121. 题目: Biochar aged or combined with humic substances: fabrication and implications for sustainable agriculture and environment-a review
Humic substances (HSs) and biochar (BC) are carbon-based soil amendments. These amendments improve soil health and fertility, enhance nutrient pools and carbon content, remove soil pollutants, and enhance plant performance. As a result, they contribute to agro-environmental sustainability and the development of a circular bioeconomy. However, there is a lack of research on the effects of HSs-aged BC or the co-application of BC and HSs on the agro-environmental system. Therefore, further studies are needed to understand the impacts of these amendments on the agro-environmental system.
This study utilizes a novel technique based on BC aging with HSs to investigate the BC-aging process, factors influencing it, as well as the impact of BC and HSs on soil physicochemical properties, nutrient pools, microbial communities, immobilization of metal ions in the soil, and plant performance. We gathered original research articles, meta-analysis papers, book chapters, conference proceedings, and technical notes from high-quality peer-reviewed journals and reputable websites.
Results and discussion
The extensive literature evaluation revealed that the potential benefits of BC are closely related to variations in the physicochemical composition of the BC and soil because microorganisms do not prefer fresh BC for colonization. In some studies, BC showed a detrimental impact on the soil microbiome. Therefore, the influence of BC on the soil microbiome, nutrient pool, pollutant removal, and plant growth strongly depends on the residence time of BC in the soil and its prior aging with HSs. Aging BC with HSs is more effective than using fresh BC as it enhances nutrient pools, accessibility to plants, pollutant amelioration capacity, microbial activities, and consequently, plant performance due to the presence of surface functional groups and the adsorbed nutrient-rich organic molecules.
The soil fertility traits and plant performance were impacted by aging or a combination of BC with HSs. However, detailed characterizations and continuous experiments are required to gain in-depth insights into the interaction mechanisms between the aging of BC with HSs via the liquid soaking technique and soil fertility traits.
122. 题目: Effects of dissolved organic matter removal and molecular transformation in different water treatment processes on formation of disinfection byproducts
Alterations in molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during water treatments can influence the composition and toxicity of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in subsequent chlorination disinfection process. In this study, the impacts of DOM composition after various water treatment techniques (coagulation, adsorption, nanofiltration, biological aerated filter (BAF), and their integrated processes) on the generation mechanisms of DBPs were comprehensively explored by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in combination with GC–MS and LC-MS analysis. The results indicated that coagulation preferentially removed unsaturated (low H/C) and oxidized (high O/C) compounds, whereas adsorption was prone to remove the reduced (low O/C) component that was more reactive with chlorine, leading to lower yields (μg DBP/mg DOC) of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) during subsequent chlorination. The coagulation-adsorption technique exhibited a relatively high removal of both known and unknown DBPs, demonstrating that coagulation and adsorption were complementary for DOM removal at the molecular level. Nanofiltration selectively removed molecules with relatively high O/C, however, those with very low O/C that were more reactive with chlorine could pass through the nanofiltration membrane, resulting in the highest yields of THMs and HAAs. Although BAF was inefficient in removing DBPs precursors, it could convert molecules with low degree of oxidation and unsaturation into highly oxidized and unsaturated ones, thereby significantly enhancing the removal of DBPs precursors in the subsequent coagulation-adsorption process. These findings are instrumental in developing and selecting more effective techniques to minimize the formation of DBPs in water treatment.
123. 题目: Influence of colloidal iron oxide and natural organic matter fouling on nanofiltration membrane performance: role of feed composition and membrane properties
124. 题目: Earthquake-enhanced dissolved carbon cycles in ultra-deep ocean sediments
Hadal trenches are unique geological and ecological systems located along subduction zones. Earthquake-triggered turbidites act as efficient transport pathways of organic carbon (OC), yet remineralization and transformation of OC in these systems are not comprehensively understood. Here we measure concentrations and stable- and radiocarbon isotope signatures of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC, DIC) in the subsurface sediment interstitial water along the Japan Trench axis collected during the IODP Expedition 386. We find accumulation and aging of DOC and DIC in the subsurface sediments, which we interpret as enhanced production of labile dissolved carbon owing to earthquake-triggered turbidites, which supports intensive microbial methanogenesis in the trench sediments. The residual dissolved carbon accumulates in deep subsurface sediments and may continue to fuel the deep biosphere. Tectonic events can therefore enhance carbon accumulation and stimulate carbon transformation in plate convergent trench systems, which may accelerate carbon export into the subduction zones.
