61. 题目: Linking molecular composition to proton and copper binding ability of fulvic acid: A theoretical modeling approach based on FT-ICR-MS analysis
期刊: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
作者: Pei Wang, Yang Ding, Yuzhen Liang, Minqin Liu, Xiaofeng Lin, Qianting Ye, Zhenqing Shi
摘要: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the most important ligands governing the geochemical cycling of metals in the environment, but recent studies with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) have shown enormous complexity and diversity of DOM composition. How the diverse molecular composition of DOM affects the reactivity of DOM with metals is still largely unknown, which precludes us from developing accurate geochemical models for the fate of metals in the environment. In this study, we combined FT-ICR-MS analysis and theoretical modeling approaches and specifically elucidated the link between molecular composition and the proton and Cu binding ability of DOM, using the Suwannee River fulvic acid (FA) as a model humic substance. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to generate different extents of molecular fractionation of FA samples by ferrihydrite. FT-ICR-MS analyses were employed to investigate the changes of molecular composition while Cu titration and the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) were used to quantify the variations on the Cu binding capacities of FA samples. We developed a general theoretical modeling approach, which integrated a suite of theoretical modeling methods, including the Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter-Modeler (VSOMM), SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry (SPARC), and the linear free energy relationships (LFER), for molecular modeling based on FT-ICR-MS data. Based on the FT-ICR-MS results, we found that, despite of the complex molecular composition of FA, FA molecules can be divided into three representative groups and each group of molecules had distinct chemical properties. Interestingly, molecules within the same group had similar distributions of molecular properties. Based on the chemical properties of the three groups of FA molecules, we successfully constructed three molecular models of FA using VSOMM, and quantified the distributions of proton and Cu binding constants with SPARC and LFER. Those independently determined binding constants were comparable to the WHAM default proton and Cu binding constants, supporting the validity of our modeling approach. Our modeling results suggested that the molecular complexity of DOM may be simplified with representative groups of molecules based on their binding ability with metals in theoretical modeling. Our modeling approach based on FT-ICR-MS data shed light on developing mechanistical models for metal reactions with DOM based on the molecular data, which is helpful for predicting the geochemical cycling of carbon and metals in the environment
62. 题目: Degradation of wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau causing a loss in soil organic carbon in 1966–2016
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Hailing Li, Tingting Li, Wenjuan Sun, Wen Zhang, Qing Zhang, Lijun Yu, Zhangcai Qin, Bin Guo, Jia Liu, Xingchu Zha
摘要: Aims Reveal the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock change in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) alpine wetlands in the past fifty years. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) has a large area of alpine marshland and wet meadows. Artificial drainage, overgrazing and climate change have caused severe degradation of the alpine wetlands. However, little is known about the effects of wetland degradation on SOC stock, and studies only focused on the Zoige marshland, the biggest marshland of China. Direct SOC observations from the extensively distributed wet meadows remain scarce. Methods SOC in the soil surface layer (0–50 cm) were investigated at four wetland sites where degradation has continued for decades. One site is in marshland, and three are in wet meadows of the QTP. Using datasets from the literature and the field measurements of the present study, we estimated the loss of alpine wetland SOC. Results and conclusions Initially, marshland degradation to wet meadows prompted the accumulation of SOC; however, grazing in wet meadows reduced SOC accumulation. Wetland degradation to dried meadows led to a much greater SOC loss than that in the initial degradation stage, and grazing exacerbated the loss of SOC. An exponential decay rate of SOC was found in the grazed dried meadows. The wetlands of the QTP, have lost 141 ± 25 Tg in 1966–2016, representing 15% of the SOC stock.
