161. 题目: Ammonia-oxidizing archaea bacteria (AOB) and comammox drive the nitrification in alkaline soil under long-term biochar and N fertilizer applications
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB) and complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox) take an essential part in soil nitrogen (N) cycling. In case of 8 years biochar and N fertilizer application, nevertheless, the comparative contribution of comammox, AOA and AOB to nitrification is unclear. Our long-term field study on alkaline soil (pHwater 8.49) investigated the impact of biochar and N fertilizer on nitrification rate and potential ammonia oxidation in terms of the soil properties, both physical and chemical, together with the abundance and diversity of AOA, AOB and comammox. The findings revealed that biochar and N fertilizer did not affect the amoA abundance of AOA but increased it in AOB and commamox clade A and clade B, but decreased the diversity of AOA and comammox. Nitrogen fertilization significantly declined the diversity of AOB. The AOB abundance was controlled mainly by pH, whereas the AOA, AOB and comammox Chao1 index were governed by soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Additionally, biochar increased the soil nitrification rate with or without N fertilizer, but N fertilizer decreased the soil nitrification rate and potential ammonia oxidation (with nitrite oxidation inhibited) under the same biochar application. Biochar and/or N fertilizer increased the corresponding contribution of AOA and comammox to ammonia oxidation by 143–156 % and 33–395 %, respectively, but suppressed the contribution of AOB. Although the abundance of AOA amoA was obviously greater than that of AOB and comammox, the highest contribution to ammonia oxidation was by AOB in soil not fertilized by N and by comammox in the N-fertilized soil. Our findings suggest that changes in soil properties brought about by biochar and N fertilizer addition can influence the diversity of AOA, AOB and comammox, affecting potential ammonia oxidation and the nitrification rate. The AOB and comammox make a bigger contribution to nitrification than AOA in the alkaline soil.
162. 题目: Black carbon scavenging by low-level Arctic clouds
Black carbon (BC) from anthropogenic and natural sources has a pronounced climatic effect on the polar environment. The interaction of BC with low-level Arctic clouds, important for understanding BC deposition from the atmosphere, is studied using the first long-term observational data set of equivalent black carbon (eBC) inside and outside of clouds observed at Zeppelin Observatory, Svalbard. We show that the measured cloud residual eBC concentrations have a clear seasonal cycle with a maximum in early spring, due to the Arctic haze phenomenon, followed by cleaner summer months with very low concentrations. The scavenged fraction of eBC was positively correlated with the cloud water content and showed lower scavenged fractions at low temperatures, which may be due to mixed-phase cloud processes. A trajectory analysis revealed potential sources of eBC and the need to ensure that aerosol-cloud measurements are collocated, given the differences in air mass origin of cloudy and non-cloudy periods.
163. 题目: Comprehensive review on recent production trends and applications of biochar for greener environment
The suitability of biochar as a supplement for environmental restoration varies significantly based on the type of feedstocks used and the parameters of the pyrolysis process. This study comprehensively examines several aspects of biochar's potential benefits, its capacity to enhance crop yields, improve nutrient availability, support the co-composting, water restoration and enhance overall usage efficiency. The supporting mechanistic evidence for these claims is also evaluated. Additionally, the analysis identifies various gaps in research and proposes potential directions for further exploration to enhance the understanding of biochar application. As a mutually advantageous approach, the integration of biochar into agricultural contexts not only contributes to environmental restoration but also advances ecological sustainability. The in-depth review underscores the diverse suitability of biochar as a supplement for environmental restoration, contingent upon the specific feedstock sources and pyrolysis conditions used. However, concerns have been raised regarding potential impacts on human health within agricultural sectors.
