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12561. 题目: Optimization and mechanism studies on cell disruption and phosphorus recovery from microalgae with magnesium modified hydrochar in assisted hydrothermal system
文章编号: N18080311
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Yaxin Deng, Tao Zhang, Brajendra K. Sharma, Haiyu Nie
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: Considering the phosphorus (P) reserve state and its value, recovery of P from microalgae has become a popular topic. In this study, an integrated system of a hydrothermal process for microalgae cell disruption to release P and magnesium modified hydrochar adsorption to capture P was set up. Emission scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Three-Dimensional Excitation Emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis were applied to evaluate the P release process from microalgae and found the optimal breaking-wall condition (P release 90.5%, hydrothermal digestion mixture of H2O2 and NaOH at 348 K). Parallel factor analysis showed there was a close relationship between P and humic-like substance. Hydrochar loaded with magnesium exhibited a strong affinity for P, with maximum capacity 89.61 mg/g at 318 K. The P adsorption fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir models. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to reveal the mechanism of hydrochar modification and adsorption. It showed that Mg is loaded on the surface of hydrochar by electrostatic attraction and electron transfer with the carboxylic acid. P absorption was reached through anion exchange.
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12562. 题目: Direct measurement of dissolved dinitrogen to refine reactive modelling of denitrification in agricultural soils
文章编号: N18080310
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Micòl Mastrocicco, Nicolò Colombani, Giuseppe Castaldelli
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: Nitrogen fertilizers used in agriculture often cause nitrate leaching towards shallow groundwater, especially in lowland areas where soil permeability, ploughing, clay content, and the flat topography minimizes surface runoff. The introduction of good agricultural practices to reduce the nitrate amount entering the groundwater system is crucial to ameliorate the kinetic control on nitrate denitrification capacity. With this aim, a series of anaerobic mesocosms, consisting of loamy and clay soils and nitrate rich water, were modelled using acetate and natural organic matter as electron donors. Acetate was chosen because it is the main intermediate in many biodegradation pathways of organic compounds, and hence it is a suitable carbon source for denitrification. To account for the spatial variability of soil parameters, the experiments were performed in triplicates. The geochemical code PHREEQC(3) was used to simulate kinetic denitrification, and equilibrium reactions of gas and mineral phases. The reactive modelling results highlighted a rapid acetate and nitrate degradation rate, a rapid production of dissolved inorganic carbon and dinitrogen, and a steady concentration of dissolved iron and sulphate, suggesting that the main pathway of nitrate attenuation is through denitrification; concomitantly excluding the occurrence of other processes leading to nitrate consumption. In the absence of acetate, the loamy soil, poor of natural organic matter, did not allow to complete the denitrification process.
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12563. 题目: Altitude and decomposition stage rather than litter origin structure soil microarthropod communities in tropical montane rainforests
文章编号: N18080309
期刊: Soil Biology and Biochemistry
作者: Franca Marian, Dorothee Sandmann, Valentyna Krashevska, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: Microarthropods impact organic matter turnover and nutrient cycling via processing of organic matter entering the soil as litter and root exudates. Variations in the structure of soil microarthropod communities are due to both biotic and abiotic factors such as local climatic conditions and litter quality. However, in particular in tropical ecosystems the relative importance of these factors for structuring soil microarthropod communities are little understood. We investigated variations in the structure of soil microarthropod communities in leaf and root litter from three altitudes exposed in three tropical montane rainforests at different altitude in southern Ecuador for three years. Leaf litter from three abundant tree species and roots of different diameter were collected from three sites at different altitude (ca. 1000, 2000, 3000 m). Litter and roots were placed in litterbags at the three altitudes, and after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months soil microarthropods in the litterbags were analysed. Density of Acari and Collembola, and diversity of Oribatida decreased with increasing altitude and varied with the degree the litter was decomposed rather than with litter origin and therefore quality of the litter material. Densities fluctuated during litter decomposition generally being lowest after 24 months but higher after 36 months. Species composition of Oribatida varied strongly with altitude; only few species overlapped between altitudes. The percentage of parthenogenetic Oribatida species decreased with increasing altitude. The results suggest that the origin and therefore quality of litter material is of little importance as driving factor for the composition of microarthropod communities of tropical montane rainforests. Factors changing between rainforest sites at different altitude, as well as decomposition stage of litter and associated changes in the microbial community are much more important.

