101. 题目: Wetland plant-derived biochar enhances the diclofenac treatment performance in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands
Diclofenac (DFC) is a pharmacologically active compound frequently detected in various receiving waters. To improve the efficiency of constructed wetlands in removing DFC, biochar (BC) is added as a substrate. The study mainly involved the effect of adding wetland plant-derived BC to vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VSF-CWs) on the DFC removal process. In addition, the study discussed the effects of the initial DFC concentration (0.05–1.00 mg L−1), pH (5.5–8.5), and hydraulic retention times (HRTs, 1–7 d) on the removal process and fluctuations in the microbial community. Preliminary results of the study showed optimal removal (>90%) achieved at an initial DFC concentration of 0.75–1 mg L−1, a pH of 6.5–7.5, and an HRT of 7 d. Moreover, no significant effects on the removal efficiency of conventional water quality parameters were observed. Non-metric multidimensional scaling results revealed a reshaped community structure, which was altered by the initial DFC concentration. DFC concentration is a key factor in the variation of microbial communities and controls the quantitative evolution of the species in experimental units. Therefore, the addition of BC to CWs effectively enhanced the removal efficiency of DFC and provided a viable and effective improvement of the CWs.
102. 题目: Performance of lignin impregnated biochar on tetracycline hydrochloride adsorption: Governing factors and mechanisms
Corn stalk-based and wheat straw-based biochar were modified by lignin impregnation and applied to adsorb tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) in wastewater. Porous properties of lignin impregnated biochar were improved and showed better adsorption performance for TCH. Lignin impregnated wheat straw biochar (WS-L) had the maximum adsorption capacity of 31.48 mg/g, which was 1.89 times compared to corresponding pristine biochar, because excellent pore structure developed via the lignin impregnation and carbonization. The adsorption behavior of TCH molecules on biochar could be interpreted well by two-step process, and it postulated to be a physical adsorption process based on pore filling, hydrogen bonding, π-π interaction, and electrostatic interactions. And cations including Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Al3+ could compete with TCH for adsorption, while Ca2+ could promote TCH adsorption by forming tetracycline-Ca2+ complexes. Maximum TCH adsorption occurred at pH of 7. The best performing lignin impregnated biochar was WS-L that demonstrated the biochar modulated by lignin had the potential to remove antibiotics from aqueous solutions.
103. 题目: Photic zone redox oscillations and microbialite development recorded by Early Triassic sediments of the Perth Basin: A geochemical approach
Photic zone euxinia (PZE) has previously been identified in the Early Triassic Kockatea Shale of the northern Perth Basin, based on the presence of biomarkers such as isorenieratane, which is derived from isorenieratene produced by green sulfur bacteria . However, green and purple sulfur bacteria can also occur in microbial mats. In this study we present a basin-scale assessment of biomarkers associated with open water column PZE and/or microbialites. The lithofacies from the Early Triassic of the northern part of the northern Perth Basin consist of dark coloured mudstones (black to dark grey) with microbialites, which were deposited away from basin margins. These samples are found to contain okenane, chlorobactane and isorenieratane derived from carotenoid pigments of purple, green-green and green-brown sulfur bacteria, respectively. These biomarkers are not observed in the light coloured mudstones (medium grey) formed under oxic conditions in a tidal environment with higher clastic input close to the basin margins in the southern part of the basin where shallow marine sandstones were also deposited. Okenane and chlorobactane were abundant in facies containing microbialites which developed in a shallow water setting on intra-basinal structural highs. The development of oxic conditions near the basin margins in the Perth Basin provided refuges for organisms during the end Permian mass extinction event. Okenane was more abundant in the microbialite facies compared with the dark coloured mudstones deposited under PZE. C33 n-alkylcyclohexane (n-C33 ACH) has previously been described as a biomarker associated with ecosystem collapse during the lower Triassic, and its ratio relative to the C34 n-alkane was elevated in facies that contain abundant microbialites. Mercury (Hg) to total reduced inorganic sulfur (TRIS) and Hg to total organic carbon (TOC) ratios are positively correlated, supporting the development of euxinia as sulfide sequesters Hg. The high Hg/TRIS values in microbialite facies support mat development with high Hg concentrations. The values of δ13COM and δ34S were isotopically lighter in microbialite facies when compared with mudstones formed under PZE, although samples deposited under oxic conditions showed the isotopically lightest δ13COM and isotopically heaviest δ34S. The variation in δ13COM probably reflects the different carbon fixation pathway of various sulfur bacteria, while it appears that the difference of δ34S values between PZE and microbialites is a result of differences in the microbial community structure and the higher relative abundance of purple sulfur bacteria. In addition, fluctuations between PZE and oxic conditions were identified throughout the sampled intervals attributed to fluctuations in the depth of chemocline. Under the shallower chemocline, PZE developed widely in the basin, even in shallower waters. Under the deeper chemocline PZE was absent or limited to deeper water, and oxic conditions developed in shallower water. The fluctuations of PZE and oxic conditions in the northern Perth Basin suggests the development of multiple episodes of harsh environmental conditions after the end-Permian mass extinction, similar to those identified in other regions (e.g., Meishan in China and Peace River in Canada).
