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21. 题目: Water mass age and dissolved organic matter properties drive the diversity of pelagic prokaryotes in the Western Mediterranean Sea
文章编号: N23032411
期刊: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
作者: Grazia Marina Quero, Simona Retelletti Brogi, Chiara Santinelli, Gian Marco Luna
更新时间: 2023-03-24

The deep sea is among the largest, yet still poorly known, ecosystems on Earth. This knowledge gap is particularly evident for the bathypelagic layer (between 1000 and 4000 m) of the deep Mediterranean Sea (MS), characterized by peculiar environmental conditions at meso- and bathypelagic depths, such as the thermal signature of the deep waters, showing temperatures approximately 10 °C higher than any oceanic system at comparable depths. This sustains high rates of prokaryotic activities and fast dissolved organic matter (DOM) mineralization rates, and likely selects for unique microbial assemblages. We collected seawater samples in stations representative of different areas of the Western Mediterranean Sea (Algero-Provençal Basin, Alboran Sea and Gulf of Lion), from the surface to the bathypelagic layer (down to 2680 m) and in different water masses, and described the composition of pelagic prokaryotic communities, along with measurements of the main physical-chemical variables, concentration and optical properties (absorption and fluorescence) of DOM. Remarkable differences in DOM optical properties were observed among water masses, with highest dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values in surface waters and lowest in the oldest water masses represented by the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) and the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), which were characterized by the highest concentration of recalcitrant DOM. The water mass had a significant partitioning effect on microbial community composition, which showed the highest richness in LIW. DOC, the marine humic-like component of DOM (C1mh) and oxygen were the main drivers of prokaryotic community structure. Changes in quality of DOM were reflected in shifts in community composition, supporting the existence of strong relationships between DOM quality and microbial community composition in the deep MS. Our data shed light the community composition and diversity patterns of prokaryotic plankton in the deep western MS, helping to elucidate the major microbial players in the DOM cycling, and to progress towards a better comprehension of its future trends in light of changing conditions that are modifying the oceanography of the entire MS basin.

22. 题目: Insight into Chinese medicine residue biochar combined with ultrasound for persulfate activation in atrazine degradation: Acanthopanax senticosus precursors, synergistic effects and toxicity assessment
文章编号: N23032410
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Wenrui Jia, Huazhe Wang, Qinglian Wu, Lushi Sun, Qishi Si, Qi Zhao, Yaohua Wu, Nanqi Ren, Wanqian Guo
更新时间: 2023-03-24

The synergistic activation of persulfate by multiple factors could degrade pollutants more efficiently. However, the co-activation method based on metal ions has the risk of leakage. The non-metallic coupling method could achieve the same efficiency as the metal activation and meanwhile release environmental stress. In this study, the original biochar (BC) was prepared through using Chinese medicinal residue of Acanthopanax senticosus as the precursor. Compared with other biochar, the pore size structure was higher and toxicity risk was lower. The ultrasonic (US)/Acanthopanax senticosus biochar (ASBC)/persulfate oxidation system was established for Atrazine (ATZ). Results showed that 45KHz in middle and low frequency band cooperated with ASBC600 to degrade nearly 70 % of ATZ within 50 min, and US promoted the formation of SO4radical and radicalOH. Meanwhile, the synergy index of US and ASBC was calculated to be 1.18, which showed positive synergistic effect. Finally, the potential toxicity was examined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and luminescent bacteria. This study provides a promising way for the activation of persulfate, which is expected to bring a new idea for the win-win situation of pollutant degradation and solid waste resource utilization.

23. 题目: Uracil in the carbonaceous asteroid (162173) Ryugu
文章编号: N23032409
期刊: Nature Communications
作者: Yasuhiro Oba, Toshiki Koga, Yoshinori Takano, Nanako O Ogawa, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Kazunori Sasaki, Hajime Sato, Daniel P Glavin, Jason P Dworkin, Hiroshi Naraoka, Shogo Tachibana, Hisayoshi Yurimoto, Tomoki Nakamura, Takaaki Noguchi, Ryuji Okazaki, Hikaru Yabuta, Kanako Sakamoto, Toru Yada, Masahiro Nishimura, Aiko Nakato, Akiko Miyazaki, Kasumi Yogata, Masanao Abe, Tatsuaki Okada, Tomohiro Usui, Makoto Yoshikawa, Takanao Saiki, Satoshi Tanaka, Fuyuto Terui, Satoru Nakazawa, Sei-Ichiro Watanabe, Yuichi Tsuda, null null
更新时间: 2023-03-24

