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101. 题目: Microbially Driven Iron Cycling Facilitates Organic Carbon Accrual in Decadal Biochar-Amended Soil
文章编号: N24070611
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Haohua He, Jie Liu, Zhipeng Shu, Yalan Chen, Zezhen Pan, Chao Peng, Xingxing Wang, Fengwu Zhou, Ming Zhou, Zhangliu Du, Ke Sun, Baoshan Xing, Zimeng Wang
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Soil organic carbon (SOC) is pivotal for both agricultural activities and climate change mitigation, and biochar stands as a promising tool for bolstering SOC and curtailing soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, the involvement of biochar in SOC dynamics and the underlying interactions among biochar, soil microbes, iron minerals, and fresh organic matter (FOM, such as plant debris) remain largely unknown, especially in agricultural soils after long-term biochar amendment. We therefore introduced FOM to soils with and without a decade-long history of biochar amendment, performed soil microcosm incubations, and evaluated carbon and iron dynamics as well as microbial properties. Biochar amendment resulted in 2-fold SOC accrual over a decade and attenuated FOM-induced CO2 emissions by approximately 11% during a 56-day incubation through diverse pathways. Notably, biochar facilitated microbially driven iron reduction and subsequent Fenton-like reactions, potentially having enhanced microbial extracellular electron transfer and the carbon use efficiency in the long run. Throughout iron cycling processes, physical protection by minerals could contribute to both microbial carbon accumulation and plant debris preservation, alongside direct adsorption and occlusion of SOC by biochar particles. Furthermore, soil slurry experiments, with sterilization and ferrous iron stimulation controls, confirmed the role of microbes in hydroxyl radical generation and biotic carbon sequestration in biochar-amended soils. Overall, our study sheds light on the intricate biotic and abiotic mechanisms governing carbon dynamics in long-term biochar-amended upland soils.

102. 题目: Salix species and varieties affect the molecular composition and diversity of soil organic matter
文章编号: N24070610
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Louis J P Dufour, Johanna Wetterlind, Naoise Nunan, Katell Quenea, Andong Shi, Martin Weih, Anke M Herrmann
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要:

Background and aims

Most studies of the relationships between the composition of soil organic matter and plant cover have been carried out at the plant genera level. However, they have largely overlooked the potential effects that plant varieties, belonging to the same genus, can have on soil organic matter.

Methods

We investigated whether plant varieties belonging to different Salix species (S. dasyclados and S. viminalis) impacted the composition of organic matter using mid-infrared spectroscopy and pyrolysis GC/MS. Top-soils were taken from an 18 year-old long-term field trial where six Salix varieties were grown as short-rotation coppice under two fertilisation regimes.

Results

Significant differences in the molecular composition and diversity of the soil organic matter were observed in the fertilised plots. The effects were mostly visible at the species level, i.e. the organic matter in soil under S. dasyclados varieties had higher molecular diversity and lignin content than under S. viminalis, potentially due to differences in the amount and composition of their litter inputs. Smaller differences among varieties from the same species were also observed. No significant effects of Salix varieties were observed in the unfertilised plots. The relatively high degree of spatial variability of several soil properties found in these plots may have masked plant variety and/or species effects.

Conclusion

This study provides evidence that the identity of Salix species or varieties can affect the molecular composition and diversity of soil organic matter. The corresponding traits should be considered in breeding programmes to enhance soil organic C accumulation and persistence.

