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81. 题目: After effects of historical grassland on soil organic carbon content and plant growth in croplands in southern Germany determined using satellite data
文章编号: N24071001
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Johannes Schuster, Ludwig Hagn, Martin Mittermayer, Kurt-Jürgen Hülsbergen
更新时间: 2024-07-10
摘要: Numerous studies have reported that grasslands harbor higher soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks compared with arable land; however, the relevant carbon dynamics and sink persistence remain unclear.

82. 题目: An insight into the diazo dye Direct Red 23 adsorption on Ca-modified biochar in an aqueous solution: An investigation based on DFT and molecular dynamics
文章编号: N24070916
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: Ruqing Jiang, Xinlin Li, Changjiang Li, Jintao Fang, Zhenjiao Xing, Guangwei Yu
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: A novel Ca-modified pig manure biochar (CaPMB (x = 1, 3, and 5)) was successfully synthesized and employed as an effective Direct Red 23 (DR23) adsorbent obtained via pyrolysis. Compared with pig manure biochar (PMB), CaPMB, particularly CaPMB, exhibited significantly enhanced adsorption performance at a temperature of 308 K and pH 6.0 after 240 min of adsorption equilibrium. Under these conditions, CaPMB demonstrated a superior adsorption capacity of 94.1 mg·g and showed greater adsorption capability towards DR23. Additionally, CaPMB retained a good adsorption capacity in an acidic or basic solution, underscoring the outstanding stability of CaPMB and its resistance to interference from H and OH ions. According to research on adsorption kinetics and isotherms, the adsorption of DR23 onto CaPMB is mostly achieved using chemisorption, an endothermic and spontaneous process. By analyzing the correlation between the physiochemical properties of CaPMB and its DR23 adsorption capacity and, DR23 adsorption mechanism of CaPMB was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results revealed that the modification of Ca in CaPMB led to its enhanced adsorption of DR23 by reinforcing the π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions between the organic compounds and the adsorbent, and there is close electronic interaction between DR23 and Ca-PMB can be observed. Additionally, the Ca sites on the CaPMB surface played a pivotal role by serving as primary adsorption sites. DR23 adsorption onto Ca sites on the surface of an optimized Ca-PMB model structure was through chemisorption, mainly with negative sulfonate groups and/or phenyl, in which the highest occupied molecular orbital of O and/or C hybridized with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of Ca. Using simple pyrolysis, CaPMB could be made to retain its high adsorption capacity even after the completion of three adsorption–desorption cycles. Because of its facile preparation process, high adsorption capacity, and exceptional reusability, synthesized CaPMB will have great potential for use in wastewater treatment applications.

83. 题目: Priming and balance of soil organic carbon differ with additive C:N ratios and long-term green manuring
文章编号: N24070915
期刊: Applied Soil Ecology
作者: Qian Xu, Zhiyuan Yao, Yupei Chen, Na Liu, Zhuoran Teng, Donglin Huang, Weidong Cao, Yakov Kuzyakov, Tahir Shah, Na Zhao, Zhaohui Wang, Dabin Zhang, Yajun Gao
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: The input of organic C strongly alters the magnitude and direction of the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM), a phenomenon known as the “priming effect” (PE). The C:N ratios of additives are expected to affect the intensity of PE as it balances the C and N requirements of microbial growth. Growing of green manure (GM) crops in agricultural system strongly regulates PE intensity as it enhances the level and stability of SOM. However, the driving factors of additive C:N ratios and long-term GM crops on PE remain unclear. We addressed this knowledge gap by performing a 92-day incubation of 10-year summer fallow-wheat and GM-wheat soils by adding mixtures of C-labelled glucose and ammonium sulfate differing in the C:N ratio (15 vs. 50). The PE was increased by 148–288 % due to the high C:N ratio of the added mixtures, indicating that the quality of input exerted effects on the PE across the two soils. The PE of green manured (GMd) soil was increased by 23 % ( < 0.05) compared with that of summer fallow soil, as microorganisms produce extracellular enzymes such as β-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase to co-metabolize SOM. Nevertheless, compared with the summer fallow soil, 26 % more glucose-C was sequestered in GMd soil to compensate for C loss. We propose a conceptual model of “N mining” and “co-metabolism” to explain the effect of additive C:N ratio on PE in the soils under different GM practices. The “N mining” is the main cause of PE when the additive C:N ratio is high, and the “co-metabolism” becomes the dominant factor in long-term GMd soil with high SOM content and stability. Our findings demonstrate the importance of long-term incorporation of GM-driven changes in organic C inputs and SOM content and stability in regulating PE and soil C dynamics. Understanding the C dynamics under long-term GM practices contributes to formulate optimized agricultural strategies for promoting C sequestration and accurately predict soil C dynamics in the future.