164. 题目: Benzene polycarboxylic acids as molecular markers of black carbon: Progresses and challenges
Black carbon (BC) is generated as a result of the pyrolysis of biomass and fossil fuels. Different approaches have been taken to analyse BC in the environment, including thermal, optical and chemical methods. The chemical approach which uses benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) as molecular markers of BC has gained popularity within the scientific community recently. These pyrogenic molecular markers can be used to reconstruct ancient fire history and human presence. Here we review the development of the BPCA protocols for the analysis of BC and the previous studies that have used these methods. Additionally, this review explores the biogeochemical factors that influence the content and composition of BPCAs, which in turn affect the sources attributed to BC. These factors include the generation temperature of char, photodegradation, biodegradation and the interference of non-pyrogenic organic matter (OM) in BPCA-BC analysis. Different combustion temperatures can yield charred BC with varying degrees of aromatic condensation throughout the BC continuum, while aged soot-BC undergoes photochemical degradation, causing the loss of its original condensed aromatic structure. Photodegradation reduces the degree of BC condensation by preferentially breaking down the most condensed forms, whereas biodegradation primarily mineralizes the smaller and more biolabile BC. Non-pyrogenic sources, such as humic acids (HAs), have been found to contribute up to 25% of BPCA-BC in soil, and their presence can lead to overestimations of BC. Future research should focus on calibrating contemporary BPCA protocols using known reference materials and investigating the role of non-pyrogenic OM in BPCA-BC analysis.
165. 题目: Phototransformation of Lignin-related Compounds in Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Solutions
Lignin is a major terrestrial source of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and studying the phototransformation of lignin monomers and their related compounds can enhance our understanding of CDOM intramolecular interactions. Coniferyl aldehyde (Coni) and sinapaldehyde (Sina) form ground-state complexes with CDOM, with equilibrium constants of 7,800 (± 1,800) and 20,000 (± 2,000) M−1, respectively. In comparison, vanillin (Van) exhibits minimal affinity for CDOM complexation. The bimolecular reaction rate constants between singlet oxygen (1O2) and these phenolic carbonyl compounds ranged from 0.46 (± 0.02) to 1.8 (± 0.1) × 107 M−1s−1, which is approximately one order of magnitude lower than their reaction rate constants (0.51 (± 0.02)–1.25 (± 0.02) × 108 M−1s−1) with the triplet excited state of CDOM (3CDOM*). In acidic CDOM solutions (pH 5.0), 1O2, H2O2, and organic peroxyl radicals had negligible impact on the transformation. Comparing the initial transformation rate in the presence and in the absence of NaN3 or furfuryl alcohol led to an overestimation of the contribution of 1O2 to the transformation of Van, Coni, or Sina. 3CDOM* scavengers could not fully inhibit the transformation of Coni or Sina. The remaining transformation is considered to arise from either the unquenched intra-CDOM phase 3CDOM* or a fraction of Coni⸦CDOM or Sina⸦CDOM complex, which underwent intramolecular photoinduced chemical reactions.
166. 题目: A critical review of sustainable application of biochar for green remediation: Research uncertainty and future directions
Biochar, a carbon-rich material produced from the pyrolysis of organic biomass, has gained significant attention as a potential solution for sustainable green remediation practices. Several studies analyze biomass-derived biochar techniques and environmental applications, but comprehensive assessments of biochar limitations, uncertainty, and future research directions still need to be improved. This critical review aims to present a comprehensive analysis of biochar's efficacy in environmental applications, including soil, water, and air, by sequentially addressing its preparation, application, and associated challenges. The review begins by delving into the diverse methods of biochar production, highlighting their influence on physical and chemical properties. This review explores the diverse applications of biochar in remediating contaminated soil, water, and air while emphasizing its sustainability and eco-friendly characteristics. The focus is on incorporating biochar as a remediation technique for pollutant removal, sequestration, and soil improvement. The review highlights the promising results obtained from laboratory-scale experiments, field trials, and case studies, showcasing the effectiveness of biochar in mitigating contaminants and restoring ecosystems. The environmental benefits and challenges of biochar production, characterization, and application techniques are critically discussed. The potential synergistic effects of combining biochar with other remediation methods are also explored to enhance its efficacy. A rigorous analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of biochar for diverse environmental applications in terms of technical, environmental, economic, and social issues is required to support the commercialization of biochar for large-scale uses. Finally, future research directions and recommendations are presented to facilitate the development and implementation of biochar-based, sustainable green remediation strategies.