104. 题目: Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction and Organic Matter Accumulation of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation in the Sichuan Basin, South China
105. 题目: Cow bone-derived biochar enhances microbial biomass and alters bacterial community composition and diversity in a smelter contaminated soil
Bone waste could be utilized as a potential amendment for remediation of smelter-contaminated soils. Nevertheless, the influences of cow bone-derived biochar (CB) on soil microbial biomass and microbial community composition in multi-metal contaminated mining soils are still not clearly documented. Hence, the cow bone was used as feedstock material for biochar preparation and pyrolyzed at two temperatures such as 500 °C (CB500) and 800 °C (CB800), and added to a smelter soil at the dosage of 0 (unamended control), 2.5, 5, and 10% (w/w); then, the soil treatments were cultivated by maize. The CB effect on soil biochemical attributes and response of soil microbial biomass, bacterial communities, and diversity indices were examined after harvesting maize. Addition of CB enhanced total nutrient contents (i.e., total nitrogen up to 26% and total phosphorus P up to 27%) and the nutrients availability (i.e., NH4 up to 50%; NO3 up to 31%; Olsen P up to 48%; extractable K up to 18%; dissolved organic carbon up to 74%) in the treated soil, as compared to the control. The CB500 application revealed higher microbial biomass C (up to 66%), P (up to 41%), and bacterial gene abundance (up to 76%) than the control. However, comparatively a lower microbial biomass nitrogen and diversity indices were observed in the biochar (both with CB500 and CB800) treated soils than in the unamended soils. At the phylum level, the highest dose (10% of CB500 and CB800 resulted in contrasting effects on the Proteobacteria diversity. The CB50010 favored the Pseudomonas abundance (up to 793%), Saccharibacteria (583%), Parcubacteria (138%), Actinobacteria (65%), and Firmicutes (48%) microbial communities, while CB80010 favored the Saccharibacteria (386%), Proteobacteria (12%) and Acidobacteria (11%), as compared to the control. These results imply that CB500 and CB800 have a remarkable impact on microbial biomass and bacterial diversity in smelter contaminated soils. Particularly, CB500 was found to be suitable for enhancing microbial biomass, bacterial growth of specific phylum, and diversity, which can be useful for bioremediation of mining soils.
106. 题目: Sewage sludge derived FeCl3-activated biochars as efficient adsorbents for the treatment of toxic As(III) and Cr(VI) wastewater
Effective utilization and resourcelization of sewage sludge into value-added by-products and insights into its environmental impacts during the fabrication process are urgent tasks to be tackled. Here, we adopt FeCl3 to activate and functionalize sewage sludge to form FeCl3-activated biochars, which exhibited high adsorption capabilities for the treatment of toxic As(III) and Cr(VI) containing wastewaters. Kinetic studies suggested that the adsorption of As(III) and Cr(VI) species onto the biochar surface was attributed to physisorption and chemosorption, respectively. Equilibrium was reached after 3 h for the adsorption of Cr(VI), and slightly slower for that of As(III). Additionally, the structural stability of the adsorbent was maintained even in wastewater with high acidity (pH = 1), as corroborated by microscopic observations. Structural characterization of the adsorbents after adsorption showed that the excellent adsorption performance originated from adsorptive functionalities of the surface functional groups and the active Fe3O4 particles forming Fe-O-As(III)/Fe-O-Cr(VI) complexes with the As(III)/Cr(VI) adsorbates. Evaluation via the green degree method demonstrated that transforming sewage sludge into biochar exerts very low impacts on the environment. Hence, this work offers a green alternative to convert the hazardous sewage sludge into value-added biochar materials, which can be further exploited as supporting frameworks for multifunctional catalysts or expanded to be investigated in reducing carbon footprints and energy conversion areas.