84. 题目: Preferential adsorption of medium molecular weight proteins in extracellular polymeric substance alleviates toxicity of small-sized microplastics to Skeletonema costatum
文章编号: N24070914
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Xue Li, Jiwei Luo, Hui Zeng, Xing Yang, Xuan Hou, Xueqiang Lu
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by organisms tend to encapsulate microplastics (MPs), forming an EPS-corona that affects the fate of MPs in marine ecosystems. However, the impact of the EPS-corona on the biotoxicity of MPs to marine organisms remains poorly understood. Herein, the effect of the EPS-corona on the toxicity of polystyrene (PS) MPs of different sizes (0.1 and 1 µm) to () was investigated. The preferential adsorption of medium molecule weight (∼55 kDa) proteins onto PS MPs mainly contributed to the EPS-corona formation, decreasing the surface charge negativity of small-sized PS MPs (0.1 µm) by 72.4 %. Nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) moieties in polysaccharides and proteins were identified as the preferential adsorption sites in the EPS-PS MPs interaction. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirmed the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) results, revealing that the binding mode between EPS and PS MPs was mainly hydrogen bonding. In addition, EPS-corona increased the cell density of by 35.5–36.0 % when exposed to small-sized PS MPs (0.1 µm, 25–50 mg/L). These findings provide new insights into how EPS-corona affects the environmental fate and ecological risks associated with micro- and nano-sized plastics in marine ecosystems.

85. 题目: New challenge: Mitigation and control of antibiotic resistant genes in aquatic environments by biochar
文章编号: N24070913
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Yimeng Feng, Tong Xie, Fengxiang Li
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: With an increase of diverse contaminants in the environment, particularly antibiotics, the maintenance and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are promoted by co-selection mechanisms. ARGs are difficult to degrade, cause long-lasting pollution, and are widely transmitted in aquatic environments. Biochar is frequently used to remove various pollutants during environmental remediation. Thus, this review provides a thorough analysis of the current state of ARGs in the aquatic environment as well as their removal by using biochar. This article summarizes the research and application of biochar and modified biochar to remove ARGs in aquatic environments, in order to refine the following contents: 1) fill gaps in the research on the various ARG behaviors mediated by biochar and some influence factors, 2) further investigate the mechanisms involved in effects of biochar on extracellular ARGs (eARGs) and intracellular ARGs (iARGs) in aquatic environments, including direct and the indirect effects, 3) describe the propagation process and resistance mechanisms of ARGs, 4) propose the challenges and prospects of feasibility of application and subsequent treatment in actual aquatic environment. Here we highlight the most recent research on the use of biochar to remove ARGs from aquatic environments and suggest future directions for optimization, as well as current perspectives to guide future studies on the removal of ARGs from aquatic environments.