167. 题目: The mechanism of DEHP degradation by the combined action of biochar and Arthrobacter sp. JQ-1: Mechanisms insight from bacteria viability, degradation efficiency and changes in extracellular environment
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been widely detected in soil, water, and sediment as a priority control pollutant. Immobilized microorganism technology is gradually mature and applied in production. Biochar prepared from agricultural wastes is an excellent immobilized carrier because of its porous structure and abundant functional groups. Environmental acidification was caused by degrading bacteria Arthrobacter sp. JQ-1 (JQ-1) respiration and acidic metabolites during DEHP degradation, which affected the passage life of microorganisms and the removal efficiency of DEHP. The mechanism of DEHP degradation by the combined action of JQ-1 and corn straw biochar (BC) at 600 °C was investigated, and bacterial viability, microenvironmental changes, and kinetic tests were performed in this research. Compared with biodegradation group alone, the degradation rate of DEHP in 1% biochar unloaded and loaded with JQ-1 increased by 12.6% and 30.9%, and its half-life decreased from 43.32 h to 23.90 h, a reduction of 31.37 h. The percentage of detected living JQ-1 increased as biochar content increased when loading capacity was less than 1%. In which, (JQ-1-BC2) group was 4.1% higher than (JQ-1-BC1) group. Biochar has the ability to neutralize acidifying environmental pH due to its alkaline functional groups, including lactone group, –OH, –COO–. 1% biochar loaded with JQ-1 increased the pH of the microenvironment by 0.57 and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity by 0.0063 U·mL−1, which promoted the reduction of PA. Study suggested that biochar loaded with JQ-1 could simultaneously adsorb and degrade DEHP during the process of DEHP removal. Biochar could be used as a biological stimulant to increase abundance and metabolism, enhance the utilization of DEHP by JQ-1. Biochar (1% (w/v)) loaded with JQ-1 as DEHP removal material showed good performance. Biochar not only as an immobilized carrier, but also as a biostimulant, providing an effective strategy for the collaborative remediation of PAEs contaminated.
168. 题目: Endogenous biopolymer hydrolysis for enhancing short-chain fatty acids recovery from excess sludge: Combination of lysozyme-catalyzing and cation exchange resin-mediated metal regulation
In decades, anaerobic fermentation with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) recovery from excess sludge have attained rising attention. However, rigid particulate organic matter (POMs) structure with slow hydrolysis limited anaerobic fermentation performance of excess sludge. Remarkable sludge hydrolysis performance was supposed to be achievable by the synchronous EPS repture and microbial cell lysis. This study clarified the improvement of overall anaerobic fermentation performance by combination treatment of lysozyme (Lyso) catalysis and metal regulation (MR). The Lyso + MR treatment triggered EPS rupture by protein structure deflocculation while catalyzing microbial cell lysis, which promoted massive extracellular and intracellular POMs hydrolysis. As a result, a significant amount of SCOD (5646.67 mg/L) was produced. Such endogenous organic matters hydrolysis led to considerable SCFAs accumulation (3651.14 mg COD/L) through 48-h anaerobic fermentation at 1.75 g/g SS cation-exchange resin and Lyso dosage of 10% (w/w), which was 5.945 times higher than that in the control. Additionally, it suggested that most of the recovered SCFAs remained in fermentative liquid after chemical conditioning and mechanical dewatering towards solid-liquid separation, which provided considerable economic benefit of 363.6–1059.1 CNY/ton SS.
169. 题目: Facile microwave assisted one-pot solid-state construction of Co-Fe spinel oxide/porous biochar for highly efficient 4-nitrophenol degradation: Effect of chemical blowing and surface vulcanization
Herein, microwave assisted one-pot solid-state construction method was developed for cellulose carbonization and Co-Fe spinel oxide loading to prepare Co-Fe spinel oxide/porous biochar for highly efficient 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) oxidation degradation through peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. With just 3 min domestic microwave heating of a solid mixture of cobalt nitrate, iron nitrate, α-cellulose, ammonium bicarbonate and thiourea, Co-Fe spinel and metal sulfides well dispersed, oxygen vacancies and pyrrole N enriched as well as BET increased porous Sx-CF@PC catalytic materials could be prepared with NH4HCO3 aided chemical blowing and thiourea assisted surface vulcanization. The optimal catalyst S1-CF@PC could achieve 99.0 % 4-NP removal in 10 min with rate constant as high as 0.564 min−1. Well dispersed spinel and metal sulfides could activate PMS to generate more SO4− and OH for 4-NP degradation; Meanwhile, oxygen vacancies and pyrrole nitrogen could promote 1O2 based non-free radical 4-NP degradation pathways. This study provided the simplest microwave assisted solid-state metal oxide/porous biochar construction for energetic organic pollutants degradation.