12564. 题目: The Impact of Carbon Source as Electron Donor on Composition and Concentration of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Biosorption-Activated Media for Stormwater and Groundwater Co-Treatment
文章编号: N18080308
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Ni-Bin Chang, Dan Wen, Amy M. McKenna, Martin P. Wanielista
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: Eutrophication has been a long-term issue in aquatic environments, where dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) recalcitrance is important. Bioavailable nitrogen qualification and quantification for effluents from stormwater and wastewater are always a challenge. The information in this study deepens the understanding of the interactions between carbon addition and DON decomposition through linear-ditch best management practices for stormwater and groundwater cotreatment. By running a laboratory-scale column study for nitrogen removal using green sorption media, the variation in composition and concentration of DON can be further linked to the population dynamics of microbial species that dominate the nitrification and denitrification processes. With the varying levels of influent total nitrogen concentration, the efficacy of nitrogen removal via biosorption activated media may be realized at the molecular level with ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.
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12565. 题目: Soil fauna as bioindicators of organic matter export in temperate forests
文章编号: N18080307
期刊: Forest Ecology and Management
作者: François Elie, Lucie Vincenot, Thierry Berthe, Edouard Quibel, Bernhard Zeller, Laurent Saint-André, Matthieu Normand, Matthieu Chauvat, Michaël Aubert
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: Numerous studies predict a short-term important decrease in fossil resources and stress the need to develop alternative renewable energies, thus European countries aim at increasing biomass production for energetic purposes. One such source of bioenergy could be obtained from forest biomass pools by exporting logging residues, yet this practice would have strong impacts on forest ecosystems (e.g. disturbance of soil biodiversity and chemical properties). Most studies on biomass removal effects focused on boreal forests but responses in temperate forests are still scarcely studied. Soil macrofauna is involved in forest ecosystem functioning through numerous chemical, physical and biological processes and multiple interactions with other organisms. A disturbance of the soil macrofauna community can thus lead to a response of the forest ecosystem as a whole. Experimental plots were set up in 6 northern France forests (either dominated by oak or beech), with a treatment corresponding to Whole Tree Harvesting (WTH) practices compared to control, in order to characterize the response of soil macrofaunal communities to organic matter (OM) export. Our study showed that OM export leads to a short-term loss of abundance in macrofaunal communities in temperate deciduous forest soils that can also lead to an alteration of soil OM cycle, and revealed that the breadth of this negative impact is modulated by tree species and faunal trophic groups. Furthermore, some results of community responses were directly applicable to forest management as marked responses of several taxa revealed four bioindicators of OM disturbance. Therefore, the level of disturbance related to new forest management practices, such as WTH to increase forest biofuel yields, (i) could be characterized by surveying either total soil macrofauna or using tools such as bioindicator taxa and (ii) should be assessed regarding tree stand identity.
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12566. 题目: Site-specific assessment of spatial and temporal variability of sugarcane yield related to soil attributes
文章编号: N18080306
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Guilherme M. Sanches, Paulo S. Graziano Magalhães, Henrique C. Junqueira Franco
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: The adoption of information technology (IT) and precision agriculture (PA) has converted agricultural fields into data sources. However, the transformation of data into knowledge for decision making remains a major challenge. In the Brazilian sugarcane industry, the current use of PA technology is very far from its full potential for site-specific management, mainly because yields are not temporally or spatially monitored. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the physical and chemical properties of soils and sugarcane yield, thereby identifying the soil parameters that determine the final productivity of the field. Two sugarcane fields were monitored from 2011 to 2014. During the crop season, soil samples and yield data were collected annually. A random forest algorithm was applied to investigate the influence of different soil attributes on yield using data that were collected spatially over the study period. The results showed that the amount of available soil organic matter (OM), clay content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) are important factors impacting sugarcane yield variation. Furthermore, it was found that the temporal variability in yield is caused mainly by the variability in soil pH over the study period. The results indicated that when OM increased over time, there was greater phosphorus availability. Large volumes of spatial and temporal data, together with data mining techniques, allowed the extraction of knowledge and the creation of specific management zones in the field to support the decision-making process for producers.