125. 题目: Biochar encapsulated metal nanoflowers for high efficient degradation of metronidazole via peroxymonosulfate activation
A three-dimensional (3D) flower-like zero-valent bimetallic shell/core iron/copper/biochar composite (NZVI/Cu0/BC) was synthesized for the purpose of removing antibiotic metronidazole (MNZ) through the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS). Under optimal conditions, complete removal of MNZ (10 mg/L) was achieved within 6 min. The study quantitatively investigated the contribution of different participants in the complex system, including carbon composites, Fe and Cu species, and radicals and nonradicals. Based on the characterization and analysis data, possible activation mechanisms were proposed, which involved the oxygenated functional groups of BC and the bimetallic structure feature of NZVI/Cu0 accelerating the generation of 1O2 and other oxidation species. Additionally, the synergistic effect of Cu-Fe-BC facilitated the redox cycle of Cu2+/Cu+ and Fe3+/Fe2+, thereby promoting radical in the NZVI/Cu0/BC-3/PMS system. Notably, NZVI/Cu0/BC-3 has the advantages of wide pH usable range as well as broad-spectrum adaptability towards various organic pollutant and various water environments. Density functional theory (DFT) results indicated that the adsorption energy of PMS onto NZVI/Cu0/BC was more negative compared to their individual adsorption energies, and the O-O bond in the structure of PMS molecules became weaker after adsorption, resulting in improved efficiency of PMS activation. Liquid chromatograph combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement and DFT calculation suggested three main degradation pathways of MNZ, and the toxicities of their intermediates were evaluated.
126. 题目: Coupled Processes Involving Organic Matter and Fe Oxyhydroxides Control Geogenic Phosphorus Enrichment in Groundwater Systems: New Evidence from FT-ICR-MS and XANES
127. 题目: Effects of solvent extracted organic matter from outdoor air pollution on human type II pneumocytes: Molecular and proteomic analysis
Outdoor air pollution is responsible for the exacerbation of respiratory diseases in humans. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) is one of the main components of outdoor air pollution, and solvent extracted organic matter (SEOM) is adsorbed to the main PM2.5 core. Some of the biological effects of black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are components of PM2.5, are known, but the response of respiratory cell lineages to SEOM exposure has not been described until now. The aim of this study was to obtain SEOM from PM2.5 and analyze the molecular and proteomic effects on human type II pneumocytes. PM2.5 was collected from Mexico City in the wildfire season and the SEOM was characterized to be exposed on human type II pneumocytes. The effects were compared with benzo [a] pyrene (B[a]P) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The results showed that SEOM induced a decrease in surfactant and deregulation in the molecular protein and lipid pattern analyzed by reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy on human type II pneumocytes after 24 h. The molecular alterations induced by SEOM were not shared by those induced by B[a]P nor H2O2, which highlights specific SEOM effects. In addition, proteomic patterns by quantitative MS analysis revealed a downregulation of 171 proteins and upregulation of 134 proteins analyzed in the STRING database. The deregulation was associated with positive regulation of apoptotic clearance, removal of superoxide radicals, and positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion processes, while ATP metabolism, nucleotide process, and cellular metabolism were also affected. Through this study, we conclude that SEOM extracted from PM2.5 exerts alterations in molecular patterns of protein and lipids, surfactant expression, and deregulation of metabolic pathways of type II pneumocytes after 24 h of exposure in absence of cytotoxicity, which warns about apparent SEOM silent effects.