103. 题目: Simulating adaptive grazing management on soil organic carbon in the Southeast U.S.A. using MEMS 2
文章编号: N24070609
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Rafael S Santos, Emma K Hamilton, Paige L Stanley, Keith Paustian, M Francesca Cotrufo, Yao Zhang
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Grazing lands play a significant role in global carbon (C) dynamics, holding substantial soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. However, historical mismanagement (e.g., overgrazing and land-use change) has led to substantial SOC losses. Regenerative practices, such as adaptive multi-paddock (AMP) grazing, offer a promising avenue to improve soil health and help combat climate change by increasing SOC accrual, both in its particulate (POC) and mineral-associated (MAOC) organic C components. Because adaptive grazing patterns emerge from the combination of different levers such as frequency, intensity, and timing of grazing, studying AMP grazing management in experimental trials and representing it in models remains challenging. Existing ecosystem models lack the capacity to predict how different adaptive grazing levers affect SOC storage and its distribution between POC and MAOC and along the soil profile accurately. Therefore, they cannot adequately assist decision-makers in effectively optimizing adaptive practices based on SOC outcomes. Here, we address this critical gap by developing version 2.34 of the MEMS 2 model. This version advances the previous by incorporating perennial grass growth and grazing submodules to simulate grass green-up and dormancy, reserve organ dynamics, the influence of standing dead plant mass on new plant growth, grass and supplemental feed consumption by animals, and their feces and urine input to soil. Using data from grazing experiments in the southeastern United States and experimental SOC data from two conventional and three AMP grazing sites in Mississippi, we tested the capacity of MEMS 2.34 to simulate grass forage production, total SOC, POC, and MAOC dynamics to 1-m depth. Further, we manipulated grazing management levers, i.e., timing, intensity, and frequency, to do a sensitivity analysis of their effects on SOC dynamics in the long term. Our findings indicate that the model can represent bahiagrass forage production (BIAS = 9.51 g C m, RRMSE = 0.27, RMSE = 65.57 g C m, R = 0.72) and accurately captured the dynamics of SOC fractions across sites and depths (0–15 cm: RRMSE = 0.05; 15–100 cm: RRMSE = 1.08–2.07), aligning with patterns observed in the measured data. The model best captured SOC and MAOC stocks across AMP sites in the 0–15 cm layer, while POC was best predicted at-depth. Otherwise, the model tended to overestimate SOC and MAOC below 15 cm, and POC in the topsoil. Our simulations indicate that grazing frequency and intensity were key levers for enhancing SOC stocks compared to the current management baseline, with decreasing grazing intensity yielding the highest SOC after 50 years (63.7–65.9 Mg C ha). By enhancing our understanding of the effects of adaptive grazing management on SOC pools in the southeastern U.S., MEMS 2.34 offers a valuable tool for researchers, producers, and policymakers to make AMP grazing management decisions based on potential SOC outcomes.

104. 题目: Impact of varying dissolved organic carbon load on sediment phosphorus release and its periodic mechanisms
文章编号: N24070608
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Shiyao Zhang, Yuhong Zeng, Runpei Liu, Xiaoning Liu, Yingwen Xue
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Phosphorus (P) release from sediment poses a severe challenge for eutrophication management in the aquatic environment. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in riverine ecosystems have shown an increasing trend due to intensified climate change and anthropogenic activities, while their impact on sediment P cycling remains unclear. To investigate the effects of different DOC loads on sediment P release and the underlying mechanisms, we conducted a two-month experiment in 15 plexiglass tanks, with five gradient-increasing target DOC concentrations set according to reality: control (S), 5 mg/L (S), 10 mg/L (S), 15 mg/L (S), and 20 mg/L (S). The results demonstrated that: i) DOC enrichment promoted the sediment P mobilization and release, with the underlying mechanisms exhibited periodic characteristics. ii) reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) were likely the primary and sustained facilitating mechanisms. While after the termination of DOC load, elevated pH level was also considered a contributing factor when chlorophyll (Chl a) ranged between 5.9 μg/L and 7.7 μg/L iii) ultimate concentration of total P (TP) in the overlying water depended on DOC load. After DOC addition was terminated, decreased TP concentrations were observed when DOC concentration was in the range of 5–15 mg/L, which may be attributed to the direct uptake of P by phytoplankton counteracting the minor promotion of P release induced by anoxic conditions. However, when DOC concentrations exceeded 15–20 mg/L, there were notable increments in TP concentrations. Our findings provide further insight into the response mechanisms of sediment P release to the increasing organic C load in natural ecosystems. The impact of broader C forms or C loads on sediment P cycling needs to be fully elucidated and even quantified in future studies, especially through large-scale field investigations to further clarify the coupled roles between C and P.