86. 题目: Three-birds-with-one-stone: An eco-friendly and renewable humic acid-derived material application strategy for macrolide antibiotic detection and multifunctional composite film preparation
文章编号: N24070912
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Peiqi Li, Siyu Hou, Yuqi Zhang, Kaidi Zhang, Xiqian Deng, Huilin Song, Guowen Qin, Yang Zheng, Wenyuan Liu, Shunli Ji
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: This research proposes a simple and novel strategy for the green detection of antibiotics along with the reduction of microplastic and humic acid (HA) hazards. The entire process is based on a single-step solvent-sieving method to separate HA into insoluble (IHA) and soluble (SHA) components, subsequently recombining and designing the application according to the original characteristics of selected fractions in accordance with the zero-waste principle. IHA was applied as a dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE) sorbent without chemical modification for the enrichment of trace MACs in complex biological matrices. The recovery of MACs was 74.06–100.84 % in the range of 2.5–1000 μg∙kg. Furthermore, SHA could be combined with biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to prepare multifunctional composite films. SHA endows the PVA film with favorable mechanical properties, excellent UV shielding as well as oxidation resistance performance. Compared with pure PVA, the tensile strength, toughness, antioxidant and UV-protection properties were increased to 157.3 Mpa, 258.6 MJ·m, 78.6 % and 60 % respectively. This study achieved a green and economically valuable utilization of all components of waste HA, introduced a novel approach for monitoring and controlling harmful substances and reducing white pollution. This has significant implications for promoting sustainable development and recovering valuable resources.

87. 题目: Comparing molecular signatures of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in four large freshwater lakes differing in hydrological connectivity to the Changjiang River
文章编号: N24070911
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Shujun Yin, Yafang Liu, Chenhui Wei, Dongqiang Zhu
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: Freshwater lakes serve as active conduits for processing terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM), playing a crucial role in global carbon cycle. Little attention has been paid to how hydrological connectivity to a large river would affect the molecular signatures of DOM in lakes. Here, we systematically characterized and compared the molecular signatures of DOM in surface waters of four large freshwater lakes in the middle and lower Changjiang River basin that are directly connected to the river (Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang, referred to as Lake) or indirectly connected to the river (Lake Chao and Lake Tai, referred to as Lake). The DOM in Lake was found to have similar total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized contents and characteristics of lignin phenols to the DOM in surface waters from the upstream Changjiang river, indicating allochthonous/terrestrial sources from riverine inputs. As indicated by the UV–vis and fluorescence analyses, the DOM in Lake overall had higher aromaticity and larger average molecular weight as well as stronger allochthonous feature compared to the DOM in Lake. Consistently, the FT-ICR MS analysis revealed that the DOM in Lake had higher molecular diversity, higher unsaturation degree, and larger proportions of highly aromatic compounds. In contrast, the DOM in Lake had larger proportions of lipids and peptide-like structures, but lower proportions of aromatic compounds, which could be ascribed to the enhanced autochthonous production and photodegradation due to pollution and eutrophication as well as longer water residence time. The results highlight the strong impacts of the hydrological connectivity to a large river on the molecular signatures of lake DOM. The hydrological connectivity of the lakes to the Changjiang River has strong impacts on the molecular signatures of lake DOM.

88. 题目: MoO2-enhanced Fe-loaded biochar promotes Fe2+/Fe3+ cycling for activation of peroxydisulfate to degrade organic pollutants
文章编号: N24070910
期刊: Environmental Technology & Innovation
作者: Binbin Wu, Zheng Wang, Yannan Jia, Nannan Xu, Lisha Liao, Chenyue Zhang, Zhiwei Wang, Yuanxiang Shan, Wanting Feng, Hongqin Xue
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: Biochar loaded with bimetallic Fe/Mo (Fe/Mo-BC) was prepared as a cost-effective catalyst for the degradation of organic matter by activated peroxydisulfate, in which MoO was used as a co-catalyst to enhance Fe/Fe cycling. The tetracycline-degradation efficiency of the system reached 74.49 % within 10 min, and it showed high removal rates over a wide pH range (3–9). Quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance analyses showed that O, •OH, O•, and SO• produced by the Fe/Mo-BC/PDS system are involved in tetracycline degradation, with O and •OH being the dominant active substances. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that Mo(IV) reduces Fe to Fe and oxidizes itself to Mo(VI). In addition, the Fe/Mo-BC remained stable and could be recycled three times, indicating the feasibility of this system for practical applications. The possible pathways of TC degradation by this system were investigated by LC-MS and DFT calculations. Thus, the present study provides a feasible strategy for the use of biochar-loaded bimetallic materials and PDS for the degradation of organic matter.