107. 题目: Long-term application of nitrogen fertilizer alters the properties of dissolved soil organic matter and increases the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Soil is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems, as it provides nutrients and energy for all terrestrial organisms and is the site of various physical, chemical, and biological processes. Soil organic matter is particularly important for the role that it plays in element cycling, as well as the adsorption and degradation of soil pollutants. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is an important nutrient element in the soil microenvironment. Applications of N fertilizer can improve soil quality, but the long-term excessive application of N fertilizer can lead to the deterioration of the soil environment, alter the properties of organic matter, and affect the adsorption and accumulation of soil pollutants. In recent years, several pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have accumulated in farmland soil due to long-term sewage irrigation. However, few studies have examined the response of soil PAHs accumulation to long-term N application, as well as the relationship between this response and changes in soil microenvironmental indicators caused by N application. Here, we conducted field experiments to study changes in soil pH, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) under long-term N application, as well as their effects on PAHs accumulation. The application of N fertilizer resulted in the aromatization and humification of soil DOM, enhanced the accumulation response ratio (−0.05–0.32) and the amount of PAHs accumulated in soil (more than 30%), and exacerbated the environmental risks of PAHs. Our findings provide new insights that could aid the management and control of PAHs pollution of soil in sewage-irrigated areas.
108. 题目: Water retention and availability in tropical soils of different textures amended with biochar
Most of the Brazilian soils have severe water limitations to crop growth and, therefore, can benefit from organic amendments. For instance, biochar is known to improve soil water dynamics and use efficiency by increasing the water holding capacity and availability. This study assessed the effect of sewage sludge (SSB), green coconut residues (GCB), and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) biochars on the water retention capacity and availability of three tropical soils (Typic Quartzipsamment-TQ, Ultisol, and Luvisol). Control treatments (no biochar) were included as references. Soil bulk density, water holding capacity (WHC), water retention curves, and plant available water (AW) were determined. We also measured soil pH, organic matter content, and electrical conductivity (ECs). Biochar (SCB and GCB) increased the WHC by 62% in the Typic-Quartzipsamment, 38% in the Ultisol, and 18% in the Luvisol. The SCB increased the AW in the TQ and Ultisol by 40% and 10%, respectively. Conversely, SCB and GCB reduced the AW in the Luvisol by 22.5% and 17.5%, respectively. Biochar improved the WHC of the coarse-textured soils. In the clayey soil, biochar improved soil porosity and water transmission. We conclude that biochar can be an excellent amendment to soils across a range of textures.
109. 题目: A multi-trophic marker approach reveals high feeding plasticity in Barents Sea under-ice fauna
Microalgae growing within and attached to the bottom of Arctic sea ice (sympagic algae) can serve as a nutritious food resource for animals inhabiting the sea-ice water interface (under-ice fauna), particularly during the bottom ice-algal bloom in spring. As a consequence, under-ice fauna is likely impacted by sea-ice decline and changes in ice-algal primary production. To investigate this, samples of pelagic (= PPOM) and ice-associated particulate organic matter (= IPOM) and the ice-associated amphipods Apherusa glacialis and Eusirus holmii, and polar cod (Boreogadus saida), collected below ridged sea ice at two locations with pronounced differences in productivity in the northern Barents Sea during May 2021, were assessed for their trophic marker content. Specifically, we investigated the composition of diatom- and dinoflagellate-produced fatty acids (FAs), pelagic and sympagic highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) lipids as well as sterols to determine the animals’ dietary preferences and trophic association to the sea-ice habitat during spring. Relative proportions of FAs differed strongly between PPOM and IPOM, indicating differences in species composition and degradation state between pelagic and sympagic habitats, respectively. FA signatures and sterol content of the consumers largely resembled known diet compositions with a strong reliance on diatom-derived carbon in A. glacialis, a higher degree of carnivory in E. holmii and evidence of Calanus-feeding in polar cod. Sympagic HBIs were detected at either low concentrations or not at all, in both producers and consumers, likely as a result of the very low abundance of their source diatoms. Pronounced trophic marker variability in A. glacialis collected at the highly productive shelf slope station versus the less productive central Arctic Basin station suggests a surprisingly high flexibility in carbon-source composition with a stronger reliance on pelagic food when available versus a higher importance of ice algal carbon when pelagic production is low. Nevertheless and despite the general lack (below detection limit) of sympagic HBIs in our dataset, high ice-algal biomass and elevated proportions of polyunsaturated FAs in IPOM compared to other seasons indicate that ice algae constitute a valuable nutritional carbon source as alternative to pelagic carbon during spring.