The pristine sample from the near-Earth carbonaceous asteroid (162173) Ryugu collected by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft enabled us to analyze the pristine extraterrestrial material without uncontrolled exposure to the Earth’s atmosphere and biosphere. The initial analysis team for the soluble organic matter reported the detection of wide variety of organic molecules including racemic amino acids in the Ryugu samples. Here we report the detection of uracil, one of the four nucleobases in ribonucleic acid, in aqueous extracts from Ryugu samples. In addition, nicotinic acid (niacin, a B3 vitamer), its derivatives, and imidazoles were detected in search for nitrogen heterocyclic molecules. The observed difference in the concentration of uracil between A0106 and C0107 may be related to the possible differences in the degree of alteration induced by energetic particles such as ultraviolet photons and cosmic rays. The present study strongly suggests that such molecules of prebiotic interest commonly formed in carbonaceous asteroids including Ryugu and were delivered to the early Earth.

24. 题目: Sedimentary organic matter molecular composition reveals the eutrophication of the past 500 years in Lake Daihai, Inner Mongolia
文章编号: N23032408
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Chukun Hu, Hai Xu, Siwei Shi, Jianghu Lan, Kang'en Zhou, Jin Zhang, Yunping Song, Jing Wang, Pingqing Fu
更新时间: 2023-03-24

Lake eutrophication seriously threatens water quality and human health. Under continuous global warming and intensified human activity, increasing attention is being paid to how lake trophic status responds to climate change and anthropogenic impacts. Based on the sedimentary organic matter (SOM) molecular composition determined by the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) technology, and combined with the SOM stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15Norg), we studied how lake trophic status and ecology respond to both climatic changes and anthropogenic impacts of the past 500 yrs at Lake Daihai, Inner Mongolia. The results show that the relative abundance of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates in lake sediments kept relatively low before AD ∼1850, and increased gradually thereafter, especially after AD ∼1950, suggesting that the lake trophic status was low before AD ∼1850, but obviously increased during the past one more century. On the other hand, the relative abundance of allochthonous condensed aromatics and vascular plant-derived polyphenols compounds gradually decreased after AD ∼1850, which is most likely due to the intensified land-use changes in the catchment. Our results show that the SOM molecular composition is more sensitive to trace the land-use changes than the δ15Norg ratios, suggesting a potential use of this technique to trace even earlier human land uses (e.g., during the prehistorical times) in a catchment. The results of this study suggest that intensified land-use change, increased discharges of human sewage and industrial wastewater, cropland runoff, and concentrated effects caused by lake level drops may have combinedly increased nutrient concentration and accelerated lake eutrophication at Lake Daihai. Therefore, proper policy is necessary to slow down anthropogenic impacts and limit further eutrophication for lakes like Lake Daihai.

25. 题目: Ocean-atmosphere interactions: Different organic components across Pacific and Southern Oceans
文章编号: N23032407
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Jiyi Jang, Jiyeon Park, Jongkwan Park, Young Jun Yoon, Manuel Dall’Osto, Ki-Tae Park, Eunho Jang, Ji-Yi Lee, Kyung Hwa Cho, Bang Yong Lee
更新时间: 2023-03-24

Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles strongly influence clouds and climate but the potential impact of ocean microbiota on SSA fluxes is still a matter of active research. Here–by means of in situ ship-borne measurements–we explore simultaneously molecular-level chemical properties of organic matter (OM) in oceans, sea ice, and the ambient PM2.5 aerosols along a transect of 15,000 km from the western Pacific Ocean (36°13′N) to the Southern Ocean (75°15′S). By means of orbitrap mass spectrometry and optical characteristics, lignin-like material (24 ± 5 %) and humic material (57 ± 8 %) were found to dominate the pelagic Pacific Ocean surface, while intermediate conditions were observed in the Pacific-Southern Ocean waters. In the marine atmosphere, we found a gradient of features in the aerosol: lignin-like material (31 ± 9 %) dominating coastal areas and the pelagic Pacific Ocean, whereas lipid-like (23 ± 16 %) and protein-like (11 ± 10 %) OM controlled the sympagic Southern Ocean (sea ice-influence). The results of this study showed that the OM composition in the ocean, which changes with latitude, affects the OM in aerosol compositions in the atmosphere. This study highlights the importance of the global-scale OM monitoring of the close interaction between the ocean, sea ice, and the atmosphere. Sympagic primary marine aerosols in polar regions must be treated differently from other pelagic-type oceans.