12567. 题目: Application of DGT/DIFS and geochemical baseline to assess Cd release risk in reservoir riparian soils, China
文章编号: N18080305
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Dongyu Xu, Bo Gao, Wenqi Peng, Li Gao, Xiaohong Wan, Yanyan Li
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: As the sole drinking water source for Beijing City, Cd has been previously assessed as the major contaminant in Miyun Reservoir (MYR) riparian soils. However, the potential release risk of Cd in such soils, and the labile-Cd release–resupply process from the soil solid phase to solution after water impoundment remain poorly understood. We established a geochemical baseline concentration (GBC) of Cd in MYR riparian soils, combined with the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique and DGT-induced fluxes in soil (DIFS) model, to reveal a dynamic release–resupply process and influencing factors of labile Cd in riparian soils. The results showed that Cd GBC in riparian soils was 0.12 mg/kg, which was higher than the Cd background value (BV) for Beijing. Using Cd GBC as BV to assess the Cd contaminant level, the geo-accumulation index showed that Cd in riparian soils was at the uncontaminated level. In addition, Cd in the soils belonged to the non-residual fraction using the Community Bureau of Reference method. Cd mobility coefficients (F1/CTotal-Cd) of soils at low elevation had relatively high values, implying that Cd may be released during the initial impoundment of the MYR. Moreover, correlation analysis was used to found the major influencing factors between DGT-labile Cd and several parameters. The results showed that the DGT-labile Cd was positively correlated to the reducible and oxidizable fraction, CDGT-Fe, and total organic carbon, illustrating that the release of Cd from soils was controlled by Fe oxides and organic matter. The resupply ability (R values) and DIFS model parameters revealed that Cd in MYR soils belonged to the partially sustained case, and the slow desorption rate suggested that the release risk of Cd was low in the MYR riparian soils.
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12568. 题目: Dynamic molecular size transformation of aquatic colloidal organic matter as a function of pH and cations
文章编号: N18080304
期刊: Water Research
作者: Huacheng Xu, Hui Lin, Helong Jiang, Laodong Guo
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: Knowledge of the dynamic changes in molecular size of natural colloidal organic matter (COM) along the aquatic continuum is of vital importance for a better understanding of the environmental fate and ecological role of dissolved organic matter and associated contaminants in aquatic systems. We report here the pH- and cation-dependent size variations of COMs with different sources (river and lake) quantified using flow field-flow fractionation (FIFFF), fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy, and zeta potential analysis. Increasing pH caused a decline in molecular sizes and an obvious size transformation from the >10 kDa to 5–10 kDa and further to 1–5 kDa size fraction, whereas the opposite trend was observed for increasing cation (e.g., Ca2+ and Cu2+) abundance. Compared with lakewater COM, the riverwater COM exhibited a greater pH-dependent dispersion but less extent in cation-induced aggregation, demonstrating that the dispersion and aggregation dynamics were highly dependent on COM source and solution chemistry (e.g., pH and cations). Based on ATR–FTIR analysis, the extensive dissolution of C=O and C–O functional groups resulted in a greater pH-dependent dispersion for river COM. Fluorescence titration revealed that, despite their similar cation-induced aggregation behavior, the binding constants of all the PARAFAC-derived components for Cu2+ were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than those for Ca2+ (logKM: 4.54–5.45 vs. 3.35–3.70), indicating a heterogeneous nature in cation-DOM interactions. The greater extent of decline in zeta potential for lake COM suggested a Ca-induced charge neutralization and aggregation mechanism. However, for Cu-induced aggregation, chemical complexation was the predominant pathway for the river COM, with higher binding constants, while charge neutralization and chemical complexation co-induced the aggregation of lake COM. Thus, natural COMs may have different environmental behavior along the aquatic continuum and further affect the fate and transport of contaminants in aquatic environments.