63. 题目: Control of variability of primary grain assemblages on the stratigraphic differences in diagenetic processes and products in organic-rich sediments
期刊: Sedimentary Geology
作者: Kenneth Chukwuma, Harilaos Tsikos, Nicola Wagner
摘要: Diagenesis exerts a key control on the evolution of mineralogical systems in shales, and by extension, on the development of rock properties amenable to unconventional reservoir prospectivity. To develop an understanding of the control of primary grain assemblage on the diagenetic pathways and products in shales, integrated high-resolution petrographic and multiple geochemical studies were conducted on samples from a vertical transect of oil-gas mature (vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.98-2.72%) Whitehill Formation, a shale unit identified as the main potential gas reservoir in South Africa. Results show that the formation comprises three intervals with contrasting primary grain assemblages, including organic matter content, maceral type, and detrital mineral grains, as well as the submillimeter-scale arrangement of these constituents. The lower interval occurs as parallel-laminated black shale dominated by components derived from primary production, such as Tasmanites cysts, colonial algae, radiolarian tests, and amorphous organic matter with up to 5.78% TOC, and depleted in siliciclastic detritus. The mid and upper intervals contain biologically produced components (up to 16.57% TOC) and high quantities of siliciclastic mud dominated by clay minerals and micas, and are organized into thick discontinuous gray laminae. Petrographic data suggest that the high organic content supported a variety of bacterial metabolic pathways, which caused the precipitation of mineral cements in the sediment pore spaces prior to compaction. However, the early diagenetic reactions and products in these intervals display systematic variations that reflect heterogeneity in their primary grain assemblages. The presence of framboidal pyrite throughout the lower interval suggests sulfate reduction as the predominant metabolic pathway. In absence of significant volumes of siliciclastics, the acidity associated with this process was poorly buffered, and the pore waters were reducing. These conditions led to the dissolution of opaline radiolarian tests, which recrystallized within Tasmanites cysts and interstitial pores to quartz. On the contrary, carbon isotopes indicate that organic oxidation in the mid and upper sections was mainly promoted by methanogenic archaea and that the associated acidity was effectively buffered by the detrital aluminosilicates. The resulting bicarbonate alkalinities allowed for the formation of interstitial carbonate cements (dolomite, calcite). Aluminum released during the acid-consumption reactions recrystallized within sheltered and interstitial pores to chlorite. Considering that many other shale successions exhibit similar stratigraphic variability of primary grain assemblages as the Whitehill Formation, this type of study will improve the characterization of shale mineralogical systems and bulk properties amenable to sustainable unconventional exploration.
64. 题目: Evaluation of uptake of eight metals by Sorghum bicolor grown in arable soil combined with sewage sludge based on prediction models
期刊: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
作者: Kamal H. Shaltout, Saad A. M. Alamri, Sulaiman A. Alrumman, Ahmed A. Hussain, Nasser Sewelam, Ebrahem M. Eid
摘要: Prediction models were developed to estimate the extent to which aluminium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc were absorbed in the grains, leaves, stems, and roots of Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil with various amendment rate of sewage sludge (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/kg) under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, aside from lead, all the examined metals occurred in significantly higher content in the roots compared to aerial tissues. Furthermore, the r-values were significantly negative between the bioconcentration factors of all metals, apart from aluminium and lead, and soil pH, whereas they were significantly positive between the bioconcentration factors, apart from lead, and soil organic matter content (OM). The r-values were typically significantly positive between the levels of all eight metals in the investigated tissues and in the soil. Moreover, the content of all the eight metals in the tissues exhibited a significant negative r-value with soil pH but a significant positive r-value with soil OM. The eight metal contents in the tissues given by the prediction models were quite similar to the real values, suggesting that the created models performed well, as shown by t-tests. It was thus concluded that prediction models were a viable option for evaluating how safe it was to grow S. bicolor in soils with sewage sludge content and at the same time for keeping track of possible human health hazards.
65. 题目: Modeling the Bioavailability of Nickel and Zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Neocloeon triangulifer in Toxicity Tests with Natural Waters
期刊: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
作者: John M Besser, Chris D Ivey, Jeffery A Steevens, Danielle Cleveland, David Soucek, Amy Dickinson, Eric J Van Genderen, Adam C Ryan, Chris E Schlekat, Emily Garman, Ellie Middleton, Robert Santore
摘要: We studied biotic ligand model (BLM) predictions of toxicity of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in natural waters from Illinois and Minnesota USA which had combinations of pH, hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) more extreme than 99.7% of waters in a nationwide database. We conducted 7-d chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 96-hr acute test and 14-d chronic tests with Neocloeon triangulifer, and estimated LC50s and EC20s for both species. Toxicity of Ni and Zn to both species differed among test waters by factors from 8 (Zn tests with C. dubia) to 35 (Zn tests with N. triangulifer). For both species and metals, tests with Minnesota waters (low pH and hardness, high DOC) showed lower toxicity than Illinois waters (high pH, high hardness, low DOC). Recalibration of the Ni BLM to be more responsive to pH-related changes improved predictions of Ni toxicity, especially for C. dubia. We compared several input data scenarios for the Zn BLM, which generally had minor effects on Model Performance Scores (MPS). A scenario that included inputs of modeled dissolved inorganic carbon and measured Al and Fe(III) produced highest MPS values for tests with both C. dubia and N. triangulifer. Overall, the BLM framework successfully modeled variation in toxicity for both Zn and Ni across wide ranges of water chemistry in tests with both standard and novel test organisms.