89. 题目: Phosphorus recovery via struvite crystallization in batch and fluidized-bed reactors: Roles of microplastics and dissolved organic matter
文章编号: N24070909
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Junna Yan, Mengyu Ma, Feihu Li
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: Struvite crystallization, a promising technology for nutrient recovery from wastewater, is facing considerable challenges due to the presence of emerging contaminants such as microplastics (MPs) ubiquitously found in wastewater. Here, we investigate the roles of MPs and humic acid (HA) in struvite crystallization in batch and fluidized-bed reactors (FBRs) using synthetic and real wastewater with a Mg:N:P molar ratio of 1:3:(1–1.3) at an initial pH of 11. Batch reactor (BR) experiment results show that MPs expedited the nucleation and growth rates of struvite (e.g., the rate of crystal growth in the presence of 30 mg L of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was 1.43 times higher than that in the blank system), while HA hindered the formation of struvite. X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld refinement analysis revealed that the presence of MPs and HA can result in significant changes in phase compositions of the reclaimed precipitates, with over 80 % purity of struvite found in the precipitates from suspensions in the presence of 30 mg L of MPs. Further characterizations demonstrated that MPs act as seeds of struvite nucleation, spurring the formation of well-defined struvite, while HA favors the formation of newberyite rather than struvite in both reactors. These findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the interactions between emerging contaminants and struvite crystallization processes to optimize nutrient recovery strategies for mitigating their adverse impact on the quality and yield of struvite-based fertilizers. The presence of microplastics in wastewater poses a significant challenge to struvite crystallization for nutrient recovery, as it accelerates nucleation and growth rates of struvite crystals. This can lead to changes in the phase compositions of the reclaimed precipitates, with implications for the quality and yield of struvite-based fertilizers. Additionally, the presence of humic acid hinders the formation of struvite, favoring the formation of other minerals like newberyite. Understanding the interactions between emerging contaminants and struvite crystallization processes is crucial for optimizing nutrient recovery strategies and mitigating the environmental impact of these contaminants on water quality and struvite-based fertilizers.

90. 题目: The application of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia) husk-derived biochar for copper-contaminated irrigation water treatment and soil amendment
文章编号: N24070908
期刊: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology
作者: Thi-Manh Nguyen, Hung-Hsiang Chen, Chih-Chi Yang, Yung-Pin Tsai, Ming-Yu Kuo, Yi-Tang Liao, Yu-Chen Chang, Ku-Fan Chen
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: In Taiwan, farmlands are polluted with metals mainly caused by irrigation water and sediments in irrigation channels. Copper (Cu) presents a major challenge in Taiwan's agricultural lands. This study investigates the potential of utilizing water bamboo (Zizania latifolia) husk-derived biochar (WBC) for the treatment of copper-contaminated irrigation water and soil amendment. BET-SSA for WBC that is produced at 600oC is 192 m2/g and pore volume is 0.174 cc/g. The FTIR spectrum of WBC exhibits several functional groups, such as phosphate, carboxylate (-COO), or aromatic (C=C) that can contribute to biochar alkalinity. The point of zero charge (pHPZC) of WBC is determined to be 2.7. The optimum adsorption of copper by WBC occurs at pH 5. Copper adsorption by WBC fits well with pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm, which demonstrates that chemisorption and monolayer adsorption are the dominant mechanisms for copper removal. The maximum Cu2+ adsorption capacity of WBC is 144.9 mg/g, which is much higher than those of many existing reports. The addition of 1 to 5% (wt/wt) WBC neutralizes acidic soil pH effectively, making it suitable for water bamboo cultivation.