26. 题目: Fate of Naturally Dissolved Organic Matter and Synthetic Organic Compounds Subjected to Drinking Water Treatment Using Membrane, Activated Carbon, and UV/H2O2 Technologies
文章编号: N23032406
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Wenjun Sun, Yuanna Zhang, Zedong Lu, Yanchu Ke, Xuelin Wang, Jing Wu
更新时间: 2023-03-24
摘要: Organic pollutants are toxic and are present in drinking water. The conventional processes of most water plants can basically meet the discharge standard. However, based on the improvement of the objective of organic pollutants control and the constant change of water characteristics, the results may not be ideal. This study evaluates the effectiveness of different treatments such as microfiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, activated carbon, and ultraviolet irradiation/H2O2 in terms of the removal of organic pollutants. Among the DOM results, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and activated carbon showed optimal performance due to the characteristics of processes and the compound properties. However, the risks of low-molecular-weight organic residue and byproduct formation are still present. Thirty-nine species of synthetic organic compounds (SOC) were qualitatively and semiquantitatively analyzed. Different technologies showed varying removal capabilities for SOC based on their properties and many substances coexisted leading to abnormal removal performances. These residual organics showed the characteristics of lower molecular weight, more hydrophilicity, further unknown impacts, and with risk of DBPs. Based on the above insights, possible methods can be rationally chosen for on-demand decontamination of organics in unconfined aquatic environment and long-time impact on water characteristics and human health also should be considered.

27. 题目: Dissolved organic matter transformation mechanisms and process optimization of wastewater sludge hydrothermal humification treatment for producing plant biostimulants
文章编号: N23032405
期刊: Water Research
作者: Siying Cai, Yu Zhang, Aibin Hu, Ming Liu, Hanjun Wu, Dongsheng Wang, Weijun Zhang
更新时间: 2023-03-24

Understanding the composition, transformation and bioactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the molecular level is crucial for investigating the hydrothermal humification process of wastewater sludge and producing ecological fertilizers. In this study, DOM transformation pathways under alkali–thermal humification treatment (AHT) were characterized by Fourier transform–ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT–ICR MS) in conjunction with molecular reaction network analysis. The effects of DOM on plant growth were examined using hydroponics and transcriptomic analysis. In the wastewater sludge humification process, AHT produced maximum amounts of protein (3260.56 mg/L) and humic acid (5788.24 mg/L) after 12 hours. FT–ICR MS results indicated that protein-like structures were prone to continuous oxidation and were ultimately transformed into aromatic N-containing compounds resembling humic substances. Several reactive fragments (such as –C2H2O2, –C3H4O2, and –C4H6O2) formed by the Maillard reaction (MR) were identified as potential precursors to humic acid (HA). In terms of biological effects, DOM12h showed the highest rice germination and growth activity, whereas that produced by AHT for a longer period (> 12 h) displayed phytotoxicity owing to the accumulation of toxic substances. Plant biostimulants (such as amino acids and HAs) in DOM improved energy metabolism and carbohydrate storage in rice seedlings by upregulating the “starch and sucrose metabolism” pathways. Toxic substances (such as pyrrole, pyridine, and melanoidin) in DOM can activate cell walls formation to inhibit abiotic stimuli in rice seedlings through the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid pathway. These findings provide a theoretical basis for optimizing sludge hydrothermal humification and recovering high-quality liquid fertilizers.