170. 题目: Black carbon, soil organic matter molecular signatures under different land uses in Shenyang, China and relationship with PAHs
The content, composition and molecular signatures of soil organic matter (SOM) have important influences on the cycle of soil organic carbon (SOC) and the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. Seventy-nine soil samples from farmland, forest and urban areas were collected in Shenyang, China to investigate black carbon (BC) content, SOM molecular signatures varied with land use patterns, as well as the relationship with PAHs. The content of BC in urban soils was significantly higher than that of farmland and forest. BC was a key contributor of urban SOM which accounted for 0.35 ± 0.31 of SOC in urban soil. Based on BC/SOC ratio, the main sources of BC were identified as fossil fuel combustion for urban soils, while for farmland and forest soils, it is the mixed results of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. All categories of PAHs in urban soils showed the highest level compared to farmland and forest soils. Pearson's correlation analysis results showed there were significant positive correlations between BC and PAHs categories in urban soils, indicating the important role of BC in the accumulation of PAHs in soil. SOM from each of the two different land use patterns can be distinguished by molecular signatures. Urban SOM had abundant molecular markers derived from condensed organic carbon inputs, which was consistent with the BC/SOC value. Farmland SOM had abundant carbon from vegetation and microorganisms, and forest SOM was rich in organic carbon from fresh plant materials. The markers enriched in urban SOM showed significant correlations with most PAHs categories, highlighting the affinity of urban SOM for PAHs at the molecular level. This study contributed to understanding the impact of land management methods on SOM molecular composition signatures and its influence on PAHs occurrence in soil, providing a theoretical basis for regional soil pollution management.
171. 题目: Assessing spatiotemporal variability in the concentration and composition of dissolved organic matter and its impact on iron solubility in tropical freshwater systems through a machine learning approach
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays important roles not only in maintaining the productivity and functioning of aquatic ecosystems but also in the global carbon cycle, although the sources and biogeochemical functions of terrestrially derived DOM have not been fully elucidated, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. This study aimed to evaluate the factors influencing spatiotemporal variability in (i) the concentration and composition of DOM, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorption coefficient at 254-nm wavelength (a254), and components identified by fluorescence excitation–emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC), and (ii) the concentration of dissolved iron (DFe) across freshwater systems (rivers, forested streams, and dam reservoirs) on a tropical island (Ishigaki Island, Japan) based on the results of water quality monitoring at 2-month intervals over a 2-year period. Random forests (RF) machine learning algorithm was employed, with the catchment characteristics (land use, soil type) and water temperature as the predictor variables for DOM and the composition of DOM (EEM-PARAFAC components) and hydrochemistry (water temperature, pH, and concentrations of divalent cations) as the predictor variables for DFe. The RF models for DOC, a254, and three humic-like components exhibited excellent predictive performance, indicating that these DOM properties are not only seasonally variable but also strongly influenced by the compositions of land uses and soil types in the upstream watershed. Poorly drained riparian lowland soil (Gleyic Fluvisols) was identified as the most important catchment parameter that positively influences these DOM variables. The RF model also explained a large portion of the variation in DFe, while terrestrial humic-like components were the most important parameters, emphasizing their significance as organic ligands for iron. These results improve our understanding of the impacts of terrestrial DOM and iron loadings on tropical and subtropical coastal ecosystems as well as on regional and global carbon budgets.