105. 题目: Enhancing Molecular Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter by Integrative Direct Infusion and Liquid Chromatography Nontargeted Workflows
文章编号: N24070607
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Jessica Patrone, Maria Vila-Costa, Jordi Dachs, Stefano Papazian, Pablo Gago-Ferrero, Rubén Gil-Solsona
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic systems is a highly heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble organic compounds, acting as a major carbon reservoir driving biogeochemical cycles. Understanding DOM molecular composition is thus of vital interest for the health assessment of aquatic ecosystems, yet its characterization poses challenges due to its complex and dynamic chemical profile. Here, we performed a comprehensive chemical analysis of DOM from highly urbanized river and seawater sources and compared it to drinking water. Extensive analyses by nontargeted direct infusion (DI) and liquid chromatography (LC) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) through Orbitrap were integrated with novel computational workflows to allow molecular- and structural-level characterization of DOM. Across all water samples, over 7000 molecular formulas were calculated using both methods (∼4200 in DI and ∼3600 in LC). While the DI approach was limited to molecular formula calculation, the downstream data processing of MS2 spectral information combining library matching and in silico predictions enabled a comprehensive structural-level characterization of 16% of the molecular space detected by LC-HRMS across all water samples. Both analytical methods proved complementary, covering a broad chemical space that includes more highly polar compounds with DI and more less polar ones with LC. The innovative integration of diverse analytical techniques and computational workflow introduces a robust and largely available framework in the field, providing a widely applicable approach that significantly contributes to understanding the complex molecular composition of DOM.

106. 题目: Removal of tetracycline in the water by a kind of S/N co-doped tea residue biochar
文章编号: N24070606
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Dayang Yu, Siqi Zeng, Yifan Wu, Jinjia Niu, Hailong Tian, Zhiliang Yao, Xiaowei Wang
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Tetracycline (TC) is widely present in the environment, and adsorption technology is a potential remediation method. S/N co-doped tea residue biochar (SNBC) was successfully prepared by hydrothermal carbonization method using tea residue as raw material. S was doped by NaSO·5HO, and N was doped by N in tea residue. The adsorption efficiency of SNBC could reach 94.16% when the concentration of TC was 100 mg L. The adsorption effect of SNBC on TC was 9.38 times more than that of unmodified biochar. Tea biochar had good adsorption effect at pH 4–9. The maximum adsorption capacity of 271 mg g was calculated by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption mechanism involved many mechanisms such as pore filling, π-π interaction and hydrogen bonding. The adsorbent prepared in this study could be used as an effective adsorbent in the treatment of TC wastewater.

107. 题目: Synergistic mechanisms of denitrification in FeS2-based constructed wetlands: Effects of organic carbon availability under day-night alterations
文章编号: N24070605
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Qirui Hao, Xiaonan Lyu, Dongli Qin, Ningning Du, Song Wu, Shuyan Bai, Zhongxiang Chen, Peng Wang, Xinyue Zhao
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: In constructed wetlands (CWs), carbon source availability profoundly affected microbial metabolic activities engaged in both iron cycle and nitrogen metabolism. However, research gaps existed in understanding the biotransformation of nitrogen and iron in response to fluctuations in organic carbon content under day-night alterations. Results demonstrated increased removal efficiency of NO-N (95.7 %) and NH-N (75.70 %) under light conditions, attributed to increased total organic carbon (TOC). This enhancement promoted the relative abundance of bacteria involved in nitrogen and iron processes, establishing a more stable microbial network. Elevated TOC content also upregulated genes for iron metabolism and glycolysis, facilitating denitrification. Spearman correlation analysis supported the synergistic mechanisms between FeS-based autotrophic denitrification and TOC-mediated heterotrophic denitrification under light conditions. The significant impact of carbon sources on microbial activities underscores the critical role of organic carbon availability in enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency, providing valuable insights for optimizing FeS-based CWs design and operation strategies.