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12569. 题目: Charge-Assisted Hydrogen Bonding as a Cohesive Force in Soil Organic Matter: Water Solubility Enhancement by Addition of Simple Carboxylic Acids
文章编号: N18080303
期刊: Environmental Science: Processes Impacts
作者: Jinzhi Ni, Joseph J. Pignatello
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: Weak bonds between molecular segments and between separate molecules of natural organic matter (OM) govern its solubility, adsorption, supramolecular association in solution, and complexation with metal ions and oxides. We tested the hypothesis that especially strong hydrogen bonds, known as (negative) charge-assisted hydrogen bonds, (-)CAHB, contribute significantly to OM cohesion and increase water solubility of solid-phase OM. The (-)CAHB, exemplified by structures such as (CO2HO2C) and (CO2HO), may form between weak acids with similar proton affinity, and is shorter, more covalent, and much stronger than ordinary hydrogen bonds. Using a high-organic reference soil, we show that (-)CAHBs within the solid OM phase (intra-OM) are disrupted by solutions of aliphatic and aromatic acids, resulting in enhanced solubility of OM. The aromatic acids included naturally occurring plant exudate compounds. At constant pH and ionic strength, OM solubility increased with added organic acid concentration and molecular weight. Polar compounds incapable of forming (-)CAHBs, such as alkanols, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfoxide, were ineffective. Solubility enhancement showed behavior consistent with (-)CAHB theory and published observations—namely, i) that formate is more effective than acetate due to its tendency to form stronger (-)CAHBs; ii) that solubility enhancement peaks at pH ~5-6, where the product of interacting carboxylate ion concentrations reaches a maximum; and iii) that elution of acetate or formate through soil columns releases hydroxide ion, consistent with formation of (-)CAHBs between added acid and free weak acid groups on the solid OM. The results support the hypothesis that the (-)CAHB contributes to the cohesion of OM in the solid state.

12570. 题目: Biochar stability assessment methods: A review
文章编号: N18080302
期刊: Science of The Total Environment
作者: Lijian Leng, Huajun Huang, Hui Li, Jun Li, Wenguang Zhou
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: Biochar is being developed as a candidate with great potential for climate change mitigation. Sequestering biochar carbon in soil contributes greatly to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, and biochar stability is the most decisive factor that determines its carbon sequestration potential. However, methods that can be used universally for direct or indirect assessment of biochar stability are still under investigation. This present review aims to give comprehensive and detailed up-to-date information on the development of biochar stability assessment methods. The method details, advantages and disadvantages, along with the correlations between different methods were reviewed and discussed.
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12571. 题目: Hybrid organic-inorganic functionalized polyethersulfone membrane for hyper-saline feed with humic acid in direct contact membrane distillation
文章编号: N18080301
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: Aftab Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Irfan Siyal, Chang-Kyu Lee, Chansoo Park, Jong-Oh Kim
更新时间: 2018-08-03
摘要: In this study, hybrid organic-inorganic functionalized polyethersulfone (PES) membrane was prepared for treating hyper-saline feed solutions containing humic acid (HA) foulant. The membrane modification was carried out by dip-coating with silica nanoparticles, followed by vacuum filtration coating with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl triethoxysilane and polydimethylsiloxane. The membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared, and thermal gravimetric analyses. The evaluation of membranes with water contact angle, liquid entry pressure, direct contact membrane distillation (DCDM), and stability tests, proved the durable amphiphobic nature of the modified PES membrane (PDMS-FAS/SiNPs). The membrane performance was respectively better from that of commercial polypropylene (PP) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. In the DCMD of a feed solution of 1 M NaCl and 10 mg L-1 HA, the flux of the PDMS-FAS/SiNPs membrane remained consistent (17 LMH), with a permeate conductivity of 33.96 µS cm-1. The optimized modified membrane showed better performance in terms of permeate flux, salt rejection, and anti-fouling behavior in DCMD. These wonderful results of functionalized PDMS-FAS/SiNPs PES membrane are attributed to the step-wise simple, and inexpensive dip-coating followed by vacuum filtration coating using efficient hybrid organic-inorganic material combination.