28. 题目: Vegetation restoration effects on soil carbon and nutrient concentrations and enzymatic activities in post-mining lands are mediated by mine type, climate, and former soil properties
文章编号: N23032404
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Chaoxiang Yuan, Fuzhong Wu, Qiqian Wu, Dario A Fornara, Petr Heděnec, Yan Peng, Guiqing Zhu, Zemin Zhao, Kai Yue
更新时间: 2023-03-24

Vegetation restoration is a widely used, effective, and sustainable method to improve soil quality in post-mining lands. Here we aimed to assess global patterns and driving factors of potential vegetation restoration effects on soil carbon, nutrients, and enzymatic activities. We synthesized 4624 paired observations extracted from 175 publications to evaluate the effects that vegetation restoration might have on the concentrations of soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, as well as enzymatic activities. We found that (1) vegetation restoration had consistent positive effects on the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, total phosphorus, and available phosphorus on average by 85.4, 70.3, 75.7, 54.6, 58.6, 34.7, and 60.4 %, respectively. Restoration also increased the activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase, sucrase, and urease by 63.3, 104.8, 125.5, and 124.6 %, respectively; (2) restoration effects did not vary among different vegetation types (i.e., grass, tree, shrub and their combinations) or leaf type (broadleaved, coniferous, and mixed), but were affected by mine type; and (3) latitude, climate, vegetation species richness, restoration year, and initial soil properties are important moderator variables, but their effects varied among different soil variables. Our global scale study shows how vegetation restoration can improve soil quality in post-mining lands by increasing soil carbon, nutrients, and enzymatic activities. This information is crucial to better understand the role of vegetation cover in promoting the ecological restoration of degraded mining lands.

29. 题目: Detoxification mechanisms of biochar on plants in chromium contaminated soil: Chromium chemical forms and subcellular distribution
文章编号: N23032403
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Ping Sun, Youyuan Chen, Xiaochen Li, Lecheng Liu, Jiameng Guo, Xilai Zheng, Xiaoli Liu
更新时间: 2023-03-24

The complete pathway of chromium (Cr) transfer from soil to plant tissues and subcellular components under biochar amendment remains to be quantified, as well as the involved diverse detoxification processes in roots and stems respectively. Pot experiments and quantitative analysis were conducted to investigate Cr fixation in soil amended with Enteromorpha prolifera-derived biochar and subsequent phytoprocesses (Cr uptake, transfer, and phytotoxicity) in cultivated Secale cereale L. (rye). The results indicated that adding 5–30 g kg−1 of biochar increased the residual form of Cr (B4) in soil by 8–21% and decreased the bioavailable form of Cr (B1) by 9–29%. For Cr transferred to rye, Cr in the rye was mainly present in the low-toxicity bound state, with the acetic acid-extracted Cr (F4) (45–54%) in roots and the NaCl-extracted Cr (F3) (37–47%) in stems. The subcellular distribution of Cr in both roots and stems was predominantly in the cell wall and residues (T1), followed by the cytoplasm (T4). Partial least squares path model (PLS-PM) was used for quantifying the effect of biochar on the form changes and subcellular detoxification of Cr from soil to roots and stems to sub-cells. In soils, biochar reduced the bioavailability of Cr and decreased the transfer of Cr to rye. In plant roots, Cr was distributed mainly as low-toxicity phosphate complexes in cell walls and vacuoles in sub-cells (with the largest path coefficients of 0.90 and −0.91, respectively). In the stems, Cr was distributed mainly as proteins integrated into the cell walls and vacuoles. This was due to the difference in subcellular compartmentalization of detoxification in the roots and stems. These PLS-PM results provide new insights into the entire process of pollutant detoxification in complex environments.

30. 题目: Persulfate oxidation of tetracycline, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and resistance genes activated by Fe doped biochar catalysts: Synergy of radical and non-radical processes
文章编号: N23032402
期刊: Chemical Engineering Journal
作者: Mengmeng Wang, Yafei Wang, Yingchun Li, Chenhao Wang, Shaoping Kuang, Peng Ren, Binghan Xie
更新时间: 2023-03-24