108. 题目: Natural Attenuation of Groundwater Uranium in Post-Neutral-Mining Sites Evidenced from Multiple Isotopes and Dissolved Organic Matter
文章编号: N24070604
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Chongsheng Lu, Wei Xiu, Bing Yang, Haoyan Zhang, Guoxi Lian, Tianjing Zhang, Erping Bi, Huaming Guo
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Although natural attenuation is an economic remediation strategy for uranium (U) contamination, the role of organic molecules in driving U natural attenuation in postmining aquifers is not well-understood. Groundwaters were sampled to investigate the chemical, isotopic, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) compositions and their relationships to U natural attenuation from production wells and postmining wells in a typical U deposit (the Qianjiadian U deposit) mined by neutral in situ leaching. Results showed that Fe(II) concentrations and δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values increased, but U concentrations decreased significantly from production wells to postmining wells, indicating that Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction were the predominant processes contributing to U natural attenuation. Microbial humic-like and protein-like components mediated the reduction of Fe(III) and sulfate, respectively. Organic molecules with H/C > 1.5 were conducive to microbe-mediated reduction of Fe(III) and sulfate and facilitated the natural attenuation of dissolved U. The average U attenuation rate was −1.07 mg/L/yr, with which the U-contaminated groundwater would be naturally attenuated in approximately 11.2 years. The study highlights the specific organic molecules regulating the natural attenuation of groundwater U via the reduction of Fe(III) and sulfate.

109. 题目: Biochar production from various low-cost marine wastes using different production methods: Characterization of biochar and marine feedstock for agricultural purposes
文章编号: N24070603
期刊: Marine Pollution Bulletin
作者: Remzi İlay
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Studies on the conversion of organic materials into biochar have been preferred due to the effectiveness of biochar. Aquatic ecosystems harbor a significant amount of organic biomass, much of which is transferred to terrestrial systems, but often remains as waste. In this study, Posidonia oceanica (PO), Halidrys siliquosa (HS), Ulva lactuca (UL), and Codium fragile (CF), commonly found as marine waste along coastlines globally, were used as feedstocks for biochar production under four different pyrolysis conditions. Several analyses were conducted to characterize both marine waste and biochar forms in order to evaluate their potential for agricultural applications. The results showed that marine wastes and biochars contain almost all the necessary nutrients required for plant nutrition in varying proportions. The CF feedstock has a higher nitrogen (N) content than other feedstocks, while the UL contains greater phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg). Additionally, the PO exhibits high calcium (Ca), boron (B), and manganese (Mn) contents. Carbon (C) content also varied significantly depending on the biochar production technique. Temperature had a greater influence than holding time on the disparities in the elemental composition of biochars. The pH values of all types of biochar increased with rising temperature. However, the electrical conductivity (EC) values of HS and PO biochars decreased with increasing temperature. The highest mean BET surface area was observed in PO biochars. However, UL biochar has the most significant proportional increase compared to the UL feedstock by 218 times. All characteristics determined for all materials (feedstock, biochar) were within acceptable limits for application to soil. In conclusion, both marine waste and biochar forms may be confidently used for agricultural purposes, particularly in soil applications, when considering the characterization parameters within the scope of this research. Additionally, supporting and developing these results with more comprehensive analysis and research would be more suitable to reveal the potential of these marine wastes for agricultural systems.

110. 题目: Sulfur Modified Biochar Supported Ferrous Sulfide Composite for the Immobilization of Cadmium in Contaminated Soil
文章编号: N24070602
期刊: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
作者: Wenchao Deng, Guanghui Wang, Bing Wang, Nansheng Deng
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要:

The contamination of soil with cadmium (Cd) poses a significant risk to both food safety and human health. It is crucial to urgently identify an effective technology for remediating Cd-contaminated soil. In the present study, a novel sulfur modified biochar supported ferrous sulfide (FeS@SBC) composite was fabricated by calcination and hydrothermal method. Indoor culture, column leaching, and pot experiments were employed to examine the immobilization effect of FeS@SBC on Cd in contaminated soil. The outcomes illustrated a significant immobilization effect on the Cd-contaminated soil with the application of FeS@SBC. After incubating the soil with the stabilizer for 28 d, the Cd that was previously highly mobile underwent a transformation into an immobilized state. In the experiment on leaching using simulated acid rain, the treatment with FeS@SBC showed a noteworthy decrease in the cumulative loss and leaching efficiency of Cd when compared to the control experiment. It achieved reductions of 70.9% and 71.6%, respectively. The adsorption and immobilization mechanisms resulted from co-precipitation, ion exchange and surface complexation. In the outdoor pot experiment, after 28 d of growth, the water spinach in contaminated soil treated with FeS@SBC has a better growth compared to the control group, with a biomass increase of 134.95%. Additionally, the values of BCF and TF of Cd decreased by 62.25% and 40.39%, respectively, and the available concentration of Cd in the soil decreased by 23.87%. The FeS@SBC composite shows promise as an effective stabilizer for remediating Cd-contaminated soil.