110. 题目: Recent developments in modification of biochar and its application in soil pollution control and ecoregulation
Soil pollution has become a real threat to mankind in the 21st century. On the one hand, soil pollution has reduced the world's arable land area, resulting in the contradiction between the world's population expansion and the shortage of arable land. On the other hand, soil pollution has seriously disrupted the soil ecological balance and significantly affected the biodiversity in the soil. Soil pollutants may further affect the survival, reproduction and health of humans and other organisms through the food chain. Several studies have suggested that biochar has the potential to act as a soil conditioner and to promote crop growth, and is widely used to remove environmental pollutants. Biochar modified by physical, chemical, and biological methods will affect the treatment efficiency of soil pollution, soil quality, soil ecology and interaction with organisms, especially with microorganisms. Therefore, in this review, we summarized several main biochar modification methods and the mechanisms of the modification and introduced the effects of the application of modified biochar to soil pollutant control, soil ecological regulation and soil nutrient regulation. We also introduced some case studies for the development of modified biochars suitable for different soil conditions, which plays a guiding role in the future development and application of modified biochar. In general, this review provides a reference for the green treatment of different soil pollutants by modified biochar and provides data support for the sustainable development of agriculture.
111. 题目: Climate-driven paleoceanography change controls on petrology and organic matter accumulation in the upper Permian Dalong Formation, western Hubei Province, southern China
The influence of paleoclimate on shale sedimentary processes and organic matter accumulation is of great significance for reconstructing the “deep time” paleoclimate as well as for oil and gas exploration. Here, a detailed study on the Lopingian Dalong Formation organic-rich shales in the western Hubei area of the Middle Yangtze region is performed to understand how paleoclimate affects the depositional process and organic matter accumulation of shales. By combining a detailed core description and microscopic observations, along with mineralogical and geochemical analysis, two major lithological facies were identified from the H1 drilling core, including siliceous shale and clay/carbonate bearing mixed shale. The changes in depositional observations and geochemical indicators (including detritus index, Ln (Al2O3/Na2O), CuEF, ZnEF, UEF, MoEF, Cd/Mo and Co × Mn) indicate that the siliceous shale was deposited in an anoxic basin with well-developed upwelling under warm and semihumid conditions. However, the clay/carbonate bearing mixed shale was deposited in a hypoxic basin with weakly developed upwelling, and the climate was arid and hot. These deposits suggest that paleoclimates developed into hot and arid climates over time and that such climate change trends may be a response to global warming at the end of the late Permian. High temperatures inhibit the development of upwelling but increase the input of terrigenous clastic materials by enhanced weathering, and controlled the shale deposition. The average total organic carbon (TOC) content of the basin varies significantly in different lithological facies. We infer that the organic matter accumulation of clay/carbonate bearing mixed shale is comprehensively controlled by the carbonate production rate and primary productivity, while the organic matter accumulation of siliceous shale is primarily controlled by the authigenic quartz production rate. When the detrital index in the study area reaches 80 %, TOC does not increase or even decrease. Therefore, in the presence of authigenic quartz silicon, the increased silicate content is not always conducive to the accumulation of organic matter.
112. 题目: Reducing properties of triplet state organic matter (3DOM*) probed via the transformation from chlorine dioxide to chlorite
The triplet states of dissolved organic matter (3DOM*) have been well known to oxidize various organic contaminants, but evidence of their reducing properties are largely scarce. In this work, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as a single-electron oxidant was used as a probe to evaluate the reduction property of 3DOM*. The reduction of ClO2 to chlorite was observed in the solutions of model photosensitizers (i.e., 4-carboxybenzophenone, benzophenone, acetophenone, 3-methoxyacetophenone, naphthalene, and xanthone) during UV irradiation with the presence of ClO2, though they are resistant to ClO2 oxidation in the dark. The reducing property of the triplet states of photosensitizers was verified and their second-order reaction rate constants with ClO2 were determined to be in the range of 1.45× 109 – 2.18 × 109 M−1 s−1 at pH 7.0(± 0.1). The quenching tests excluded the role of other reactive species (e.g., HO•, O(3P), Cl•, ClO• and HOCl/OCl–, O2•– and eaq–) in ClO2 reduction to chlorite when using model photosensitizers and DOM isolates. Chlorite formation was 48.1–90.4% and 4812.8–7721.8% higher during UV irradiation with the presence of ClO2 and DOM than those without UV irradiation or without DOM present, respectively. The enhancement was attributed to the enhanced electron donating capacity (chlorite precursors) of DOM upon UV irradiation and also to 3DOM* acting as an electron donor reducing ClO2 to chlorite. This study highlighted the important role of 3DOM* as a reductant.