To reduce the adverse effects of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment, this study employed iron-loaded biochar (Fe-LBH) as an activator in a persulfate (PDS) oxidation system to degrade tetracycline (TC), inactivate antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), and remove ARGs. TC was removed efficiently (more than 85%) in the Fe-LBH-PDS system within 30 min, which was higher than that in the pristine biochar-PDS system (15.5%). The Fe doping amount in biochar, PDS, and catalyst dose significantly affected TC degradation. Furthermore, the Fe-LBH-PDS system inactivated 60.4% of ARB (Pseudomonas aeruginosa HLS-6) within 60 min. The removal efficiencies of ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and intI1 were 0.05–0.60- and 1.54–2.74 log2-fold, respectively. Fe (II) and oxygen functional groups (e.g., -C-OH and -C = O) were verified as the reactive sites for PDS activation. In addition, according to the results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and radical quenching experiments, the radical pathway dominated by radicalOH and the non-radical pathway dominated by singlet oxygen (1O2) play synergistic roles in the Fe-LBH-PDS oxidation process. These findings provide a possible application of Fe-LBH-PDS for TC degradation and hindering antibiotic resistance dissemination in wastewater treatment practice.

31. 题目: Sea ice melting drives substantial change in dissolved organic matter in surface water off Prydz Bay, East Antarctic
文章编号: N23032401
期刊: Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences
作者: Jianchun Yu, Guoping Zhu, Yasong Wang, Yinghui Wang, Lulu Han, Zijun Liu, Xi Zhang, Yunping Xu
更新时间: 2023-03-24
摘要: Polar ecosystems are vulnerable to climate warming and are characterized by a rapid decline in sea ice. In this study, we collected surface water samples from the Southern Ocean off Prydz Bay during and after sea ice melting season (SIM). After removing the particles using 0.7-μm pore size filters, we measured the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by using the total organic carbon analyzer, optical spectrometry, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The mean DOC concentration during the SIM is 1.3-fold higher than that during the post-SIM, whereas the a350 value, an indicator of chromophoric DOM, showed the opposite trend by a factor of 2.8. Five components, including three humic-like and two protein-like substances were identified by fluorescence excitation emission matrices-parallel factor analysis, in which protein-like biolabile components were enriched during the SIM and humic-like refractory components were enriched during the post-SIM. The DOM in the water samples from the SIM had higher proportions of polycyclic aromatics, polyphenols, and compounds within molecular lability boundary, whereas the DOM from the post-SIM had a higher proportion of highly unsaturated compounds. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between DOM and sea-ice melting/associated environmental factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, and microbial activity). These collective results suggest that sea ice melting is an important factor driving a transition from more labile to more refractory DOM in the surface water off Prydz Bay, which may have a profound impact on the marine ecosystem and carbon cycle in the polar ocean.

32. 题目: Insights into the well-dispersed nano-Fe3O4 catalyst supported by N-doped biochar prepared from steel pickling waste liquor for activating peroxydisulfate to degrade tetracycline
文章编号: N23032311
期刊: Chemical Engineering Journal
作者: Penghui Guo, Yaqian Zhou, Yabin Zhang, Yongkui Li, Haiping Lei, Hao Zhang, Suqin Li
更新时间: 2023-03-23

The harmless and high-value added utilization of steel pickling waste liquor (SPWL) is a major challenge in the metallurgical advancement. Herein, well-dispersed nano-Fe3O4 (NF) composite with N-doped biochar as a spatial support (NF/0.5N3BC) is synthesized from SPWL and corncob, which has a large specific surface area (159.12 m2/g) and mesoporous structure. Besides, it exhibits excellent degradation efficiency (91.56%) and rate constant (0.042 min-1) of tetracycline (TC, 50 mg/L) by activating peroxydisulfate (PDS). Both free radicals and non-free radicals contribute to the TC degradation, among which the Fe species, defective edges, C=O, graphitic-N, and pyridinic-N are identified as the possible active sites. Particularly, N3BC cooperates with NF to form an internal electronic field to accelerate the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle and direct electron transfer process. Further, the possible degradation pathways are proposed based on DFT and HPLC-MS analysis, and the toxicity prediction results verify that NF/0.5N3BC+PDS system has an excellent TC degradation/detoxification ability. This study provided a novel strategy for high-value added utilization of SPWL and economically feasible treatment of TC-contaminated wastewater, so as to realizing the goal of “treating waste with waste”.