111. 题目: Biochar effects on salt-affected soil properties and plant productivity: A global meta-analysis
文章编号: N24070601
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Zhenjuan Su, Xuezhi Liu, Zhongjing Wang, Jie Wang
更新时间: 2024-07-06
摘要: Biochar has been recognized as a promising practice for ameliorating degraded soils, yet the consensus on its effects remains largely unknown due to the variability among biochar, soil and plant. This study therefore presents a meta-analysis synthesizing 92 publications containing 987 paired data to scrutinize biochar effects on salt-affected soil properties and plant productivity. Additionally, a random meta-forest approach was employed to identify the key factors of biochar on salt-affected soil and plant productivity. Results showed that biochar led to significant reductions in electrical conductivity (EC), bulk density (BD) and pH by 7.4%, 4.7% and 1.2% compared to the unamended soil, respectively. Soil organic carbon (by 55.1%) and total nitrogen (by 31.3%) increased significantly with biochar addition. Moreover, biochar overall enhanced plant productivity by 31.5%, and more pronounced increases in forage/medicinal with higher salt tolerance than others. The results also identified that the soil salinity and biochar application rate were the most important co-regulators for EC and PP changes. The structural equation model further showed that soil salinity ( < 0.001), biochar pH ( < 0.001) and biochar specific surface area ( < 0.01) had a significant negative effect on soil EC, but it was positively impacted by biochar pyrolysis temperature ( < 0.05). Furthermore, plant productivity was positively affected by biochar pH ( < 0.001) and biochar feedstock ( < 0.01), while negatively influenced by biochar pyrolysis temperature ( < 0.01). This study highlights that woody biochar with 7.6 < pH < 9.0 and pyrolyzed at 400–600 °C under 30–70 t ha application rate in moderately saline coarse soils is a recommendable pattern to enhance forage/medicinal productivity while reducing soil salinity. In conclusion, biochar offers promising avenues for ameliorating degradable soils, but it is imperative to explore largescale applications and field performance across different biochar, soil, and plant types.

112. 题目: Differential immobilization of cadmium and changes in soil surface charge in acidic Ultisol by chitosan and citric acid: effect of their functional groups
文章编号: N24070509
期刊: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
作者: Ren-kou Xu, Jackson Nkoh Nkoh
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要:

Soil organic matter plays an important role in cadmium adsorption and immobilization. Since different organic matter components affect cadmium adsorption processes differently, selecting the right organic substrate and knowing how to apply it could improve cadmium remediation. This study compares the effects of two contrasting organic molecules; chitosan and citric acid, on cadmium adsorption and speciation in acidic Ultisol. The adsorption of chitosan to Ultisol significantly increased the soil positive charge while adsorption of citric acid increased the soil negative charge. At pH 5.0, the maximum amount of cadmium adsorbed in excess chitosan was 341% greater than that in excess citric acid. About 73–89% and 60–62% of adsorbed cadmium were bound to Fe/Mn oxides and organic matter/sulfide at pH 4.0 while this fraction was 77–100% and 57–58% for citric acid and chitosan at pH 5.0, respectively. This decrease in the complexing ability of chitosan was related to the destabilizing effect of high pH on chitosan’s structure. Also, the sequence through which chitosan, citric acid, and cadmium were added into the adsorption system influenced the adsorption profile and this was different along a pH gradient. Specifically, adding chitosan and cadmium together increased adsorption compared to when chitosan was pre-adsorbed within pH 3.0–6.5. However, for citric acid, the addition sequence had no significant effect on cadmium adsorption between pH 3.0–4.0 compared to pH 6.5 and 7.5, with excess citric acid generally inhibiting adsorption. Given that the action of citric acid is short-lived in soil, chitosan could be a good soil amendment material for immobilizing cadmium.