172. 题目: Constraining multi-stage and protracted oil generation of alkaline lacustrine source rocks by heteroatomic compounds
It is unclear whether source rocks deposited in ancient alkaline lakes undergo multiple stages of hydrocarbon generation, particularly of oils. In this study, the lower Permian Fengcheng Formation in the Junggar Basin, China, was investigated using the geochemistry of heteroatomic species, with a focus on N-containing compounds, by negative-ion electrospray high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The maturity parameters based on N-containing compounds (e.g., C0–5/C15–35-DBE 12 N1 and C0–5/C15–35-DBE 15 N1) and aromatic hydrocarbons (TMNr) reveal progressive generation of mature to highly mature crude oils. The polymerization index P1 ([DBE 18 + DBE 15]/DBE 12_N1), alkylation index R1 (RC6−35/RC0−5), and paleo-salinity index (β carotane/nCmax) of the Fengcheng Formation source rocks suggest that the high salinity inhibited molecular polymerization of organic matter and prolonged the oil generation peak, which produced highly mature crude oils in the late stages of hydrocarbon generation. Therefore, alkaline lacustrine source rocks undergo multiple stages of protracted oil generation, which results in a longer oil window and higher threshold for gas generation than in the case of the classic Tissot model. The results highlight the oil generation potential of deep basins containing alkaline lacustrine source rocks and highly mature organic matter, which also have a lower gas-generation potential than previously thought.
173. 题目: Strontium isotopes as tracers for water-rocks interactions of groundwater to delineate iodine enrichment in aquifer of Datong Basin, northern China
Groundwater iodine has direct importance for human dietary iodine intake in areas where drinking water is of groundwater origin. Iodine affected aquifer system in Datong Basin of North China was studied with a focus on strontium isotopes and major ion chemistry, in order to estimate the controlling hydrological and geochemical processes. The data revealed a rather complicated mixing pattern of various groundwater source end-members that were subject to different water-rock interactions, such as silicate weathering, evaporite and carbonate dissolution. Groundwater from the recharge area of east margin was characteristic by 87Sr/86Sr ratios higher than 0.71643, which implied the silicate weathering process. Groundwater from the discharge area and west margin might be originated from evaporite and carbonate dissolution processes with low 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Mixing models of three end-members based on Sr isotope and contents reflected that the type of water-rock interactions shifted from silicate weathering towards evaporite dissolution along the groundwater flow path from east margin to basin center. Abundant iodine and natural organic matters (NOMs) were discovered in groundwater located at the discharge area with Sr isotopic values between 0.710 and 0.717, implying evaporite dissolution governing iodine and NOMs enrichment in groundwater. Silicate weathering process had negligible influence on iodine and NOMs enrichment in groundwater. While carbonate dissolution made negative contribution for iodine releasing to aqueous phases. The PHREEQC inverse modeling results illustrated that dissolution of halite, calcite, gypsum and kaolinite and cation exchange significantly changed chemical composition of groundwater along the groundwater paths from the two basin margins to central area.
174. 题目: A bibliometric review of biochar for soil carbon sequestration and mitigation from 2001 to 2020
To mitigate global warming and the greenhouse effect, biochar (BC) has been regarded as an important way of carbon sink. Therefore, this research explored the development trend of BC for soil carbon sequestration and mitigation from 2001 to 2020 based on bibliometric analysis. The results show that Yong Sik Ok and Johannes Lehmann are the top 2 high-impact authors. China, America, and Germany are the most widely collaborated countries, but China’s research impact is lower than that of America. The Chinese Academy of Sciences has far more publications than any other institution, but Cornell University and Kangwon National University lead the way in terms of impact. Research hotspots can be divided into five clusters: (1) pyrolysis, nutrient, and microbial communities; (2) the immobilization of heavy metals; (3) crop yield and soil properties; (4) greenhouse gas, meta-analysis, and field experiment; (5) carbon fraction and sequestration. Reviews account for 60 % of the top 10 most highly cited papers, and eight of the top 10 focus on the early research period, setting the stage for the development of the BC field. Science of the Total Environment has the highest number of publications and total citations, and literature published in Soil Biology and Biochemistry is to some extent more likely to be cited. In the future, we need to carry out research in the following aspects: (1) Interaction mechanisms between BC, soil, and soil microbial communities. (2) Designing low-cost, high-yield, and high-effect optimization methods to improve the characteristics of BC. (3) Effect of BC on the environment and human health in long-term localization experiments. (4) Carbon sinks of BC need to be further evaluated on a global scale.