66. 题目: Role of eddies and N2 fixation in regulating C:N:P proportions in the Bay of Bengal
作者: Deepika Sahoo, Himanshu Saxena, Sipai Nazirahmed, Sanjeev Kumar, A. K. Sudheer, Ravi Bhushan, Arvind Sahay, Arvind Singh
摘要: Recent observations and numerical simulations have profoundly established that the C:N:P ratios in the ocean deviate from the canonical Redfield Ratio (106:16:1). Physical and biogeochemical processes have been hypothesized to be responsible for this deviation. However, a paucity of concurrent observations on biogeochemical and physical parameters have barred us to understand their exact role on the C:N:P ratios. For this purpose, we have sampled the Bay of Bengal for its C, N, and P contents in the organic and inorganic pools from 5 to 2000 m depth at eight stations (five coastal and three open ocean) during boreal spring 2019. Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies were identified at two of the sampling stations, where nutrient concentrations were lower in the top layer (5 m to the depth of chlorophyll maximum) compared to those at the non-eddy stations. Mean (NO3−+NO2−):PO43− ratio was lower at the anticyclonic eddy stations compared to that at the non-eddy stations in the top layer. Yet C:N:P ratios in the particulate and dissolved organic matter in the top layer were the same at anticyclonic eddy and non-eddy stations. Overall the mean C:N:P ratios were 249:39:1 in particulate organic matter and 2338:146:1 in dissolved organic matter in the top layer. Biological N2 fixation was not a driver in controlling the N:P ratio of the export flux and the subsurface water nutrient ratios during spring. Although the Bay of Bengal receives large riverine influx, its influence in changing the C:N:P ratios was small during this study.
67. 题目: Degradation of antibiotics, organic matters and ammonia during secondary wastewater treatment using boron-doped diamond electro-oxidation combined with ceramic ultrafiltration
作者: Yang Song, Mengyao Xiao, Ziyang Li, Yunlong Luo, Kaiming Zhang, Xing Du, Tianxiang Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Heng Liang
摘要: In this study, a BDD electrolytic oxidation-ceramic membrane ultrafiltration (EO-CM) system for the removals of antibiotics, organic matters and ammonia in wastewater was evaluated. Sulfamethazine (SMZ) was degraded following a pseudo first-order kinetics. The removal rate of SMZ improved with the increase of electro-oxidation time (0–60 min) and current density (5–30 mA/cm2). During the BDD electro-oxidation process, H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were generated which were detected by N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) method and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), respectively. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was able to be removed by EO and CM processes, in which proteins and humic acids were regarded as the main removed components measured using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) technique. Moreover, BDD electro-oxidation pretreatment could make the CM process maintain a high water flux and significantly control the membrane fouling and relieve transmembrane pollution. In addition, the removal of ammonia was enhanced with the increase of chloride ions (Cl−) in wastewater during EO process due to the generation of active chlorine (i.e., ClO−, HClO, or Cl2) from the oxidation of Cl−. Chloramine and nitrogen were produced in the oxidation of ammonia by active chlorine. Overall, the results of this study suggest that BDD EO-CM system is a promising process for removing antibiotics, organic matters and ammonia.
68. 题目: Surface modification of nanofiltration membranes with zwitterions to enhance antifouling properties during brackish water treatment: A new concept of a “buffer layer”
期刊: Journal of Membrane Science
作者: Junwen Ding, Heng Liang, Xuewu Zhu, Daliang Xu, Xinsheng Luo, Zihui Wang, Langming Bai
摘要: Nanofiltration (NF)-based brackish water desalination has been labeled an emerging avenue for alleviating water scarcity, however, membrane fouling still restricts its broad application. Herein, zwitterion-modified membranes were prepared with polydopamine (PDA) and sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) monomers via surface-initiated atom-transfer radical-polymerization (SI-ATRP) and named TFC-PDA-PSBMA. Compared with the control membrane, the TFC-PDA-PSBMA possessed enhanced hydrophilicity, lower negative charge and smaller pore size. Superior salt retention of Na2SO4 and NaCl of up to 99.1% and 80.7% was obtained for TFC-PDA-PSBMA with only a 10% decrease in permeance. Furthermore, TFC-PDA-PSBMA exhibited an outstanding flux recovery of 92.1% during humic acid (HA) filtration. The mechanism driving the improved antifouling properties was analyzed from the aspects of the modified layer, free interfacial energy and hydration layer. TFC-PDA-PSBMA also exhibited superior antibiofouling with reducing 86.1% of E. coli colonies adhered on membrane surface. The SBMA layer and hydration layer acted together as a buffer layer with robust repulsion of foulants. In addition, the TFC-PDA-PSBMA membrane was applied in authentic brackish water desalination and exhibited superior selectivity, desalination and antifouling performance, which matched the simulated solution results well. A new concept of a “buffer layer” was proposed in this work, which may provide insight into antifouling membrane design during brackish water treatment.