113. 题目: Influence of different stalks on the metallization degree of FeCl3-derived magnetic biochar through pyrolysis behavior and compositional differences
文章编号: N24070508
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Zhuqing Feng, Beihai Zhou, Haiqing Li, Haijun Liu, Yuefang Chen, Rongfang Yuan, Zhongbing Chen, Shuai Luo, Huilun Chen
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要: To investigate the effect of stalk type on the metallization degrees in FeCl-derived magnetic biochar (MBC), MBC was synthesized via an impregnation-pyrolysis method using six different stalks. The Fe content in MBC significantly influenced its magnetic properties and ostensibly governed its catalytic capabilities. Analysis of the interaction between stalks and FeCl revealed that the variation in metallization degrees, resulting from FeCl decomposition (6.1%) and stalk-mediated reduction (20.7%), was directly responsible for the observed differences in MBC metallization. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups and fixed carbon appeared to promote metallization in MBC induced by reduction. A series of statistical analyses indicated that the cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose content of the stalks were key factors contributing to differences in MBC metallization degrees. Further exploration revealed that hemicellulose and cellulose were more effective than lignin in enhancing metallization through FeCl decomposition and reduction. Constructing stalk models demonstrated that the variance in the content of these three biomass components across the six stalk types could lead to differences in the metallization degree attributable to reduction and FeCl decomposition, thereby affecting the overall metallization degree of MBC. A prediction model for MBC metallization degree was developed based on these findings. Moreover, the elevated Si content in some stalks facilitated the formation of Fe(SiO), which subsequently impeded the reduction process. This study provides a theoretical foundation for the informed selection of stalk feedstocks in the production of FeCl-derived MBC.

114. 题目: Contrasting maize responses to soil phosphorus and potassium availability driven by biochar under reduced irrigation
文章编号: N24070507
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Heng Wan, Jingxiang Hou, Zhenhua Wei, Fulai Liu
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要:

Background and aims

Biochar is increasingly recognized for its potential to enhance soil water retention and improve soil fertility in agricultural systems; however, few studies have evaluated the effects of biochar on nutrients from an integrated perspective. This study aims to investigate how biochar affects soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) availability and their effects on plant growth, especially under reduced irrigation conditions.

Methods

Maize plants were grown in split-root pots with full (FI), deficit (DI) and alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation under 2% (w/w) softwood (SWB) and wheat-straw biochar (WSB) for three successive growth cycles.

Results

WSB amendment decreased soil P availability and resulted in a decrease in plant P content. However, WSB amendment significantly enhanced soil K availability inducing higher plant K content under reduced irrigation, thereby enhancing the biomass and harvest index of maize plants irrespective of growth cycles, especially with PRD. WSB amendment significantly enhanced P use efficiency due to lower plant P content and higher biomass in the initial growth cycles. Adding SWB decreased plant growth under reduced irrigation by inhibiting plant K content in the second growth cycle, which was mitigated by PRD by enhancing root growth.

Conclusion

Collectively, despite negative effects on soil P availability and plant P content, WSB combined with PRD could be a promising strategy in sustainable maize production under drought stress.

115. 题目: High surface area biochar for the removal of naphthenic acids from environmental water and industrial wastewater
文章编号: N24070506
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Raghuvir Singh, Desavath V Naik, Raj K Dutta, Pankaj K Kanaujia
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要:

This study reports the production of biochar adsorbents from two major crop residues (i.e., rice and wheat straw) to remove naphthenic acids from water. The alkali treatment approach was used for biochar activation that resulted in a tremendous increase in their surface area, i.e., up to 2252 and 2314 m2/g, respectively, for rice and wheat straw biochars. Benzoic acid was used as a model compound to optimize critical adsorption parameters. Its maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 459.55 and 357.64 mg/g was achieved for activated rice and wheat straw biochars. The adsorption of benzoic acid was exothermic (∆H° = − 7.06 and − 3.89 kJ/mol) and identified possibly as physisorption (Gibbs free energy ranges 3.5–4.0 kJ/mol). The kinetic study suggested that adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics with qe2 for rice straw and wheat straw-derived adsorbents at 200 and 194 mg/g, respectively. As adsorbent, the recyclability of activated biochars was noticed with no significant loss in their efficiency for up to ten successive regeneration cycles. The adsorption results were validated using a commercial naphthenic acid mixture-spiked river water and paper/pulp industrial effluent. The activated rice and wheat straw biochars exhibited excellent adsorption efficiency of 130.3 and 74.6 mg/g, respectively. The naphthenic acid adsorption on biochar surface was due to various interactions, i.e., weak van der Waal’s, pore filling, π-π stacking, and ionic interactions. This study offers a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to valorizing agricultural residues for pollutant removal from industrial wastewater, including petroleum refineries.