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12572. 题目: Influence of Biochar Addition on Nitrogen Transformation during Copyrolysis of Algae and Lignocellulosic Biomass
文章编号: N18080211
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Wei Chen, Haiping Yang, Yingquan Chen, Kaixu Li, Mingwei Xia, Hanping Chen
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: Algae are extremely promising sustainable feedstock for fuels and chemicals, while they contain high nitrogen content, which may cause some serious nitrogen emission during algae pyrolysis utilization. In this study, we proposed a feasible method to control the nitrogen emission during algae pyrolysis by introducing lignocellulosic biomass and biochar addition. Nitrogen transformation mechanism was investigated through quantitative analysis of N-species in the pyrolysis products. Results showed that copyrolysis of algae and lignocellulosic biomass greatly increased nitrogen in solid char with large amount of NH3 and HCN releasing (∼20 wt %), while nitrogen in bio-oil decreased largely. With biochar addition, NH3, HCN, and N-containing intermediates (amines/amides and nitriles) reacted with higher active O-species (O—C═O, −OH, and −COOH) in biochar addition, and formed large amounts of amine/amide-N, pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N, and quaternary-N on the surface of biochar addition, which led to most nitrogen being enriched in char product and biochar addition (over 75 wt %) at the expense of amines/amides, nitriles, and N-containing gas (only 3 wt % NH3 and HCN emission; decrease of 85%). These results demonstrated that biochar addition showed a positive influence on fixation of N-species during thermochemical conversion of algae and could convert nitrogen to valuable N-doped biochar materials.
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12573. 题目: Immobilized microalgae for anaerobic digestion effluent treatment in a photobioreactor-ultrafiltration system: Algal harvest and membrane fouling control
文章编号: N18080210
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Binghan Xie, Weijia Gong, Huarong Yu, Xiaobin Tang, Zhongsen Yan, Xinsheng Luo, Zhendong Gan, Tianyu Wang, Guibai Li, Heng Liang
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: A photobioreactor (PBR) coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) system was developed with goals of microalgae cultivation, harvest, and membrane fouling control in the anaerobic digestion effluent purification. Firstly, three-sequencing batch PBRs were started-up with suspended Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris, SCV), immobilized C. vulgaris (ICV) and immobilized C. vulgaris with powdered activated carbon (ICV + PAC). The results exhibited high DOC degradation (66.61%–84.35%) and completely nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) removals were attained in PBRs. This indicated bacterial-microalgal consortiums enhanced biodegradation and PAC adsorption accelerated photodegradation. During the microalgae harvest by UF, immobilized microalgae beads protected cells integrity with less debris and intracellular/extracellular organic matters lysis. Moreover, the cake layer in ICV + PAC could even serve as a dynamic layer to entrap the residual pollutants and control membrane fouling. Hence, membrane fouling mitigation and ADE purification were realized during the microalgae harvest process in the ICV + PAC.
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12574. 题目: Lignin-induced growth inhibition in soybean exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles
文章编号: N18080209
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Tamires Letícia Cunha Lopes, Rita de Cássia Siqueira-Soares, Guilherme Henrique Gonçalves de Almeida, Gabriele Sauthier Romano de Melo, Gabriela Ellen Barreto, Dyoni Matias de Oliveira, Wanderley Dantas dos Santos, Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho, Rogério Marchiosi
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: Plants are occasionally exposed to environmental perturbations that limit their growth. One of these perturbations is the exposure to and interaction with various nanoparticles (NPs) that are discarded continuously into the environment. Hitherto, no study has been carried out evaluating the effects of iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) NPs on soybean growth and lignin formation, as proposed herein. For comparative purposes, we also submitted soybean plants to non-nanoparticulate iron (FeCl3). Exposure of the plants to γ-Fe2O3 NPs increased cell wall-bound peroxidase (POD) activity but decreased phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity due, probably, to the negative feedback of accumulated phenolic compounds. In contrast, FeCl3 decreased cell wall-bound POD activity. Both γ-Fe2O3 NPs and FeCl3 increased the lignin content of roots and stems. However, significant lignin-induced growth inhibition was noted only in stems after exposure to NPs, possibly due to changes in lignin monomer composition. In this case, γ-Fe2O3 NPs decreased the guaiacyl monomer content of roots but increased that of stems. The high levels of monomer guaiacyl in stems resulting from the action of γ-Fe2O3 NPs decreased syringyl/guaiacyl ratios, generating more highly cross-linked lignin followed by the stiffening of the cell wall and growth inhibition. In contrast, FeCl3 increased the contents of monomers p-hydroxyphenyl and syringyl in roots. The observed increase in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio in plant roots submitted to FeCl3 agrees with the lack of effect on growth, due to the formation of a less condensed lignin. In brief, we here describe that γ-Fe2O3 NPs and FeCl3 act differently in soybean plants.