33. 题目: Activation of endogenous cadmium from biochar under simulated acid rain enhances the accumulation risk of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
文章编号: N23032310
期刊: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
作者: Hongbiao Cui, Jieyu Cheng, LuLu Shen, Xuebo Zheng, Jing Zhou, Jun Zhou
更新时间: 2023-03-23

Biochar has been widely applied to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils, but the environmental risk of the endogenous pollutants in biochar remains unclear. Two biochars with different endogenous cadmium (Cd) concentrations were prepared from background soil (BCB) and contaminated soil (BCC), respectively. We studied the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the activation mechanism of endogenous Cd in biochar and Cd uptake of Cd by lettuce from the biochar-amended soils. SAR aging significantly increased Cd bioavailability by 27.5 % and 53.9 % in BCB and BCC, respectively. The activation of Cd from biochar may be due to the decrease of biochar pH and persistent free radicals (PFRs) and the increase of specific surface area (SSA) and O-contained functional groups in biochars. Two biochars at dosages of 2 % and 5 % rates did not change soil pore water Cd, but BCB and BCC at 10 % increased pore water Cd by 17.3 % and 219 %, respectively after SAR aging. SAR aging significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd in BCB and BCC treated soils than those before SAR aging. BCB application enhanced the biomass of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and decreased the uptake of Cd. However, BCC addition at 10 % decreased the biomass of lettuce and increased the accumulation of Cd. In summary, endogenous Cd in biochar from contaminated soils has a potential environmental risk to plants and human health and the negative effects of endogenous pollutants from the biochars should be further investigated.

34. 题目: Role of Mineral–Organic Interactions in PFAS Retention by AFFF-Impacted Soil
文章编号: N23032309
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Thomas Wanzek, John F Stults, Mark G Johnson, Jennifer A Field, Markus Kleber
更新时间: 2023-03-23
摘要: A comprehensive, generalized approach to predict the retention of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) by a soil matrix as a function of PFAS molecular and soil physiochemical properties was developed. An AFFF with 34 major PFAS (12 anions and 22 zwitterions) was added to uncontaminated soil in one-dimensional saturated column experiments and PFAS mass retained was measured. PFAS mass retention was described using an exhaustive statistical approach to generate a poly-parameter quantitative structure–property relationship (ppQSPR). The relevant predictive properties were PFAS molar mass, mass fluorine, number of nitrogens in the PFAS molecule, poorly crystalline Fe oxides, organic carbon, and specific (BET-N2) surface area. The retention of anionic PFAS was nearly independent of soil properties and largely a function of molecular hydrophobicity, with the size of the fluorinated side chain as the main predictor. Retention of nitrogen-containing zwitterionic PFAS was related to poorly crystalline metal oxides and organic carbon content. Knowledge of the extent to which a suite of PFAS may respond to variations in soil matrix properties, as developed here, paves the way for the development of reactive transport algorithms with the ability to capture PFAS dynamics in source zones over extended time frames.

35. 题目: An innovative way to treat cash crop wastes: The fermentation characteristics and functional microbial community using different substrates to produce Agricultural Jiaosu
文章编号: N23032308
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Youhui Gao, Zehui Zheng, Xiaoqian Cheng, Yue Zhang, Xiaoping Liu, Yuegao Hu, Yafan Cai, Xiaofen Wang
更新时间: 2023-03-23

With the increase of global demand for cash crops, a large of cash crop waste was produced and caused severe environmental issues. To produce Agricultural Jiaosu (AJ) using these wastes is a sustainable waste disposal method. However, the fermentation mechanism, metabolites, and microbial characteristics of AJ fermented with different substrates remain unclear. In this study, the effects of different substrates (fruit and vegetable waste and Chinese herbal medicine waste) on the fermentation characteristics of AJ, including metabolites and microbial community properties, were investigated. The results revealed that AJ fermentation was a process of converting organic matter into organic acids and other metabolites, mainly including hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and maturation stages. At the genus level, Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Hydrogenibacillus, Halomonas, and Prevotella_1 were the dominant bacteria in the fermentation system. The bacterial diversity of composite substrate AJ was higher than that of single substrate AJ. The organic acids and secondary metabolites concentration and the composition of key microorganisms depended on the substrate type. Furthermore, AJ's potential functional genes were mainly concentrated in cofactors and vitamin, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism. The findings of this study indicated that AJ is an innovative eco-friendly technology that can convert cash crop wastes into sustainable eco-products, and that its characteristics depend on the substrate type. Therefore, the substrate used to produce AJ should be carefully selected according to the application field.