69. 题目: Effects of clearcutting and girdling on soil respiration and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in a Japanese cedar plantation
期刊: Forest Ecology and Management
作者: Kazumichi Fujii, Shinya Funakawa, Chie Hayakawa, Takashi Kosaki
摘要: Impacts of forest management practices on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics remain under debate due to complex interactions between belowground biogeochemical processes. To optimize practices that minimize soil C and N losses, we investigated the effects of management practices on soil C and N fluxes, including the leaching of dissolved organic C (DOC) and N, by comparing clearcutting, stem girdling (removal of the bark and phloem tissue), and control treatments in a Japanese cedar plantation. Canopy opening by clearcutting is hypothesized to have a greater effect on soil C loss and the leaching of nitrate-N relative to girdling. Results showed that clearcutting increased soil heterotrophic respiration (organic matter decomposition) and lead to a loss of soil organic C (2.9–3.7 Mg C ha−1 yr−1). Higher litter inputs from girdled tree dieback caused an increase in DOC fluxes from the organic horizon, whereas the loss of fresh litter inputs decreased DOC fluxes from the organic horizon following clearcutting. Clearcutting increased nitrate-N leaching by 3.3–4.8 kg N ha−1 yr−1 due to the loss of plant N uptake and the increased mineralization of soil organic matter, but high C/N ratios in dissolved organic matter limited nitrate leaching in the girdled treatment. Effects of forest management practices on soil C loss and nitrate leaching loss could be variable, but the slash application in clearcutting and the slow dieback in stem girdling could mitigate soil C loss and nitrate leaching loss.
70. 题目: Insight into the role of extracellular polymeric substances in denitrifying biofilms under nitrobenzene exposure
期刊: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
作者: Xinyue Lu, Wenjie Xu, Caixia Liu, Quanlin Zhao, Zhengfang Ye
摘要: Denitrifying biofilm promises to be very useful for remediation of nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) and nitrates in wastewater. Little is known about the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in nitrobenzene (NB, a typical NAC) remediation, despite the indispensability of EPS for biofilm formation. Herein, the significance of the mechanistic role of EPS in the response of denitrifying biofilms to various levels of NB was investigated. The removal of NB was predominantly controlled via absorption, with little biodegradation during the short-term exposure. Specifically, NB was adsorbed by EPS, as shown by a total adsorption of 40.06% at the initial step, which declined to around 10.52% in the equilibrium stage, while sorption via cells gradually increased from 59.93% to 89.47% over the same period. The results suggested that EPS might act as an important reservoir for NB, which endows inner cells with increased adsorption ability. The presence of EPS might also alleviate the negative impacts of NB toxicity on inner cells, thus protecting microorganisms. This was indicated by the difference in denitrification performance and cell integrity between intact and EPS-free biofilms. High-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that EPS could maintain the stability of microbial communities under NB stress. The fluorescence quenching analysis further indicated that EPS formed stable complexes with NB mainly through hydrophobic interactions with protein-like fractions (tryptophan and tyrosine). Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy identified that the hydroxyl, amino, carboxyl, and phosphate groups of EPS were the candidate functional groups binding with NB. Protein secondary structures were also significantly affected, resulting in a loose structure and enhanced hydrophobic performance for EPS. These results provide insights into the role of EPS in alleviating NB-caused cellular stress and the underlying binding mechanisms between NB and EPS.