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12575. 题目: Winter road management effects on roadside soil and vegetation along a mountain pass in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA
文章编号: N18080208
期刊: Journal of Environmental Management
作者: Hanna M. Willmert, Joseph D. Osso, Michael R. Twiss, Tom A. Langen
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: In 2003-2005, we resurveyed and expanded plots surveyed in 1985 to examine the cumulative impact of road salt (sodium chloride) and sand along a two-lane highway in the Adirondack State Park in New York State (USA). Annual salt applications in the period 1985-2005 ranged from 50 tonnes per centerline-km (1985) to 140 tonnes (2005) and sand applications ranged from nearly zero tonnes (2005) to 325 tonnes (1985). Roadside soils and vegetation were significantly impacted by salt deposition compared to soils and vegetation 30 meters and 150 meters from the road. Roadside soil contained more sand, less organic matter, had a lower cation exchange capacity, was denser, and retained less water than soils 30 m and 150 m from the road. The concentration of sodium in roadside soils was elevated (103 vs. 44 ppm in soil 150 m from the roadside), and roadside concentrations of plant-nutritive cations were lower than 150 m from the road (roadside Mg, Ca and K concentrations were 0.2, 5, and 1 ppm respectively vs. 23,168, and 30 ppm at 150 m from the road). Along the roadside, paper birch trees (Betula papyrifera) and other woody vegetation present in 1980 were absent in 2004, suggesting that survival and recruitment of paper birch trees was impacted by degradation of soil fertility, deposition of road salt and aerosolization of salt from the roadway. Roadside environmental degradation caused by winter road management has worsened since 1980; revegetation with native salt-tolerant plants may provide some mitigation of the most severe effects. Overall, we conclude that the full extent of roadside environmental degradation caused by winter road management can take decades to manifest, and this may be the case more generally along cold-climate montane roadways.

12576. 题目: Steroid fingerprints: efficient biomarkers of human decomposition fluids in soil
文章编号: N18080207
期刊: Organic Geochemistry
作者: Barbara von der Lühe, Jago J. Birk, Lorna Dawson, Robert W. Mayes, Sabine Fiedler
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: The decomposition of animal and human cadavers can lead to comprehensive chemical and biochemical changes in soil, which can provide helpful information for the analysis of archaeological and crime scenes. The current study focused specifically on the concentration and distribution patterns of steroids in soil with the aim of assessing their suitability for demonstrating the presence of human decomposition products. Soil samples were collected from a forensic site where a human corpse had been lying on the soil surface for 18 days. Total organic carbon (TOC) and steroid concentrations were analysed in soil samples taken from beneath the body at the time the corpse was removed and also one year later. High concentrations of TOC and steroids were detected close to the soil surface at the time the body was removed, and the concentration of cadaver-derived cholesterol was considerably higher than that of the plant-derived sitosterol. The soil beneath the cadaver contained higher concentrations of faeces-derived 5β-stanol coprostanol than the control soil. Different concentrations and distribution patterns of steroid compounds in the soil upon removal of the corpse and one year later indicate that significant transformation, degradation and translocation processes had taken place during this period of time. The depth distribution of steroids beneath a decomposing body along with changes in the human steroidal fingerprints in soil over time were found to provide information that could help resolve forensic and archaeological issues. The combined analysis of tissue steroids (cholesterol), the reduction product of cholesterol in soil (5α-cholestanol) as well as faecal steroids (coprostanol, 5β-stigmastanol and their conversion products epicoprostanol and epi-5β-stigmastanol) represent excellent additions to the forensic toolbox for determining whether a soil of interest has ever been affected by a human cadaver or not.