Graphical abstract

116. 题目: Source apportionment and wet scavenging ability of atmospheric black carbon during haze in Northeast China
文章编号: N24070505
期刊: Environmental Pollution
作者: Shuo Ding, Delong Zhao, Ping Tian, Mengyu Huang
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要: Seasonal variations in black carbon (BC) pollution characteristics during haze episodes in Benxi city, Liaoning province, were analyzed using year-long measurements of BC, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM Haze frequencies were recorded to be 0.07, 0.03 and 0.14 in spring, autumn, and winter respectively. Solid fuel contributions increased notably by 7%–8% during haze events compared to clean periods in all seasons. Transitioning from clean to haze periods led to ΔBC/ΔCO increases of 16% in spring and autumn, and 6.8% in winter, while BC/PM ratios decreased by approximately 33%, 50%, and 24% for spring, autumn, and winter respectively, likely indicating enhanced residential and industrial contributions. These further led to an increase in BC absorption capacities by factors of around 2.2 in spring and autumn, and up to 2.6 in winter during haze periods. Despite liquid fuel sources dominating BC emissions, certain haze episodes (frequency <10%) showed solid fuel contributions of up to 65%, highlighting BC pollution complexity in the region during haze. Backward trajectories analysis revealed local air masses from Liaoning province arrived consistently with the most occurrence of haze events across all seasons, while long-range air masses from Mongolian regions, though with less frequent occurrence during haze periods, significantly elevated BC loadings from solid fuel sources, particularly in spring and autumn due to biomass burning. Despite higher BC wet scavenging rates (WSR) in long-range air masses (0.072 ng m ppbv mm) compared to local air masses (0.039 ng m ppbv mm), significant BC transport persisted due to limited precipitation along transport pathways, especially during haze periods. These findings provide crucial insights for policymakers, highlighting the need for targeted haze prevention and control strategies focusing on mitigating BC emissions in Northeast China.

117. 题目: Accessing and modelling soil organic carbon stocks in Prairies, Savannas, and forests
文章编号: N24070504
期刊: Catena
作者: Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Luis Gustavo Barioni, Newton La Scala Junior, Maurício Roberto Cherubin, João de Moraes Sá, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri, Adriano Anselmi
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要: Soils are the third largest carbon pool on Earth and play a crucial role in mitigating climate change. Therefore, understanding and predicting soil carbon sequestration is of major interest to mitigate climate change globally, especially in countries with strong agricultural backgrounds. In this study, we used a new database composed of 5029 samples collected up to 1-meter depth in three biomes that are most representative of agriculture, Pampas (Prairie), Cerrados (Savanna), and Atlantic Forest (Forest), to explore soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and its environmental drivers. The Cerrado (Savanna) biome was the only one where croplands presented higher SOC stocks than native vegetation (Native vegetation 121.23 Mg/ha and croplands 127.85 Mg/ha or 5 % higher). From the tested models, the Random Forest outperformed the others, achieving an R of 0.64 for croplands and 0.56 for native vegetation. The accuracy of the models varied with soil depth, showing better predictions in shallow layers for croplands and deeper layers for native vegetation. Our results highlight the importance of clay content, precipitation, net primary production (NPP), and temperature as key predictors for soil carbon stocks in the studied biomes. The findings emphasize the importance of protecting the surface layers, especially in the Cerrado biome, to enhance SOC stocks and promote sustainable land management practices. Moreover, the results provide valuable insights for the development of nature-based carbon markets and suggest potential strategies for climate change mitigation. Enhancing our understanding of SOC dynamics and adopting precise environmental predictors will contribute to the formulation of targeted soil management strategies and accelerate progress toward achieving climate goals.