113. 题目: Removal characteristics of ammonia nitrogen and refractory organic matter in waste leachate by Co2+/peroxymonosulfate process at high chloride ion concentration
Landfill leachate contains high concentrations of refractory organic matter (ROM), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+), and chlorine ion (Cl–). With efficient ROM removal being the focus of advanced oxidation processes, there is an urgent need to clarify the role of high Cl– concentration on reactive species and preferential reactivity towards coexistent ROM and NH4+. This study investigated the removal characteristics of ROM and NH4+ using a Co2+/peroxymonosulfate (Co2+/PMS) process with high Cl– concentration. The results showed that the system produced large amount of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), with a maximum accumulated HOCl concentration reaching 2.78 mM at Co2+, PMS, and Cl– concentrations of 105 μM, 10 mM, and 17 mM, respectively. The differences in Cl–-to-PMS molar ratios altered HOCl formation pathway, and both Co3+ and SO4•− played important roles in HOCl generation. Although the initial concentrations of PMS, Co2+, and Cl– were proportional to the cumulative HOCl concentration, increasing pH significantly inhibited HOCl formation. The coexisting anions commonly found in waste leachate (i.e., CO32−, HCO3−, and NO3−) promoted HOCl production to some extent, but both NH4+ and dissolved organic matter (humic acid and amino acid complex) severely depleted the formed HOCl. Analysis of the removal characteristics of NH4+ and ROM in co-occurrence in actual waste leachate at high Cl– concentrations revealed that NH4+ and ROM competed for HOCl, and preferential removal of humic-like substances led to retention of fulvic-like substances. These results provide theoretical support for the design and optimization of methods for NH4+ and ROM removal from waste leachate containing high Cl– content.
114. 题目: Elevational pattern of soil organic carbon release in a Tibetan alpine grassland: Consequence of quality but not quantity of initial soil organic carbon
Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics along elevational gradients are highly uncertain due to our limited knowledge of the underlying mechanisms that determine SOC release. By combining field investigation and laboratory aerobic incubation with multiple soil analytical approaches, we explored the determinants of SOC release along an elevational gradient (3200–4200 m) in the Tibetan alpine grassland. We illustrated that the SOC quantity (i.e., the initial standing SOC stock) and SOC quality (i.e., chemical recalcitrance, physico-chemical protection and biological recalcitrant fraction) increased gradually with elevation, reaching a maximum value at the middle altitude (∼3600 m), while an opposite unimodal distribution pattern was observed in CO2–C release. Our results also showed that SOC quality explained more variance in CO2–C release than did SOC quantity and soil properties. The proportion of stable SOC fractions in larger initial SOC stocks is higher, especially the recalcitrant SOC pool and mineral-associated OC fractions, which could be the potential mechanism behind high initial SOC stocks leading to lower soil CO2–C release. Collectively, our results provide compelling evidence that SOC quality plays a primary role in the elevational pattern of CO2–C release in Tibetan alpine grassland. Our findings highlight the importance of SOC quality in predicting SOC dynamics in the Tibetan alpine grassland under climate change scenarios.