91. 题目: Cu2(OH)3NO3/γ-Al2O3 catalyzes Fenton-like oxidation for the advanced treatment of effluent organic matter (EfOM) in fermentation pharmaceutical wastewater: The synergy of Cu2(OH)3NO3 and γ-Al2O3
文章编号: N24070907
期刊: Water Research
作者: Xuhui Wang, Weiguang Li, Jingyi Zhang, Qi Zhao, Guanglin Zhang, Caihua Bai, Longyi Lv
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: The secondary effluent of fermentation pharmaceutical wastewater exhibits high chromaticity, elevated salinity, and abundant refractory effluent organic matter (EfOM), presenting significant treatment challenges and environmental threats. Herein, Cu(OH)NO/γ-AlO was fabricated through ultrasound-assisted impregnation and calcination to catalyze the Fenton-like oxidation for degrading organic pollutants in this secondary effluent. Under neutral conditions, with 400.00 mg/L HO, 8 g/L catalyst, and at 30 ℃, the EfOM and COD removal efficiencies can reach 96.90 % and 51.56 %, respectively. The Cu(OH)NO/γ-AlO catalyst possesses ideal reusability, maintaining COD, chromaticity, and EfOM removal efficiencies at 44.44 %-64.59 %, 85.45 %-93.45 %, and 61.00 %-95.00 % over 220 h in a continuous-flow catalytic oxidation system operated at room temperatures (15–25 ℃). Electron paramagnetic resonance results and density functional theory calculations indicate that •OOH may be the predominant reactive oxygen species, facilitated by the easier elongation of the OH bond in HO compared to the OO bond. The adjusted electronic structure endows Cu(OH)NO/γ-AlO composite sites with superior catalytic selectivity for HO activation compared to Cu(OH)NO single crystal sites, with γ-AlO additionally facilitating HO activation through electron donation. This research highlights the efficacy of Cu(OH)NO/γ-AlO in the advanced treatment of complex industrial wastewater, elucidating its catalytic mechanisms and potential applications.

92. 题目: Functionality of wheat straw-derived biochar enhanced its efficiency for actively capping Cd and Pb in contaminated water and soil matrices: Insights through batch adsorption and flow-through experiments
文章编号: N24070906
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Yasir Hamid, Yonglong Chen, Qiang Lin, Muhammad Haris, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Saqib Rashid, Ioannis Anastopoulos, Bilal Hussain, Hayssam M Ali, Fakhir Hannan, Xianyuan Yin, Xiaoe Yang
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: The impact of functionality of biochar on pressing environmental issue of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) co-contamination in simultaneous soil and water systems has not sufficiently reported. This study investigated the impact of Fe- and Mg-functionalized wheat straw biochar (Fe-WSBC and Mg-WSBC) on Cd and Pb adsorption/immobilization through batch sorption and column leaching trials. Importantly, Fe-WSBC was more effective in adsorbing Cd and Pb (82.84 and 111.24 mg g), regeneration ability (removal efficiency 94.32 and 92.365), and competitive ability under competing cations (83.15 and 84.36%) compared to other materials (WSBC and Mg-WSBC). The practical feasibility of Fe-WSBC for spiked river water verified the 92.57% removal of Cd and 85.73% for Pb in 50 mg L and 100 mg L contamination, respectively. Besides, the leaching of Cd and Pb with Fe-WSBC under flow-through conditions was lowered to (0.326 and 17.62 mg L), respectively as compared to control (CK) (0.836 and 40.40 mg L). In short, this study presents the applicable approach for simultaneous remediation of contaminated water and soil matrices, offering insights into environmentally friendly green remediation strategies for heavy metals co-contaminated matrices.

93. 题目: Sensitivity of aggregate-associated soil organic carbon and total nitrogen to abandonment of paddy soil in subtropical China
文章编号: N24070905
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Anlei Chen, Baoli Zhu, Chunlan Chen, Zhongwei Wei, Guohui Ma, Hongling Qin, Haijun Hou, Zhenxie Yi
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要:

Background and Aims

Abandonment of paddy fields is a significant threat to soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks owing to the associated shift from anaerobic to aerobic conditions. However, the impact of this transition on the dynamics of soil total nitrogen (TN) and its relationship with SOC in bulk soil and soil aggregates remains unclear.