71. 题目: Does biochar application alleviate soil compaction? Review and data synthesis
作者: Humberto Blanco-Canqui
摘要: Biochar is considered to enhance numerous soil ecosystem services, but whether it alleviates soil compaction is not well known. This paper: 1) synthesizes the biochar impacts on soil compaction parameters including bulk density, penetration resistance, aggregate tensile strength, Proctor maximum bulk density (soil compactability), and the water content at which the Proctor maximum bulk density occurs (critical water content), 2) discusses potential factors affecting biochar performance, and 3) compares the impacts of biochar on soil compaction with those of other amendments. Literature indicates that biochar generally reduces bulk density, tensile strength, and Proctor maximum bulk density; and increases the critical water content but may or may not reduce penetration resistance. Biochar reduces bulk density from −1% to −20% (-8.8% average), tensile strength from −8 to −72% (-31% average), and Proctor maximum bulk density from −1 to −19% (-9.3% average), whereas it increases the critical water content from 1 to 64% (21% average). The increase in critical water content suggests soils with biochar can be trafficked at higher water content without causing compaction than soils without biochar. An increase in biochar application rate reduces soil compaction and explains 11% to 63% of the variability in compaction parameters, but biochar benefits can be short-lived (<2 yr). It appears that, in general, at least 10 Mg ha−1 of biochar are needed to significantly reduce compaction. Larger application rates (>20 Mg ha−1) can be needed for reducing penetration resistance and Proctor maximum bulk density than for other compaction parameters. Biochar has similar benefits to manure for reducing soil bulk density and can complement other organic amendments for reducing soil compaction. How biochar feedstock, pyrolysis temperature; and companion amendments; and soil texture influence biochar impacts on compaction is still unclear. Overall, biochar has the potential to alleviate soil compaction, but more long-term field data, particularly on penetration resistance, Proctor maximum bulk density, and critical water content for multiple biochar application rates, feedstocks, pyrolysis temperature; and amendments are needed to better elucidate biochar effects, biochar longevity, and optimum levels of biochar application.
72. 题目: Biochemical wastewater from landfill leachate pretreated by microalgae achieving algae’s self-reliant cultivation in full wastewater-recycling chain with desirable lipid productivity
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Lijie Zhang, Libin Zhang, Daoji Wu, Lin Wang, Zhigang Yang, Wenbao Yan, Yan Jin, Feiyong Chen, Yang Song, Xiaoxiang Cheng
摘要: Heightened awareness of additional pretreatment for wastewater, has driven studies towards building a full wastewater-recycling chain wherein the wastewater pretreatment is performed by microalgae themselves. We applied biochemical wastewater from landfill leachate with added K2HPO4 (BWLL+P) directly to microalgal cultivation. The results showed that the pretreatment provided by the 1st cultivation reduced suspended solids by nearly half, greatly boosting microalgal growth, which thus yielded 1.06 g/L of dry mass and 87.06 mg/L·d of biomass productivity. From the 2nd to the 4th cultivation, lipid accumulation in BWLL+P was 1.12–1.27 times and 1.95–2.36 times higher than in BG11 and BWLL, respectively, mainly attributed to the comfortable environment engendered by the microalgal pretreatment and the organic carbon in the wastewater. Strikingly, the biodiesel production fed with BWLL+P could save 99% of the cost compared with in BG11. In combination, our pioneering full wastewater-recycling chain achieved microalgae’s self-reliant cultivation, with wastewater nourishment.
73. 题目: Sulfate reduction and its important role in organic carbon mineralization in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary
期刊: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
作者: Xijie Yin, Yunpeng Lin, Yunhai Li, Liang Wang, Zhilei Sun, Guogang Li
摘要: The sulfate reduction process plays an important role in the early diagenesis of organic matter in the estuarine and coastal sediments. In this study, the sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were determined by the 35SO42− radioactive tracer method, and the SO42−, CH4, Cl− of sediment porewater and total organic carbon (TOC), temperature, and redox potential (Eh) of sediment were determined simultaneously at three stations (QA, HQ, and GS) in different sedimentary environments of the Pearl River Estuary to study the sulfate reduction process and its important role in organic matter mineralization. The results show that SRR was mainly controlled by the content and availability of organic matter in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary. The consumption of sulfate mainly included the organic matter mineralization on the upper sediments and the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) driven by sulfate in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMT), which formed two peaks in the SRR profile, respectively (stations HQ and GS). Affected by physical disturbance, there was only one SRR peak formed above the SMT at station QA. The results of flux calculations for AOM and sulfate reduction show that the contributions of AOM to total sulfate reduction were 7.04 %, 5.46 %, and 42.0 % at stations QA, HQ, and GS, respectively, which were also controlled by the content and availability of organic matter in sediments. The depths of SMT in sediments of stations QA, HQ, and GS were 25, 30, and 213 cm, respectively, which were controlled by the input of organic matter and sulfate concentration in sediments. The calculation results show that total fluxes of sulfate reduction were 22.7, 35.3, and 3.9 mmol m−2 d-l at stations QA, HQ, and GS, respectively, and the rates of organic carbon mineralization by sulfate reduction were 45.4, 70.6, and 7.8 mmol m−2 d-l. In the estuarine mouth (station GS) with relatively weak hydrodynamic force and deep water, the burying efficiency of organic matter in sediment was higher than that in the brackish coast (station HQ); whereas the burial efficiency of organic matter in sediment cannot be comprehensively estimate in the upper estuary (station QA) due to the existence of the fluid mud layer. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical cycling process of sulfate and methane in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary.