128. 题目: A bizarre layer cake: Why soil animals recolonizing polluted areas shape atypical humus forms
During soil recolonization by macrofauna in areas previously defaunated by industrial pollution, non-typical humus forms are produced. Given that the evidence of zoogenic activity cessation with increased forest litter depth in these humus forms, we tested the hypothesis that the lower organic layers are more toxic than the upper ones. The studies were conducted in the southern taiga, near the Middle Ural Copper Smelter (Revda city, Russia), in spruce-fir and birch forests. We investigated the series of degraded humus forms at different recovery stages, including those without signs of regradation, as well as at the initial and advanced recovery stages. In the organic layers, each of which were 1–2 cm thick and 6–8 cm in total, we measured the following parameters: pH(water), total acidity, the content of exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+, acid-soluble and exchangeable metals (Cu, Pb, Fe, Cd, and Zn), organic carbon, and total nitrogen. Simultaneously, we diagnosed the degree of zoogenicity of the organic layers following the European morpho-functional classification of humus forms. Concentrations of the metals increased with forest litter depth, reaching a maximum at the boundary between the organic and organic-mineral horizons (the difference exceeded an order of magnitude). In the same direction, the acidity increased, but the saturation of the exchange complex with Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased. Within a particular forest litter profile, metal concentrations and acidity were lower in the layer with the highest zoogenicity compared to the layer with the lowest zoogenicity. Based on the metals, pH(water), and exchange complex, the accuracy of the predictions of the degree of layer zoogenicity within the OF horizon in the discriminant analysis reached 100 %. These findings suggest that the vertical gradient of toxic burden persisting in the forest litter after pollution cessation can explain the recovery pattern of humus forms in the contaminated areas.
129. 题目: Multiple nitrogen sources for primary production inferred from δ13C and δ15N in the southern Sea of Japan
130. 题目: Light absorption properties of black and brown carbon during the prescribed burning season at an urban background site in Brisbane, Australia
Light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols primarily comprise black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC), and they play a key role in atmospheric radiative forcing and global climate. Here, we present the light absorption, potential sources, and health risks of BC and BrC during the prescribed burning season at an urban background site in Brisbane based on the measurements with a seven-wavelength aethalometer. The enhancements in light absorption at 880 nm were potentially governed by the transport of prescribed burning emissions. Source apportionment results revealed that fossil-fuel (FF) combustion contributed more to the total equivalent BC (eBC) (67%) over the entire measurement period as compared to biomass burning (BB). The percentages of secondary BrC to BrC for BB- and FF-dominated periods were 60% and 21%, respectively, indicating the greater potential of BB emissions to form secondary BrC compared to FF emissions. The diurnal trend showed that the peaks of secondary BrC occurred at nighttime with high relative humidity, implying that the formation of secondary BrC was potentially associated with aqueous reactions. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) results suggested that air masses originating from southern and northern Brisbane were the potential pollution sources, where BB and traffic emissions were dominant. In addition, the health risks of eBC (based on equivalent numbers of passively smoked cigarettes) remarkably increased for periods with elevated eBC emissions, potentially originating from prescribed burns. These findings contribute to our understanding of the impact of BB on the light absorption properties of BC and BrC and could serve as a reference for government officials when performing prescribed burns with reduced environmental and health effects.
131. 题目: Pyrolysis characteristics of biochar composite loaded with Fe(III) and its activation mechanism to persulfate
Although metals (Fe(III)) loaded with BC (MBC) exhibited good catalytic reactivity, the structural evolution process of MBC with pyrolysis and the evaluation of electron transfer capacity of MBC during persulfate oxidation were typically overlooked. Results of this study indicated that increasing pyrolysis temperature could promote the carbonization of biomass and lead to the formation of a well-developed microporous structure. Large numbers of functional groups and Fe species were formed by pyrolysis, but the content varies greatly under different pyrolysis temperatures. MBC prepared at pyrolysis temperature of 300 °C (MBC300) exhibited an excellent activation capacity, and the removal efficiency of 2,4-dinitrotoluene reached 83.7% within 5 h of the reaction by adding in 2.5 mmol/L persulfate and 0.5 g/L MBC300. Sulfate radical (SO4·-) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) participated in the reaction, but ·OH was mainly responsible for the degradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Multiple characterization methods confirmed that Fe(III) maghemite and Fe 2p1/2 in MBCs mainly promoted the activation of persulfate, and oxygen-containing functional groups as an electronic shuttle accelerated the electron transfer in the persulfate/MBC system. Compared to that of biochar, the electron donating and electron accepting capacity of MBC were increased by an order of magnitude. This result is of significance for the preparation of green activation material used in the remediation of organically polluted groundwater with persulfate oxidation.