115. 题目: Oxidation of sulfamethazine by peracetic acid activated with biochar: Reactive oxygen species contribution and toxicity change
Peracetic acid (PAA) as an emerging oxidative has been concerned increasingly due to its high oxidation capacity and low byproducts formation potential. This study was to investigate the oxidation of sulfamethazine (SMZ) by PAA activated with activated biochar (ABC) after thermal modification. The results demonstrated that PAA could be effectively activated by ABC to degrade SMZ in a wide pH range (3–9), which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2 > 0.99). Both non-radicals (singlet oxygen) and free radicals (alkoxy radicals, hydroxyl radicals) existed in the ABC/PAA system, and the degradation of SMZ was dominated by singlet oxygen. Humic acid (HA), SO42− and HCO3− slightly inhibited the degradation of SMZ in the ABC/PAA process, while Cl− and Br− promoted the degradation of SMZ. The cleavage of S–N, S–C bond, and SO2 extraction reaction rearrangement was the main oxidation process of SMZ. Meanwhile, the results of the ECOSAR program showed that the acute toxicity of most by-products was significantly reduced compared to SMZ, which revealed the potential applicability of the ABC/PAA process in the treatment of antibiotics pollution and their detoxification.
116. 题目: Evaluating the effects of biochar on the hydraulic properties of acidified soil in China
The increased human activities have significantly promoted the acidification of cultivated soils decreasing the soil water retention properties. This study investigated the improvement effect and mechanism of biochar on water retention properties of acidic soils.
Materials and methods
Biochar was mixed with acidified and molded soils in different amounts (0, 2, 5, 8, and 10%), and then soil hydrological and water infiltration characteristics were analyzed.
Results and discussion
The soil application of biochar, improved acidified soil capacity and porosity, and the effects were directly proportional to the applied amount of biochar. Compared to the control group, the application of 10%, biochar improved the average soil water content by 2.1–2.2 times and reduced the soil vertical infiltration rate by 41–43%. The soil vertical infiltration was 23–25% of that in the control group. Moreover, biochar-mediated improvement of soil aggregate agglomerates was found to be associated with the adsorption of soil microaggregates and the formation of water-stable macroaggregates.
This study found that applying biochar to acidified soils can relieve the problems of poor water retention with a clear improvement mechanism. Large-scale soil application of biochar preventing migration of soil ions can contribute to environmental protection and natural resources recycling.
117. 题目: Manure combined with biochar reduces rhizosphere nitrification potential and amoA gene abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in acid purple soil
Fertilization and soil environmental factors determine the niche differentiation of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms, thereby affecting the ammonia-oxidation process. However, the characteristics of rhizosphere potential nitrification rate (PNR), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population under manure combined biochar are unclear. In this study, a pot experiment growing lemon was conducted, setting up six treatments, namely no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilizer (CF), manure (M), chemical fertilizer combined with biochar (CFBC), manure combined with biochar (MBC), fresh manure combined with biochar (FMBC). We investigated the effects of manure, chemical fertilizer and manure combined with biochar on soil physical-chemical properties, PNR, and the amoA gene abundance, diversity and structure of AOA and AOB in the rhizosphere. Our results showed that compared with CK treatment, CF and CFBC increases PNR by 19.3–34.7 % in the rhizosphere, M, MBC and FMBC decrease PNR about 60.0 %; CF and CFBC increased AOA amoA gene copies by 40.2–101.7 %, while M, MBC and FMBC treatments decreased it by 66.5–81.9 %, five fertilization treatments decreased the AOB amoA gene copy by 33.1–81.9 %. The redundancy analysis showed that chemical fertilizer and manure combined with biochar affects the population structure of AOA and AOB by pH, available phosphorus (AP), ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N), soil moisture content (SMC), nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) in the rhizosphere. The results of partial least squares indicated that pH, total nitrogen (TN), AOA amoA gene copy and AOA Shannon index were main factors affecting nitrification potential in the rhizosphere. Therefore, AOA dominates the ammonia oxidation process in the acid purple soil under the condition of chemical fertilizer and pig manure combined with rice husk biochar. Meanwhile, fertilization affected ammonia oxidation process by regulating soil pH and TN in lemon rhizosphere soil.
118. 题目: Reduction capacity of humic acid and its association with the evolution of redox structures during composting
The reducing capacity (RC) of compost-derived humic acid (HA) is related to the type and number of redox-active functional moieties in its structure and has a considerable environmental influence on its geochemical redox cycle. Composting treatment can affect the redox-active fractions of organic substances through microbial transformation and degradation. However, the relationship between the RC of compost-derived HA and its fluorescence component and infrared spectra remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the response of the organic reducing capacity (ORC) and inorganic reducing capacity (IRC) of compost-derived HA to the stabilization of organic solid waste materials by analyzing the redox-active functional groups of HA extracted at different composting times. The results demonstrated that the RC of compost-derived HA continuously increased during composting because of the formation of fulvic- and humic-like fluorescent components, which consist of amide, phenolic hydroxyl, quinone, and aromatic groups. Adsorption occurred between HA and FeCit by aliphatic and out-of-plane aromatic CH, which released free hydrogen and increased the Fe-binding site; consequently, ORC was obviously higher than IRC. The results of this study could provide an understanding of the transformation of the fluorescent substances and functional groups that affect redox properties during composting; therefore, this study has considerable significance for exploring the application of compost products.