12577. 题目: Radically different lignin composition in Posidonia species may link to differences in organic carbon sequestration capacity
文章编号: N18080206
期刊: Organic Geochemistry
作者: Joeri Kaal, Oscar Serrano, José C. del Río, Jorge Rencoret
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: There is considerable variability in the ability of seagrass ecosystems to sequester organic carbon (Corg) in their sediments, which act as natural carbon sinks contributing to climate change mitigation. In this work, we studied the chemistry of two Posidonia seagrass species aiming to elucidate whether differences in chemical composition might explain differences in their Corg sequestration capacity. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and Thermally assisted Hydrolysis and Methylation (THM) GC-MS data showed a remarkable difference in phenolic compound patterns between P. oceanica and P. australis bulk plants and individual organs (leaves, sheaths, roots and rhizomes). The lignin of P. australis generates a series of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) products that are typical of herbaceous plants, whereas P. oceanica is particularly rich in p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pBA) derivatives. The structural characteristics of the lignins were further investigated by two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (2D-NMR) and Derivatization Followed by Reductive Cleavage (DFRC), focusing on sheath tissues. The analyses confirmed important differences in the lignin content (19.8% in P. australis and 29.5% in P. oceanica) and composition between the two species; intriguingly, the cell-walls of P. oceanica sheaths were highly enriched in pBA, a component that was completely absent in P. australis. 2D-NMR and DFRC further revealed that pBA was esterified to the lignin, acylating the γ-OH of the lignin side-chain. Interestingly, P. oceanica lignin presented an extremely high degree of p-hydroxybenzoylation in both guaiacyl (73%) and syringyl (61%) lignin units, the highest p-hydroxybenzoylation degree reported in plant lignins to date. It is tempting to conclude that the higher soil Corg storage capacity of P. oceanica ecosystems might be related to the higher abundance of pBA-rich lignin and its recalcitrant nature.

12578. 题目: Depositional environment of the Late Santonian lacustrine source rocks in the Songliao Basin (NE China): Implications from organic geochemical analyses
文章编号: N18080205
期刊: Organic Geochemistry
作者: Xiaoning Tong, Jianfang Hu, Dangpeng Xi, Mengbo Zhu, Jianzhong Song, Ping'an Peng
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: The Songliao Basin (SLB) located in northeastern China is one of the largest Cretaceous continental sedimentary basins in the world. The SLB is filled with sediments deposited in the Upper Jurassic, the Lower Cretaceous and the Upper Cretaceous epochs. The Nenjiang Formation (K2n) is subdivided into five members, where Member 2 (K2n2) was deposited in the late Santonian in the lower part of the Nenjiang Formation. This member is characterized by a thick succession of organic-rich source rocks. However, the complexity of the depositional environment raises questions about the specific factors that drove this accumulation of organic material. Here, we present data on the total organic carbon (TOC) contents and their stable carbon isotope values (δ13Corg), as well as biomarker data from 50 outcrop samples collected from the Yuewangcheng (YWC) section, in the southeastern SLB. According to the variations of the bulk organic parameters (TOC and δ13Corg) and biomarker indices, the profile could be divided into three stages (stages I–III). The distribution of biomarkers (n-alkanes, steranes and hopanes) and δ13Corg values indicate that the organic matter (OM) in the Lower K2n2 is derived largely from algae and macrophytes, with a minor input from bacteria and land plants. The water column was stratified, as indicated by the presence of gammacerane. Variations in the pristane/phytane (Pr/Ph) and aryl isoprenoids relative to phenanthrene ratio (A-i/P) suggest that bottom waters were anoxic during Stage I (31.5–26.0 m) and Stage II (26.0–16.3 m), with the anoxic layer impinging on the euphotic zone and a relative oxic environment at Stage III (16.3–0 m). This brackish environment persisted in the water over the interval represented by the section, as reflected by methytrimethyltridecyl chromans (MTTCs) Index (MTTCI) and α-MTTC/γ-MTTC ratios. Marine transgressions, with subsequent seawater incursions, can be detected with the presence of 24-n-propyl-cholestanes and 24-iso-propyl-cholestanes in the Lower K2n2 sediments, especially during Stage I. These seawater incursions are closely correlated with anoxic conditions and the deposition of organic-rich source rocks.