132. 题目: Ball milling and phosphoric acid hydrothermally co-functionalized sludge biochar for efficiently adsorptive removal of environmental concentration sulfamethoxazole: Experimental, characterization and DFT study
Efficiently eliminating environmental concentration sulfamethoxazole (SMX) from water has become a great challenge because its undesirable removal efficiencies/rates by the present sewage treatment technologies. In this study, various pyrolysis temperatures (400–700 °C), ball milling parameters (speed (300–700 rpm) and time (30–120 min)) and acids (CH3COOH, H3PO4 and HNO3) hydrothermal activation were studied to optimize the preparation of modified sludge biochar (SBC) with the greater adsorption capacity. As expected, ball milling and H3PO4 hydrothermally co-functionalized SBC (BPSBC) showed the optimum adsorption performance for SMX, and its maximum adsorption capacity (4.61 × 104 μg/g) calculated from Langmuir model was 6.30 times that of SBC. The adsorption behaviors and mechanism were investigated by kinetics, isotherms model fitting, thermodynamics, characterization, and density functionalization theory (DFT) calculation etc. Pore filling, π-π conjugation, H-bonding and P-O complexation were proved to be the main contributors to SMX adsorption by BPSBC. BPSBC showed the favorable sustainable adsorption performance for SMX by NaOH regeneration and stability over a broad pH value with the low leaching risk of phosphorus. This work developed a promising adsorbent of BPSBC for environmental concentration SMX removal, in addition to that the resource utilization of sludge was simultaneously achieved.
133. 题目: The coagulation behavior and mechanism of low-coagulability organic matter (LCOM)
Hydrophobic and high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) can be efficiently removed via coagulation, but DOM with a low hydrophobicity and low molecular weight cannot. These can be respectively classified as high-coagulability organic matter (HCOM) and low-coagulability organic matter (LCOM). Most coagulation studies have focused on HCOM (such as humic acid) but not LCOM. Therefore, the coagulation behavior and mechanism of LCOM were revealed by comparing with HCOM in this study. The removal efficiency of HCOM via coagulation was high (>75%), while that of LCOM was very low (<15%). Charge neutralization (CN) and sweep flocculation (SF) were the primary mechanisms of DOM coagulation. Based on the results of fluorescence measurements, zeta potential, and floc growth processes, the CN mechanism was very efficient in HCOM coagulation, but it did not apply to LCOM coagulation. Since LCOM has a smaller molecular size, it bound with coagulants to form soluble complexes in contrast to the flocs formed during HCOM coagulation. Both HCOM and LCOM could be removed via the SF mechanism, but the interaction between LCOM and coagulant was far weaker. According to the analysis of floc properties, HCOM strongly bound with the coagulant to form flocs with a loose structure and uneven surface. The properties of LCOM flocs were very similar to those of hydroxide flocs formed without organics in terms of surface charges, fractal structure, recoverability, surface morphology, and contents of Al/O components of flocs. In conclusion, HCOM coagulation was controlled by the interaction between HCOM and coagulant, while LCOM coagulation was dominated by coagulant hydrolysis and polymerization. This study complements the existing understanding of LCOM coagulation and provides insights into the enhancement strategy.
134. 题目: Co-production of biochar and electricity from oil palm wastes for carbon dioxide mitigation in Malaysia
Power and heat production is the leading cause of greenhouse gas emissions in Malaysia, contributing to over 30% of total emissions. The transition from fossil to biomass resources in the power industry is an essential step towards achieving carbon neutrality in Malaysia. Oil palm wastes are the most abundant biomass resources in Malaysia because of the thriving oil palm industry. Consequently, two scenarios: (1) co-production of biochar and electricity, and (2) electricity generation, were proposed and simulated in Aspen Plus. A comprehensive evaluation system for mass and energy balances, techno-economic analysis, and life-cycle assessment was established to quantitatively assess the two scenarios. The results indicated that Scenario 1 achieved a better benefit in economy and environment, the payback period was 6.12–8.89 years, and the global warming potential ranged from −885.23 to −1311.95 kg CO2-eq/t. The state-level spatiotemporal trajectory of oil palm waste resources and CO2 emission reduction potentials and economic benefits were analyzed. Theoretically, fully utilizing oil palm wastes in Scenario 1 would create economic benefits of 35.36 billion USD and mitigate CO2 emissions by 131.97 million tons in 2021. This study provides useful guidance for exploiting oil palm wastes to achieve carbon neutrality in Malaysia.