Methods

A long-term experiment was conducted to examine abandoned paddy fields with different fertilizer treatments over a 16-year period before abandonment, followed by an 8-year period after abandonment.

Results

The abandonment of paddy fields led to a significant decrease in TN content by an average of 14.0%, resulting in a mean annual loss rate of 0.08 t N ha−1. The loss of TN was as sensitive as that of SOC, and there was a positive correlation between SOC and TN in both bulk soil and soil aggregates. The loss of SOC and TN was mainly caused by reductions in the middle- and micro-aggregate-associated SOC and TN, which together explained approximately 87.3% of C loss and 81.3% of N loss. The weaker protective capacity of soil aggregates (> 53 μm) was evidenced by a significant decrease in aggregate-associated C (average of 8.7%) and N (average of 9.1%). Abandonment maintained stoichiometric stability, with bulk soil C:N ratios ranging from 9.4 to 9.6 following abandonment.

Conclusions

Paddy soil aggregate-associated SOC and TN were sensitive to loss owing to the weaker protective capacity of soil aggregates following the abandonment of paddy fields. The C:N ratios remained relatively consistent after abandonment.

94. 题目: Metagenomic and FT-ICR MS insights into the mechanism for the arsenic biogeochemical cycling in groundwater
文章编号: N24070904
期刊: Journal of Hazardous Materials
作者: Honglin Jiang, Xianjun Xie, Junxia Li, Zhou Jiang, Kunfu Pi, Yanxin Wang
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: Arsenic (As) is a groundwater contaminant of global concern. The degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) can provide a reducing environment for As release. However, the interaction of DOM with local microbial communities and how different sources and types of DOM influence the biotransformation of As in aquifers is uncertain. This study used optical spectroscopy, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), metagenomics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to demonstrate the how the biotransformation of As in aquifers is promoted. The results indicated that the DOM in high-As groundwater is dominated by highly unsaturated low-oxygen(O) compounds that are quite humic and stable. Metagenomics analysis indicated and predominate in high-As environments; these genera all contain As detoxification genes and are members of the same phylum (Proteobacteria). SEM analyses indicated the presence of Proteobacteria is positively related to highly unsaturated low-O compounds in the groundwater and conditions that promote arsenite release. The results illustrate how the biogeochemical transformation of As in groundwater systems is affected by DOM from different sources and with different characteristics.

95. 题目: Interconnected pyrolysis and activation with in-situ H3PO4 activation of biochar from pear wood chips in a pilot scale dual fluidized bed
文章编号: N24070903
期刊: Chemical Engineering Journal
作者: Yuanxiang Chen, Chunbao Zhou, Xuyang Xing, Lei Chen, Bang Yao, Li Chao, Yingwen Zhang, Jun Wang, Jie Dong, Chenglong Liu, Jianjun Dai
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: Interconnected pyrolysis and activation is a novel technology for combustible gas and biochar production in dual fluidized bed (DFB). The study proposed one-step and two-step methods for pyrolysis and activation of biomass in a pilot scale DFB with capacity of 100 kg/h. Physical and chemical activation occurred simultaneously in DFB system by phosphoric acid (HPO) impregnation pretreatment of pear wood chips, and flowing hot flue gas and steam. Stable operating parameters were observed for both methods. The one-step method was superior to the two-step method in terms of the pyrolysis gas quality, biochar pore distribution, micro- and meso-pores structures of biochar, while one-step method reduced the biochar yields. As an activation agent, HPO increased the yields of biochar and pyrolysis gas, promoted formation of micropores and enriched the surface functional groups of biochar with increasing ratio of HPO. HPO to biomass ratio of 1:5 reached the maximum biochar yield of 42.3 wt% and highest iodine adsorption value of 648.5 mg/g, increasing by 70.6 % and 90.3 % compared to the biochar without HPO pretreatment, respectively. This DFB system facilitated the diversified use of fluidized beds and the co-production of biochar and product gas with energy saving and CO emission reduction.