119. 题目: Mercury, organic matter, iron, and sulfur co-cycling in a ferruginous meromictic lake
Mercury (Hg) speciation in natural waters is controlled by redox conditions and microbiological activity. Water columns of meromictic lakes have large and stable redox chemical and biological gradients that allow the investigation of many Hg chemical transformations. In this study, Hg speciation (elemental Hg = Hg0, methylated Hg = MeHg) and partitioning between truly dissolved (<3 kDa), colloidal (<0.45 μm and >3 kDa), and particulate (>0.45 μm) fractions, were determined throughout a high-resolution water column profile in the ferruginous meromictic Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France) in July 2018. Total Hg concentrations (THg) in water ranged between 0.4 and 8.8 pmol L−1. The particulate phase represented 10–70% of the THg, with a peak found in the mesolimnion associated with the particulate organic carbon maximum. In the mesolimnion, the colloidal fraction represented 12–68% of THg, and the highest value was found at the top of the sulfidic zone, whereas the truly dissolved Hg species (70 ± 9%) dominated in all the rest of the sulfidic zone. MeHg ranged from less than 10% of THg in the oxic mixolimnion to more than 90% in the anoxic monimolimnion. The Hg methylation was most active within the suboxic zone where iron and sulfate reduction are occurring. These results, associated with those of the partition of organic matter (OM), sulfur, and iron, in conjunction with thermodynamic calculations, allow us to present a conceptual scheme for the Hg cycle in the lake. Atmospheric Hg deposited onto surface waters of the lake is partially photo-reduced and returned to the air, another part is scavenged by biogenic particulate matter and conveyed at depth by settling organic material. Water stratification and redox changes create a sequence of reactions from oxic to ferruginous waters where Hg is successively (i) desorbed from particulate OM where mineralization occurs, (ii) adsorbed onto iron-oxy(hydr)oxides, (iii) desorbed where they dissolved, (iv) precipitate as HgS, (v) methylated, and (vi) reduced as Hg0 in the deepest part of the lake. In brief, the (micro)biological uptake, OM, iron and sulfur recycling, through associated microbial consortia, control the Hg cycling in the Pavin waters.
120. 题目: Long-term manure applications to increase carbon sequestration and macroaggregate-stabilized carbon
Long-term manuring supplies organic substrates containing carbon and nitrogen, which are expected to contribute to the stabilization of soil organic carbon (SOC) according to microbial stoichiometry decomposition and nitrogen mining theories. This possibility was evaluated after 33 years of manure application (i.e., farmyard manure at agronomic and elevated rates) compared to an unfertilized control and chemical fertilizer, at an agricultural field site in a Calcic Cambisol on the Loess Plateau. Soil was collected from 0-20 cm (plow layer), 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm depths at the end of the winter fallow season to assess the SOC content in whole soil or in macroaggregate, microaggregate, silt and clay fractions (plow layer only). Long-term management of this site increased the SOC stock (0–60 cm) by 44% in the unfertilized control, up to 68% with chemical fertilizer and from 140% (agronomic rate of farmyard manure) to 189% (elevated rate of farmyard manure). Carbon sequestration efficiency was greater in the unfertilized control (35%) and with chemical fertilizer (up to 31%) than in manure-amended soils (18–23%). Manuring increased the mass of macroaggregates and the specific activity of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase on a per unit SOC basis, which was negatively (P < 0.001) correlated with the specific respiration rate (on a per unit SOC basis) in the whole soil (three depths) and aggregates (plow layer only). Stable macroaggregates were associated with larger SOC stocks and greater organic nitrogen acquisition by microorganisms in the manure-amended soil. This appears to support the microbial nitrogen mining theory. In conclusion, long-term manure application increased soil aggregation as well as stability of the macroaggregate-associated organic carbon, which contributes to SOC sequestration in the Calcic Cambisols on the Loess Plateau.