36. 题目: Combined effects of long-term tillage and fertilisation regimes on soil organic carbon, microbial biomass, and abundance of the total microbial communities and N-functional guilds
文章编号: N23032307
期刊: Applied Soil Ecology
作者: Anton Govednik, Živa Potočnik, Klemen Eler, Rok Mihelič, Marjetka Suhadolc
更新时间: 2023-03-23

Reduced tillage intensity is known to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) in the topsoil, but can also lead to increased microbially derived nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Although the trade-offs between C sequestration and N2O emissions under different agricultural practices have been extensively investigated, the reported results are conflicting and, thus remain unclear. In this study, the effects of different types of tillage [no-till (NT) and conventional mouldboard tillage (CT)] in combination with four fertilisation regimes [unfertilised control (CON), mineral NPK (MIN), organic (compost) (ORG), and mixed (NPK + compost) (MIX)] on SOC and microbial biomass (Cmic) were examined two decades after the experiment was initiated. The abundance of the microbial community and N-functional guilds within the soil profile (up to a depth of 60 cm) was also determined. SOC content was significantly higher in NT than in CT at 0–10 cm depth, with an average difference of 0.6–1.3 % SOC, depending on fertilisation. Organic fertilisation increased the SOC content in both tillage systems up to a depth of 20 cm. Microbial biomass, abundance of total bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, and fungal ITS genes decreased with depth, corresponding to the decrease in SOC, and, consequently, were higher in NT than in CT, in the top 20 cm soil for microbial biomass and bacterial abundance and top 10 cm for fungi and archaea. Denitrifiers and ammonium oxidising archaea (AOA) were affected by soil depth and tillage, whereas the distribution of ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB) was affected by fertilisation and depth. The ratios between (i) the two nitrite-reducing communities (nirS/nirK), (ii) the two N2O-reducing communities (nosZI/nosZII), and (iii) the nitrite- and N2O-reducing communities [(nirK + nirS)/(nosZ + nosZII)] increased significantly with soil depth, indicating niche differentiation caused by differences in nutrients contents and environmental conditions. Overall, stratification of SOC and nutrients in the soil by tillage and fertilisation was the main driver of the differences in the total microbial and N cycling communities. The findings of our study provide novel insights that can aid in development of effective strategies for steering soil microbiome responsible for N2O emissions.

37. 题目: Sewage sludge derived magnetic biochar effectively activates peroxymonosulfate for the removal of norfloxacin
文章编号: N23032306
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: Chao Liu, Ziqian Wang, Sheng Hua, Hao Jiao, Yiliang Chen, Dahu Ding
更新时间: 2023-03-23

As an undesirable by-product of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), sewage sludge (SS) caused considerable stress on the normal operation of WWTPs, because of its expensive disposal costs. On the other hand, exploiting resource utilization of the residual SS seems to be an attractive approach to resolve this problem. In this study, SS was thermally converted into biochar catalysts (SBC) under oxygen-limiting conditions. By using peroxymonosulfate (PMS) as the chemical oxidant, norfloxacin (NOR) could be effectively removed and the reaction was significantly accelerated after the addition of SBC. Specifically, over 90% of NOR was eliminated by the SBC800/PMS process within 70 min. As evidenced by the comprehensive mechanistic investigations, 1O2 as well as electron-transfer regime primarily participated in the NOR degradation process, while radical species played minor roles. More importantly, the endogenous iron substances endowed SBC with magnetic properties, making the efficient separation of SBC from water available. Eventually, the possible intermediates were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the corresponding degradation pathways were proposed. Overall, this research developed a novel method to achieve the remediation of NOR-contaminated water and elimination of the potential risks of SS simultaneously.