12579. 题目: Effect of salinity on the decomposition of soil organic carbon in a tidal wetland
文章编号: N18080204
期刊: Journal of Soils and Sediments
作者: Wendi Qu, Juanyong Li, Guangxuan Han, Haitao Wu, Weimin Song, Xiaoshuai Zhang
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: Purpose: Climate warming and sea level rise have the potential to change the salt level of soil in tidal wetlands. And it is important to clarify the process and the mechanism of decomposition of soil organic carbon in a tidal wetland under varying salinities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of soil salinity on the decomposition rate of organic carbon (DROC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a tidal wetland. Materials and methods: Two types of soil (surface soil in Suaeda salsa and bare tidal flat) were collected, air-dried, and homogenized. After adding different content of salt (0 g/L, 3 g/L, 6 g/L, 9 g/L, and 12 g/L), the soils were incubated for 28 days at stable room temperature (25 ± 2 °C) and added by deionized water to maintain the stability of soil moisture. The gases (CO2 and CH4) emission rates of each salt treatment were measured during 28-day incubation. DROC was determined by the sum of daily CO2-C emission rates and daily CH4-C emission rates in this study. Results and discussion: Salt addition inhibited the process of gas emissions and DROC. Gases emission rates and DROC of two types of soil showed similar temporal trends, with distinctive drop in the beginning of experiment and no significant decrease followed. Significant difference of DOC among salt treatments was found in the bare tidal flat soil. Variations of partial correlation between DROC and soil salinity and DOC showed similar trends (e.g., in days 9–18, the positive effect of DOC on DROC was greatly promoted (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001), and the negative effect of soil salinity was highly improved (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.001)). Soil properties, in particular DOC, may be primary factors accounting for the discrepancy of gases emission rates and DROC of two types of soil. Conclusions: Increased soil salinity had a negative effect on DROC during 28-day incubation. The impact of soil salinity and DOC on DROC were varied in different phases of laboratory experiment (soil salinity generally had increasingly negative relationship with DROC, but DOC showed most significantly positive relationship in the middle stage of incubation). Both the formation and consumption of DOC may be valuable for more detail research regarding to decomposition of soil organic carbon.

12580. 题目: Distribution, dynamics and determinants of antibiotics in soils in a peri-urban area of Yangtze River Delta, Eastern China
文章编号: N18080203
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Fangkai Zhao, Liding Chen, Lei Yang, Shoujuan Li, Long Sun, Xinwei Yu
更新时间: 2018-08-02
摘要: Antibiotics are increasingly recognized as anthropogenic contaminants in soils, and they can persist through a complex vicious cycle of transformation and bioaccumulation. In this study, we quantified 11 quinolones (QNs), 5 sulfonamides (SAs), 5 macrolides (MLs), and 4 tetracyclines (TCs) in soils at three soil layers (0–10, 10–20, 20–40 cm) in a typical peri-urban catchment in the Yangtze River Delta, Eastern China. The results showed that total antibiotic levels were significantly higher in cropland topsoil (p < 0.05) compared to orchards and forests (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant seasonal variation for antibiotic concentrations in croplands’ topsoil were observed in the summer (50.59 ± 84.55 ng/g) and winter (112.44 ± 140.58 ng/g). Chlortetracycline (15.30 ± 45.44 ng/g), enrofloxacin (0.43 ± 0.93 ng/g), sulfamethazine (0.05 ± 0.02 ng/g) and clarithromycin (0.03 ± 0.03 ng/g) were detected with the highest frequencies within TCs, QNs, SAs, and MLs, respectively. Concentrations of TCs, QNs, and SAs decreased with increasing soil depth. The concentrations of TCs, QNs, and SAs were significantly affected by the intensity of human activities. According to the results of redundancy analysis (RDA), anthropogenic effects on the distribution of antibiotics in soils in winter were so strong that they dwarfed the effects of environmental factors. In summer, human activities and their interactions with environmental factors were the dominant contributors to variations in soil antibiotics. In addition, the results of RDA suggested that soil pH and organic matter closely correlated with the levels of antibiotics, and Actinobacteria was the predominant contributor to the biodegradation of antibiotics in this study area.
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