135. 题目: CoSx produced in Porphyra biochar by exogenous Co and endogenous S doping to enhance peroxymonosulfate activation for carbamazepine degradation
Exploiting low-cost and high-performance biochar catalysts is vital for the detoxification of organic wastewater and the resource utilization of algal biomass. Herein, CoSx containing biochar (CoSBC) was prepared using exogenous Co salt and endogenous Porphyra rich in S elements for enhanced degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) by peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. 95.73% of CBZ (20 mg/L) can be removed within 20 min in CoSBC-900/PMS system with a degradation rate of 0.1287 min-1, and maintained a higher catalytic efficiency after five cycles (> 90%). Besides, the CoSBC-900/PMS system held excellent resistance over various coexisting substances, and could efficiently degrade multiple organic contaminants. Mechanism analyses revealed that 1O2 and SO4•− collaborated for CBZ degradation, in which 1O2 played the dominant role and 1O2 mainly originated from the formation process: PMS→O2•−→1O2. The low redox potential of S species accelerated Co(II)/Co(III) circulation, while Porphyra biochar also served as the highly active centers, producing abundant active species (SO4•−). The possible intermediate products accompanying CBZ degradation were proposed based on LC-MS analysis and the corresponding toxicity assessment verified that the CoSBC-900/PMS system possesses desirable CBZ detoxification ability. This study provides novel insight into the development of transition metal-based biochar catalysts from algal biomass for the purification of organic wastewater.
136. 题目: Electroactive biocake layer-driven advanced removal of dissolved organic matter at membrane interface of anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor
The bio-cake layer is one of the most negative effects during water and wastewater filtration, but its potential behoof of biodegradation is poorly understood. In this study, we activated and reconstructed the bio-cake by using the carbon nanotube membrane (25 cm2 area, 17 LMH flux) as an anode in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), and investigated its positive role in advanced removal of dissolved organic matter from up-flow anaerobic sludge bed unit (3 L/d) when treating synthetic municipal wastewater. At anodic membrane interface, the enhanced biodegradation was proved to dominate the DOM reduction (contribution >40%), controlling the effluent COD as low as 19.2 ± 2.5 mg/L. Bio-cake characterizations suggested that positive potential induced electroactive improvement, cell viability boost, and metabolic optimization. Metatranscriptomic analyses revealed that anode respiratory out-compete methanogenesis, forwarding a synergetic metabolism between enriched fermenters like Proteiniphilum sp. and exoelectrogens like Geobacter sp. Thus, electroactive bio-cake not only accelerated the decomposition of inside foulants to maintain the high flux, but also efficiently intercepted flow-through DOM due to reduced mass-transfer limitations and enhanced metabolic activity. An ordered, non-clogging, and potentially functional “cell filter” was established to achieve a win-win situation between fouling control and effluent improvement, which is promising to upgrade the AnMBR technology for maximizing sustainable regeneration in future wastewater treatment.