38. 题目: Photoreduction of Hg(II) by typical dissolved organic matter in paddy environments
文章编号: N23032305
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Xin Wen, Xu Yang, Tantan Wang, Zihao Li, Chi Ma, Wenhao Chen, Yubo He, Chang Zhang
更新时间: 2023-03-23

The photochemical behavior of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface water and its effect on Hg(II) photoreduction has been extensively studied, but the contribution of DOM in paddy water to Hg(II) photoreduction is largely unknown. Herein, the effect of DOM from biochar (BCDOM), rice straw (RSDOM), and chicken manure (CMDOM) on Hg(II) photoreduction were examined. The comparable reduction efficiency of Hg(II) suggested that DOM-like fraction (62.3–63.7%) contributes more than suspended particulate matter-like fraction (17.7–23.4%) and bacteria-like fraction (13.0–20.0%) in paddy water. Under irradiation, the typical DOM significantly promoted Hg(II) photoreduction, and the reduction efficiency of BCDOM (65.5 ± 2.1%) was higher than that of CMDOM (48.3 ± 2.6%) and RSDOM (32.8 ± 2.4%) in 6 h. The quenching and kinetics experiments showed that superoxide anion (O2•−) was the main reactive species for Hg(II) photoreduction. Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry revealed that DOM with a higher degree of lignin/carboxy-rich acyclic molecules, condensed aromatics structures, and phenolic compounds could promote the formation of O2•−. These findings highlight the importance of DOM in Hg(II) photoreduction and provide new ideas for regulating Hg cycling and bioavailability in paddy environments.

39. 题目: Contributions of hypolithic communities to surface soil organic carbon across a hyperarid-to-arid climate gradient
文章编号: N23032304
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Brittney D Monus, Elise N Nghalipo, Vimbai J Marufu, Ferran Garcia-Pichel, Heather L Throop
更新时间: 2023-03-23

Carbon (C) in soils accounts for a substantial and dynamic portion of the global C cycle, with concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC) typically closely linked to vascular plant productivity. However, C fixed by non-vascular photosynthetic organisms may account for a sizeable proportion of SOC in locations where vascular plants are not abundant. In the hyperarid Namib Desert, vascular plant growth is very limited and largely ephemeral. Extreme abiotic conditions even limit establishment of cyanobacterial soil crusts, with photoautotrophic cyanobacteria largely restricted to the undersides of translucent quartz clasts that buffer environmental extremes. The importance of these ‘hypoliths’ in enhancing SOC pools, and how this may vary with climate and clast physical characteristics, remains unknown. We worked across a rainfall and fog gradient in the central Namib to assess quartz clast size and distribution, factors affecting the probability of hypolithic colonization, and the landscape-level influence of hypoliths on surface SOC pools. Clast colonization increased with clast thickness and with increasing mean annual rainfall. SOC and chlorophyll a (a proxy for cyanobacterial biomass) concentrations were greater under colonized quartz clasts than under non-quartz clasts or in bare soil. Landscape-level SOC, estimated by combining SOC concentration with the distribution and colonization of quartz clasts, was greatest at the site with the highest rainfall and lowest at a mid-gradient site with moderate rainfall and fog. Climate change scenarios that promote quartz colonization have the potential to double SOC pools at the mid-gradient site, although SOC changes would be more muted at other sites. Low vascular plant and biocrust cover in the Namib Desert allows hypolithic communities to play an outsized role in SOC pools; a loss of all hypolithic cyanobacteria would lead to 10–20% declines in surface SOC pools. Future climate change has the potential to shift surface SOC if it alters cyanobacterial colonization of quartz.

40. 题目: Determinants of Microbial-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter Diversity in Antarctic Lakes
文章编号: N23032303
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Morimaru Kida, Julian Merder, Nobuhide Fujitake, Yukiko Tanabe, Kentaro Hayashi, Sakae Kudoh, Thorsten Dittmar
更新时间: 2023-03-23
摘要: Identifying drivers of the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is essential to understand the global carbon cycle, but an unambiguous interpretation of observed patterns is challenging due to the presence of confounding factors that affect the DOM composition. Here, we show, by combining ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that the DOM molecular composition varies considerably among 43 lakes in East Antarctica that are isolated from terrestrial inputs and human influence. The DOM composition in these lakes is primarily driven by differences in the degree of photodegradation, sulfurization, and pH. Remarkable molecular beta-diversity of DOM was found that rivals the dissimilarity between DOM of rivers and the deep ocean, which was driven by environmental dissimilarity rather than the spatial distance. Our results emphasize that the extensive molecular diversity of DOM can arise even in one of the most pristine and organic matter source-limited environments on Earth, but at the same time the DOM composition is predictable by environmental variables and the lakes’ ecological history.

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