74. 题目: Impact of hydrogen sulfide on biochar in stimulating the methane oxidation capacity and microbial communities of landfill cover soil
作者: Dandan Huang, Wenjun Xu, Qian Wang, Qiyong Xu
摘要: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can influence methanotrophic activities and be absorbed by biochar (BC); however, the impact of H2S on BC in stimulating the methane (CH4) oxidation capacity of landfill cover soil (LCS) has not been clarified. Thus, batch incubation experiments were conducted to observe the effect of H2S on the CH4 oxidation capacity of and microbial communities in BC-amended LCS. Three landfill gas conditions were considered: 5 % CH4 and 15 % oxygen (O2) (5M), 10 % CH4 and 10 % O2, and 20 % CH4 and 5 % O2 (20M) by volume, with H2S concentrations of 0, 100, 250, and 1000 ppm, respectively. Another series was conducted using LCS subjected to pre-H2S saturation under the 20M gas condition. In the 5M gas condition suitable for the dominant methanotroph Methylocaldum (type I), the BC retained its ability to stimulate the CH4 oxidation capacity of LCS (enhancement of 41–108 %) in the presence of H2S. Additionally, when H2S ≤ 250 ppm, the BC exhibited a relatively consistent impact of H2S on both CH4 oxidation capacity and microbial communities in LCS, independent of the CH4 or O2 concentrations. This result could be attributed to the different pathways of H2S metabolism for the LCS and BC-amended LCS. Furthermore, when saturated adsorption of H2S occurred for the LCS, the CH4 oxidation capacity for BC-amended LCS was higher than that for non-amended LCS, which demonstrated the ability of BC in alleviating the inhibition of H2S on CH4 oxidation due to its excellent H2S adsorption under even anoxic environments.
75. 题目: Iron oxide loaded biochar/attapulgite composites derived camellia oleifera shells as a novel bio-adsorbent for highly efficient removal of Cr(VI)
期刊: Journal of Cleaner Production
作者: Shiquan Sun, Xin Zeng, Yang Gao, Wei Zhang, Lean Zhou, Xiaokang Zeng, Wang Liu, Qian Jiang, Changbo Jiang, Sixin Wang
摘要: Agricultural processing by-product have been used as the feed stock for effluent treatment to promote the utilization of agricultural waste, the development of green sustainable and construct a green ecological circle nowadays. Based on camellia oleifera shells, attapulgite, and ferric chloride, a novel iron oxide loaded biochar/attapulgite composite (Fe-BC/A) was synthesized via a one-step pyrolysis process and as a low-priced and efficient adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. The structure and composition of Fe-BC/A were characterized by SEM-EDS, FT-IR, XRD, and XPS, which confirmed iron oxide (analogous to α-Fe2O3 and β-FeOOH) and attapulgite clay were successfully incorporated with biochar. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) by Fe-BC/A was 107 mg/g at pH 2.0, which was much higher than the original biochars (BC: 54.38 mg/g) and biochar/attapulgite composites (BC/A: 81.75 mg/g). The adsorption behavior of Fe-BC/A fitted better with pseudo second-order model and Freundlich model, which indicated that multilayer chemisorption might dominate Cr(VI) adsorption. The thermodynamic analysis of Fe-BC/A represented that removal of Cr(VI) was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Batch experiments results demonstrated that Fe-BC/A had great adsorption capability of Cr(VI) in a broad pH extent of 2.0–10.0, whose most favorable elimination for Cr(VI) at pH of 2.0 and the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was about 80% at pH = 10 (C0 = 100 mg/L, 30 °C). Fe-BC/A exhibited a prominent tolerance to the coexisting ions during Cr(VI) removal and only a slight decrease (8.27%) in elimination efficiency after five adsorption-desorption cycles. Mechanism study revealed that electrostatic attraction, reduction, anion exchange, and complexation were involved in the removal of Cr(VI). This study implied the potential practical application of Fe-BC/A in the future Cr(VI) remediation from wastewater.