118. 题目: Synthesis of a novel magnetic calcium-rich biochar nanocomposite for efficient removal of phosphate from aqueous solution
文章编号: N24070503
期刊: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
作者: Guangyin Sun, Shaojun Niu, Tao Chen
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要:

Phosphorus (P) scarcity and eutrophication have triggered the development of new materials for P recovery. In this work, a novel magnetic calcium-rich biochar nanocomposite (MCRB) was prepared through co-precipitation of crab shell derived biochar, Fe2+ and Fe3+. Characteristics of the material demonstrated that the MCRB was rich in calcite and that the Fe3O4 NPs with a diameter range of 18–22 nanometers were uniformly adhered on the biochar surface by strong ether linking (C–O–Fe). Batch tests demonstrated that the removal of P was pH dependent with an optimal pH of 3–7. The MCRB exhibited a superior P removal performance, with a maximum removal capacity of 105.6 mg g−1, which was even higher than the majority lanthanum containing compounds. Study of the removal mechanisms revealed that the P removal by MCRB involved the formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP-Ca5(PO4)3OH), electrostatic attraction and ligand exchange. The recyclability test demonstrated that a certain level (approximately 60%) was still maintained even after the six adsorption–desorption process, suggesting that MCRB is a promising material for P removal from wastewater.

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119. 题目: Picky Eaters: Carbon Isotopic Evidence for the Uniform Bioavailability of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter to a Model Marine Microorganism
文章编号: N24070502
期刊: Geophysical Research Letters
作者: Lea Baumser, Lindsey Potts, Brett D Walker, Nagissa Mahmoudi
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a key component of the global carbon cycle, with rivers delivering significant amounts of DOM to oceans. Urbanization and agricultural land-use alter the age and chemical composition of riverine DOM, which likely impact the downstream bioavailability of riverine DOM. Here, we use bioreactor incubations of a marine bacterium (Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3D05) to investigate DOM bioavailability from two distinct rivers: the Suwannee River (natural, non-urbanized), and the Upper Mississippi River Basin (anthropogenically influenced). We measured rates of microbial CO2 production and radiocarbon ages (as Δ14C) to assess DOM remineralization. We observed nearly identical cell densities and degradation patterns for both riverine DOM incubations. Respired DOM Δ14C values were also similar and decreased over time indicative of preferential utilization of recently synthesized “modern” substrates. These findings reveal unexpected similarities in riverine DOM bioavailability, indicating similar short term biological reactivity despite large DOM compositional differences.

120. 题目: Unravelling structure evolution of dissolved organic matter during oxidation by persulfate: Insights from aromaticity and fluorescence analysis
文章编号: N24070501
期刊: Environmental Research
作者: Huizhen Cao, Fanyang Bu, Xiaodong Li, Wenxiu Liu, Zongquan Sun, Jialun Shen, Fujun Ma, Qingbao Gu
更新时间: 2024-07-05
摘要: Persulfate advanced oxidation technology is widely utilized for remediating organic-contaminated groundwater. Post-remediation by persulfate oxidation, the aromaticity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater is significantly reduced. Nevertheless, the evolution trends of aromaticity and related structural changes in DOM remained unclear. Here, we selected eight types of DOM to analyze the variation in aromaticity, molecular weight, and fluorescence characteristics during oxidation by persulfate using optical spectroscopy and parallel faction analysis combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analysis (2D PARAFAC COS). The results showed diverse trends in the changes of aromaticity and maximum fluorescence intensity (F) among different types of DOM as the reaction time increases. Four types of DOM (humic acid 1S104H, fulvic acid, and natural organic matters) exhibited an initially noteworthy increase in aromaticity followed by a decrease, while others demonstrated a continuous decreasing trend (14.3%–69.4%). The overall decreasing magnitude of DOM aromaticity follows the order of natural organic matters ≈ commercial humic acid > fulvic acid > extracted humic acid. The F of humic acid increased, exception of commercial humic acid. The F of fulvic acid initially decreased and then increased, while that of natural organic matters exhibited a decreasing trend (86.4%). The fulvic acid-like substance is the main controlling factor for the aromaticity and molecular weight of DOM during persulfate oxidation process. The oxidation sequence of fluorophores in DOM is as follows: fulvic-like substance, microbial-derived humic-like substance, humic-like substance, and aquatic humic-like substance. The fulvic-like and microbial-derived humic-like substances at longer excitation wavelengths were more sensitive to the response of persulfate oxidation than that of shorter excitation wavelengths. This result reveals the structure evolution of DOM during persulfate oxidation process and provides further support for predicting its environmental behavior.

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