137. 题目: Use of biochar as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater: A Review
In recent years, the removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater systems remains a challenging issue globally. Adsorption technology is widely used for the removal of heavy metals from aquatic systems due to several advantages including its simple operation, low cost and high efficiency. Biochar, which is an environmental benign and low-cost adsorbent, is increasingly used for remediation of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems. This review critically analyzes recent developments on the biochar-based adsorptive removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater. Biochar is effective for the removal of several toxic metals (As, Cr and Mn) from groundwater and drinking water. Biochar also shows promising performance for the removal of various heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn) from wastewater. The heavy metal adsorption capacity of the biochar largely depends on the water/wastewater chemistry (pH, competing ions and initial concentrations of adsorbates), contact time between the adsorbate and the adsorbent, adsorbent dose and environmental parameters (temperature). The adsorption isotherms and kinetics can be well explained by the Langmuir and pseudo-second order models, respectively. The key mechanisms which drive the heavy metal adsorption onto biochar include precipitation and ion exchange. Biochar-based adsorptive decontamination of heavy metal pollution is sustainable due to low environmental impacts, low energy consumption and low-costs. The key knowledge gaps and future research directions for improvement of biochar-based sorption capacities are highlighted. This review would help for the development of effective biochar-based adsorption technology for the removal of heavy metals from aquatic environments.
138. 题目: Molecular and optical signatures of photochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter: Nonnegligible role of suspended particulate matter in urban river
Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the Earth's dynamic carbon pools and a key intermediate in the global carbon cycle. Photochemical processes potentially affect DOM composition and activity in surface water. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) is the integral component of slow-moving rivers, and holds the potential for photochemical reactivity. To further investigate the influence of SPM on DOM photochemical transformation, this study conducted experiments comparing samples with and without SPM irradiated under simulated sunlight. Surface water samples from slow-moving urban rivers were collected. DOM optical characteristics and molecular features obtained by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) were investigated. Photolabile DOM was enriched in unsaturated and highly aromatic terrestrial substances. Photoproduced DOM had low aromaticity and was dominated by saturated aliphatics, protein-like substances, and carbohydrates. Study results indicated that the presence of SPM had a nonnegligible impact on the molecular traits of DOM, such as composition, molecular diversity, photolability, and bioavailability during photochemical reactions. In the environment affected by SPM, molecules containing heteroatoms exhibit higher photosensitivity. SPM promotes the photochemical transformation of a wider range of chemical types of photolabile DOM, particularly nitrogen-containing compounds. This study provides an essential insight into the more precise simulation of photochemical reactions of DOM influenced by SPM occurring in natural rivers, contributing to our understanding of the global carbon cycle from new theoretical perspectives.
139. 题目: Integrating biological ion exchange with biological activated carbon treatment for drinking water: A novel approach for NOM removal, trihalomethane formation potential, and biological stability
Ion exchange resins (IEX) are used in drinking water utilities to remove natural organic matter (NOM) from surface water; however, the disposal of used brine can be a major drawback. Recently, biological ion exchange (BIEX) has been proposed as an alternative to biological activated carbon (BAC) for removing natural organic matter (NOM). The present study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to use a hybrid BIEX and BAC (BIEX+BAC) system for drinking water treatment. The removal of NOM, assimilable organic carbon, and trihalomethane formation potential was investigated by operating four columns comprising IEX, BIEX, BAC, and BIEX+BAC with 18000 bed volumes. The BIEX+BAC system was the most effective at removing dissolved organic carbon (59.9%). Based on fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy, the BIEX+BAC column showed the maximum removal rates in all peak regions of T1, T2, and A. Using liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, resin-containing columns were found to effectively remove humic substances, which are the principal precursors of trihalomethanes. The lowest potential for trihalomethane formation was observed in BIEX+BAC. BIEX+BAC also had the highest assimilable organic carbon removal efficiency (61.2%) followed by BIEX (52.3%), BAC (49.5%), and IEX (47.1%). The BIEX+BAC hybrid was found to be the most effective method for removing NOM fractions and reducing the formation of disinfection byproducts.
140. 题目: Emerging applications of biochar: A review on techno-environmental-economic aspects
Biomass fast pyrolysis produces bio-oil and biochar achieving circular economy. This review explored the emerging applications of biochar. Biochar possesses the unique properties for removing emerging contaminants and for mine remediation, owing to its negative charge surface, high specific surface area, large pore size distribution and surface functional groups. Additionally, biochar could adsorb impurities such as CO2, moisture, and H2S to upgrade the biogas. Customizing pyrolysis treatments, optimizing the feedstock and pyrolysis operating conditions enhance biochar production and improve its surface properties for the emerging applications. Life cycle assessment and techno-economic assessment indicated the benefits of replacing conventional activated carbon with biochar.