76. 题目: Effects of heavy metals and organic matter fractions on the fungal communities in mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle, South China
期刊: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
作者: Yunzhu Xiao, Maoyu He, Jiefen Xie, Li Liu, Xiaoyong Zhang
摘要: Heavy metal pollution has become a serious environmental problem in mangrove ecosystems and has attracted more attention. Most of previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of heavy metals on bacterial communities in mangrove sediments. This study was the first to investigate the effects of heavy metals (e.g., As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) and organic matter fractions (including total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total sulfur (TS)) on the fungal communities in mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle, South China. The results of this study indicated that the average contents of Mn, Pb and V of 8.30–161.80 μg/g presented relatively higher pollution levels, while the concentrations of Zn, Cr, Cu and Ni of 0.80–21.93 μg/g were lower than those recorded in other mangrove ecosystems. Furthermore, the sediment fungal community structures responded differently to the nine heavy metals and three organic matter fractions. Heavy metals Cr, Pb and V displayed significant positive correlations with Eutypella (P < 0.05), whereas significant negative correlations with Cystobasidium, Lulworthia, Cladosporium, Lulwoana and Cephalotheca (P < 0.05). In addition, the effects of heavy metals and TS on many fungal genera were opposite to those of TOC and TN. Fungal genera that decreased with high TOC and TN contents may be increased with high heavy metal contents and TS, and vice versa, and the genera that increased with high TOC and TN contents may be decreased with high heavy metals and TS. Our results suggested that many heavy metals, such as Cr, Pb and V, were sensitive to several fungal genera in mangrove sediments, and heavy metals together with organic matter fractions may participate and shape the fungal communities in mangrove sediments.
77. 题目: Nitrifiers drive successions of particulate organic matter and microbial community composition in a starved macrocosm
期刊: Environment International
作者: Lianbao Zhang, Mingming Chen, Xiaowei Chen, Jianning Wang, Yu Zhang, Xilin Xiao, Chen Hu, Jihua Liu, Rui Zhang, Dapeng Xu, Nianzhi Jiao, Yao Zhang
摘要: Organic carbon produced by nitrifiers plays an important role in maintaining the microbial metabolism in the aphotic ocean layer with carbon and energy scarcity. However, the contribution of nitrifiers to organic carbon processing remains unclear. To explore how nitrification impacts the material cycle in the starved ecosystem, we set up an ultra-large volume, long-term incubation experiment. Seawater collected from the Halifax coastal ocean was pumped into the Aquatron Tower Tank located at Dalhousie University, Canada, and was incubated under dark conditions for 73 days. The results indicated that the relative abundance of nitrifiers increased and nitrification was strengthened in the dark system where energy and organic carbon were scarce. The importance of nitrogenous compounds in particulate materials increased over the course of the incubation. Correlation analysis showed that the relative abundances of nitrifiers and particulate organic compounds containing nitrogen were significantly and positively correlated. Furthermore, network analysis suggested that metabolic processes related to nitrogenous and aromatic compounds are most important to particle associated bacteria. This study suggests that the nitrifiers could produce a series of organic compounds that result in the alteration of organic matter composition by promoting the degradation of recalcitrant aromatic compounds, which has important implications for organic matter processing in the starved dark ecosystem.
78. 题目: Recyclable nitrogen-doped biochar via low-temperature pyrolysis for enhanced lead(II) removal
作者: Siyu Jiang, Lili Yan, Runkai Wang, Guanghui Li, Pinhua Rao, Mengcan Ju, Ling Jian, Xin Guo, Lei Che
摘要: Facile and low-cost preparation are essential in the conversation of agricultural waste into biochar. In this work, nitrogen-doped biochar (NBC-350-0.1) was prepared by thermal decomposition of urea (urea/biochar = 0.1:1 M ratio) at a low temperature of 350 °C. NBC-350-0.1 showed good performance for Pb(II) removal with the maximum adsorption capacity of 130.87 mg g−1 at 25 °C, which was five times that of pristine biochar (BC). Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) by NBC-350-0.1 or BC was the homogeneous monolayer adsorption with chemical action as the rate-limiting step, and was accompanied by spontaneous endothermic. Further analysis showed that the removal of Pb(II) on NBC-350-0.1 and BC depended on the complexation with unsaturated carbon bonds and ion exchange with Ca(II). Moreover, graphitic- and pyridinic-N in NBC-350-0.1 exerted a key part in the adsorption of Pb(II). NBC-350-0.1 regenerated by NaOH exhibited excellent recycling performance keeping the original removal efficiency at 84% after five cycles. In addition, this N doping method is suitable for improving the performance of coffee grounds, sawdust, and bagasse biochar. These results would provide an idea for obtaining recyclable N-doped biochar to treat the Pb(II) polluted wastewater.