96. 题目: Role of cover crop roots in soil organic carbon accrual—A review
文章编号: N24070902
期刊: European Journal of Soil Science
作者: M Pisarčik, J Hakl, M Toleikiene, P Fuksa, J Rasmussen, R Hood‐Nowotny
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: Appropriate cover crop (CC) management is an important tool for the improvement of soil carbon stock; however, the relationships between carbon accumulation and CC root traits remain unclear. A literature review was performed to identify the extent and focus of recent research and to answer questions about the role of root traits of CCs in soil C accumulation with regard to species selection, mixture composition and agronomic management. The findings based on the analysis of 69 publications show that a range of root traits such as root biomass, architecture, depth of rooting, root chemical composition, as well as quantity and quality of rhizodeposition, can contribute to soil structure formation and C accumulation. These traits are usually species specific, and it seems that appropriate species combinations in the mixtures can offer the highest potential for optimization of C stock across various environments. However, there has been twice as much recent research on roots of CC monocultures than on mixtures, with little attention paid to agronomic aspects such as plant spatial arrangement or soil tillage in relation to CC root development. Considerations of real management under field conditions could be beneficial in providing greater accuracy of estimation of the contribution of CCs in increasing the SOC stock in croplands.

97. 题目: Influence of humic acid on the p-tert-Butylphenol removal efficiency by Spirodela polyrhiza-Tas13 association
文章编号: N24070901
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Yan Li, Zongyan Huang, Hui Zhang, Jieyu Zhao, Daolin Du
更新时间: 2024-07-09
摘要: Plant-microbe remediation technique is considered as a promising technology in removal of organic pollutants and its remediation efficiency is largely affected by a variety of surrounding environmental factors. Humic acid (HA) is the complex organic substance ubiquitous in environment, which characterized by its surfactant-like micelle microstructure and various reaction activity. In our study, a plant-microbe association with high --Butylphenol (PTBP) degradation potential constructed by and Tas13 has been used, and the influence of HA on the PTBP degradation efficiency of -Tas13 association was investigated. The result showed that the presence of HA greatly improved PTBP removal efficiency of -Tas13. The reason accounted for this may be due to the presence of HA promoted bacterial cell propagation, altered bacterial cell wall permeability, increased catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) enzyme activity of strain Tas13, rather than increasing the colonization ability of strain Tas13 on to the root surface. This study will greatly facilitate the application of aquatic plant-microbe association in environmental remediation.

98. 题目: Spatial prediction of soil organic carbon: Combining machine learning with residual kriging in an agricultural lowland area (Lombardy region, Italy)
文章编号: N24070614
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Odunayo David Adeniyi, Alexander Brenning, Michael Maerker
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and in maintaining soil functions in the context of land use and climate change. Understanding the spatial distribution of SOC is essential for the management of agricultural land to optimize soil health and carbon storage. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of SOC in an agricultural lowland area of the Lombardy region, Italy, using machine learning (ML) techniques combined with residual kriging. ML models, including the artificial neural network (ANN), extreme learning machine (ELM), and random forest (RF), were trained on 120 SOC observations and eight environmental variables to predict SOC values across the study area. The performance of this ML approach was assessed using a ten-fold nested cross-validation process. The ELM and RF models showed better predictive performances based on the concordance correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE), with RF slightly outperforming ELM based on the RMSE. The residuals of each iteration from the ML models were interpolated by ordinary kriging (OK) and added to the ML-based trend model in a hybrid regression-kriging approach. This approach which accounted for the spatial autocorrelation of the prediction residuals, resulting in a marginally improved prediction accuracy in the ML models. In addition, we found that vertical distance to the channel network and channel network base level are important predictor variables that should be considered in future digital soil models for SOC in lowland areas, given their importance in this study. Furthermore, this study highlights that predicted SOC values were low, particularly in Luvisols, which can be explained by the long history of agricultural land use depleting SOC due to agricultural management and loss of organic plant residues. The prediction maps depicted spatial variation and patterns of SOC in the study area. Our findings may help to refine soil management practices and contribute to improving soil health and carbon sequestration in agricultural lowland areas.

