. Although groundwater As enrichment has been demonstrated to result from some major complex processes, including competitive desorption by anions and reductive release of As from iron (Fe) oxyhydroxides due to microbial respiration of dissolved organic matter (DOM), knowledge of the detailed interactions among these processes and their respective contributions is still limited. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the key variables that regulate the evolution of dissolved As in shallow groundwater from a typical As-contaminated region of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) after comprehensive statistical analysis of hydrogeochemical characteristics. The results showed that the highest concentration of As in the groundwater samples (n = 77) was 57 μg/L, with 9% of samples exceeding the drinking water standard. In comparison with other regions with geogenic As contamination in groundwater, the relatively low As concentration range is primarily controlled by the well-oxygenated environment, which also contributed to the dominance of As(V) (19.5–100.0%, median of 100.0%). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the presence of As in groundwater may be impacted by the reduction process of Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and by competitive anions. Further analysis using structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the increased concentration of As(V) in the shallow groundwater was primarily induced by the competitive roles of phosphate and silicate, explaining 65.2% and 31.5% of total As(V), respectively. In contrast, the presence of As(III) was strongly explained by DOM (23.8%, 12.4%, and 5.7% from microbial humic-like, terrestrial humic-like, and protein-like components, respectively) and Fe (31.8%), followed by competitive desorption (26.3%), revealing the dominant contribution from DOM-facilitated Fe reduction to As(III) enrichment. Our study empirically demonstrated that decreasing the concentrations of phosphate and reactive organic matter can effectively alleviate As contamination in groundwater.
379. 题目: Biochar as smart organic catalyst to regulate bacterial dynamics during food waste composting
The impact of wheat straw biochar (WSB) on bacterial dynamics succession during food waste (FW) composting was analyzed. Six treatments [0(T1), 2.5(T2), 5 (T3), 7.5 (T4), 10 (T5), and 15%(T6)] dry weight WSB were used with FW and saw dust for composting. At the highest thermal peak at 59 ℃ in T6, the pH varied from 4.5-7.3, and electrical conductivity among the treatments varied from 1.2-2.0 mScm1. Firmicutes (25-97%), Proteobacteria (8-45%), and Bacteroidota (5-50%) were among the dominate phyla of the treatments. Whereas, Bacillus (5-85%), Limoslactobacillus (2-40%), and Sphingobacterium (2-32%) were highest among the identified genus in treatments but surprisingly Bacteroides was in greater abundance in the control treatments. Moreover, heatmap constructed with 35 various genera in all the treatments showed that Gammaproteobacterial genera contributed in large proportion after 42 days in T6. Additionally, a dynamic shift from Lactobacillus fermentum to higher abundance of Bacillus thermoamylovorans was reported on 42 days of FW composting. Biochar 15% amendment can improve FW composting by influencing bacterial dynamics.
380. 题目: Effects of digestate-encapsulated biochar on plant growth, soil microbiome and nitrogen leaching
The increasing amount of food waste and the excessive use of mineral fertilizers have caused detrimental impacts on soil, water, and air quality. Though digestate derived from food waste has been reported to partially replace fertilizer, its efficiency requires further improvement. In this study, the effects of digestate-encapsulated biochar were comprehensively investigated based on growth of an ornamental plant, soil characteristics, nutrient leaching and soil microbiome. Results showed that except for biochar, the tested fertilizers and soil additives, i.e., digestate, compost, commercial fertilizer, digestate-encapsulated biochar had positive effects on plants. Especially, the digestate-encapsulated biochar had the best effectiveness as evidenced by 9–25% increase in chlorophyll content index, fresh weight, leaf area and blossom frequency. For the effects of fertilizers or soil additives on soil characteristics and nutrient retention, the digestate-encapsulated biochar leached least N-nutrients (<8%), while the compost, digestate and mineral fertilizer leached up to 25% N-nutrients. All the treatments had minimal effects on the soil properties of pH and electrical conductivity. According to the microbial analysis, the digestate-encapsulated biochar has the comparable role with compost in improving the soil immune system against pathogen infection. The metagenomics coupling with qPCR analysis suggested that digestate-encapsulated biochar boosted the nitrification process and inhibited the denitrification process. This study provides an extensive understanding into the impacts of the digestate-encapsulated biochar on an ornamental plant and offers practical implications for the choice of sustainable fertilizers or soil additives and food-waste digestate management.