79. 题目: Precise Estimation of Dodecylbenzenesulfonate ( DBS ) by Using UV‐Spectrometry in Aqueous Solution Containing Dissolved Organic Matter ( DOM ) Extracted from Soil
期刊: European Journal of Soil Science
作者: Md. Imam Hossain, Munehide Ishiguro
摘要: Precise estimation of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) is essential for understanding its adsorption in soils, transport, toxicity, fate, and its application in the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. DBS can be easily identified by its conjugated double bond systems of benzene ring under the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the spectrophotometer. However, benzene group components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) also absorb light in the UV spectrum, and this effect is responsible for the excess quantities of DBS that are falsely measured by spectrophotometers. This study was conducted to propose a method for accurately measuring the DBS concentration of a solution containing DOM. To elucidate the influence of DOM during the UV-spectroscopic measurement of DBS in an aqueous solution, 222.5 nm UV and 400 nm UV–vis spectra were measured. The DOM was extracted from a highly humic non-allophanic volcanic ash (Andosol) soil by using 1 mmol NaCl/L and 100 mmol NaCl/L solutions as the extractors. The absorbances at both 222.5 nm and 400 nm increased in proportion to the increase in the DOM concentration. The relationship between the absorbances at the two different wavelengths could be expressed as a linear relationship. On the other hand, the absorbance at 400 nm did not increase with the increase in the DBS concentration, while the absorbance at 222.5 nm increased with the increase in the DOM concentration. Therefore, we inferred that the influence of DOM on the absorbance value of the DBS–DOM complex solution at 222.5 nm could be eliminated by using the linear relationship between the two different absorbances of the DBS-free DOM solution. This method makes it possible to easily measure the DBS concentration of a solution from soil water, streams, or industrial effluents containing DOM, without using reagents.
80. 题目: Managing nonperennial headwater streams in temperate forests of the United States
期刊: Forest Ecology and Management
作者: Stephanie K. Kampf, Kathleen A. Dwire, Mathew P. Fairchild, Jason Dunham, Craig D. Snyder, Kristin L. Jaeger, Charles H. Luce, John C. Hammond, Codie Wilson, Margaret A. Zimmer, Marielle Sidell
摘要: Forest management guidelines are designed to protect water quality from unintended effects of land use changes such as timber harvest, mining, or forest road construction. Although streams that periodically cease to flow (nonperennial) drain the majority of forested areas, these streams are not consistently included in forest management guidelines. This paper reviews management guidelines for nonperennial (intermittent and ephemeral) streams draining temperate forests in the continental U.S., evaluates potential impacts of land use activities on ecosystem services provided by these streams, and identifies information needed to incorporate nonperennial streams into water quality protection practices. For federally administered lands, national management guidance is deliberately nonprescriptive, deferring to regional and forest-level recommendations for both perennial and nonperennial streams. Most state guidelines recommend riparian management zone (RMZ) protection for perennial streams (48/50 states) and intermittent streams (45/50 states), but only Alaska and West Virginia require RMZs around ephemeral streams. Based on the National Hydrography Dataset, an average of 58% of forested land area in the U.S. drains to nonperennial headwater streams, making these stream types the most common connectors between forested lands and the aquatic system. Land uses that modify flow regimes in these streams can affect sediment and organic matter transport and distribution, stream temperature dynamics, and biogeochemical processing. Nonperennial streams also provide material subsidies to downstream waters and serve as temporary habitats for some aquatic species. However, limited research has examined how forest land uses affect ecosystem services and biota in these streams. Therefore we highlight a set of key questions about nonperennial streams in forests, not the least of which is simply understanding where headwater stream channels are located and associated patterns of flow duration. Although many questions remain, we also note where recent advances in data collection, modeling and process-level research provide opportunties to resolve uncertainties around nonperennial streams in forested landscapes of the continental U.S.