99. 题目: Periodic inundation accelerates the release process of organic carbon from plant litter
文章编号: N24070613
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Zhonghang Wu, Mao Ye, Ran Li, Jingjie Feng, Hang Wan, Xiaolong Cheng
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: The total organic carbon (OC) from plant litter in riparian zones is an important nutrient source for aquatic organisms and plays a crucial role in the nutrient cycling of river ecosystems. Nevertheless, the total amount of OC in dammed rivers gradually decreases, and the restoration methods are rarely researched. A hypothesis was proposed that the periodic inundation altered the process of OC release from plant litter. To explore the impact of periodic inundation on OC release from litter in the riparian zone, litter bags in situ tests were conducted in the Yalong River. Three inundation treatments were conducted for the test samples, which were NS (never submerged by water), PIS (periodic submerged), and PMS (permanent submerged). Results indicated that the amount of OC released from litters in PIS treatment was about 1.1 times that in PMS treatment, and about 2.1 times that in NS treatment. The average release rate coefficient of PIS treatment (at mean water level) was the highest (12.8 × 10 d), followed by PMS treatment (11.0 × 10 d), and NS treatment (5.6 × 10 d), which demonstrated that the periodic inundation was critical for OC release. The mean water level was a demarcation line where there was a significant difference in the release of OC in the riparian zone ( < 0.05). Flow velocity alone could account for 84% of the variation in OC release rate, while the flow velocity and inundation duration together could achieve an explanatory degree of 86%. This research can provide a valuable scientific basis for the protection and restoration of river ecosystems, especially for the recovery of OC concentration in dammed rivers.

100. 题目: Urease-producing bacteria combined with pig manure biochar immobilize Cd and inhibit the absorption of Cd in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
文章编号: N24070612
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Nannan Su, Ke Wang, Zhengtian Zhang, Lunguang Yao, Zhaojin Chen, Hui Han
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要:

The synergistic remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil by functional strains and biochar has been widely studied. However, the mechanisms by which urease-producing bacteria combine with pig manure biochar (PMB) to immobilize Cd and inhibit Cd absorption in vegetables are still unclear. In our study, the effects and mechanisms of PMB combined with the urease-producing bacterium TJ6 (TJ6 + PMB) on Cd adsorption were explored. The effects of TJ6 + PMB on the Cd content and pH of the leachate were also studied through a 56-day soil leaching experiment. Moreover, the effects of the complexes on Cd absorption and microbial mechanisms in lettuce were explored through pot experiments. The results showed that PMB provided strain TJ6 with a greater ability to adsorb Cd, inducing the generation of CdS and CdCO3, and thereby reducing the Cd content (71.1%) and increasing the pH and urease activity in the culture medium. TJ6 + PMB improved lettuce dry weight and reduced Cd absorption. These positive effects were likely due to (1) TJ6 + PMB increased the organic matter and NH4+ contents, (2) TJ6 + PMB transformed available Cd into residual Cd and decreased the Cd content in the leachate, and (3) TJ6 + PMB altered the structure of the rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities in lettuce, increasing the relative abundances of Stachybotrys, Agrocybe, Gaiellales, and Gemmatimonas. These genera can promote plant growth, decompose organic matter, and release phosphorus. Interestingly, the fungal communities were more sensitive to the addition of TJ6 and PMB, which play important roles in the decomposition of organic matter and immobilization of Cd. In conclusion, this study revealed the mechanism by which urease-producing bacteria combined with pig manure biochar immobilize Cd and provided a theoretical basis for safe pig manure return to Cd-polluted farmland. This study also provides technical approaches and bacterial resources for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil.

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