175. 题目: Improving biomethane production from biochar-supplemented two-stage anaerobic digestion of on-farm feedstocks
On-farm feedstocks such as grass silage and cattle slurry present recalcitrant characteristics that can limit microbial conversion in biofuel production. Introducing a biochar supplement in two-stage anaerobic digestion may facilitate feedstock hydrolysis and improve energy yields in biohydrogen and biomethane production. The biomethane potentials were first investigated in batch trials without biochar supplement; results indicated a biomethane yield of 230 L per kilogram (kg) volatile solid (VS) in single-stage digestion and 275 L/kg VS in two-stage digestion. In continuous trials, operated at an organic loading rate of 4.0 g VS/L/d, the second-stage digester in two-stage digestion showed a methane yield of 237 L/kg VS with 10 g/L biochar addition; this was 7% higher than the second-stage digester without biochar addition. At the same loading rate of 4.0 g VS/L/d, the biomethane yield in continuous single-stage digestion with 10 g/L biochar addition was 212 L/kg VS; this was 3% higher than the single-stage digester without biochar addition. Biochar was found to enhance the hydrolysis of recalcitrant solid components in the hydrogen-producing phase, promote biomethane production in methanogenesis, and stabilize the digestion process. The highest energy yield achieved of 8.5 MJ hydrogen and methane per kg VS was in the two-stage digestion with 10 g/L biochar addition at a loading rate of 4.0 g VS/L/d. The results demonstrated that the application of a biochar supplement could effectively enhance gaseous biofuel production in two-stage anaerobic digestion.
176. 题目: The seasonal variations in the interactions between rare earth elements and organic matter in tropical rivers
The escalation of global demands for critical minerals to the green energy transition creates emerging needs to better understand their environmental behaviours. Several nations recognize rare earth elements (REEs) as priority critical minerals and emphasize the need to evaluate their environmental mobility and potential effects on natural ecosystems and human health. Here, we investigated the seasonal variations in dissolved concentrations of REEs and their leachable fractions from suspended particles in samples collected bi-weekly from the Sai Gon and Dong Nai Rivers in Southern Vietnam. The investigation period extended over sixteen months, including a transition from wet to dry seasons. We reported significant mobility of REEs in the river waters during the wet season due to watershed runoff, especially in Sai Gon River with the occurrence of acid-sulphate soils. Dissolved REE concentrations in the dry season were significantly lower because of the interactions with organic-rich particles (up to 13% of particulate organic carbon, POC) mainly derived from phytoplankton materials. The conditional distribution coefficients (logKD from 5 to 7 for Pr) were proportional to POC content. The scavenging capacity of particulate organic matter also led to mitigating the fractionation between light REEs and heavy REEs in solution, and the characteristic Middle REE-enrichment patterns for the leachable REEs fraction. We also reported significant Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* up to 7) in the Dong Nai River during the dry season and associated this observation with the decomposition of organic matter that previously accumulated Eu. However, further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis because of small reservoir effects; elevated Eu anomalies were observed in water samples with low dissolved Eu concentrations.
177. 题目: Characteristics of optical properties of DOM and nutrients in rainwater of different ecological areas of a large reservoir in China
Numerous studies have focused on the spectral characteristics and seasonal variations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rainwater. However, the relationship between the optical indices of DOM and nutrients in rainwater from different ecological areas of large reservoirs is poorly understood. A one-year monitoring study was conducted between March 2019 and February 2020 in the Danjiangkou Reservoir in Henan Province, China, to compare the composition, spectral characteristic parameters, and relationship between the optical indices of DOM and nutrients in rainwater under different ecological environments. The study showed that the average value of a300 in all samples was 5.29 ± 2.16 m-1 and showed a seasonal trend of higher in spring and winter and lower in summer and autumn as well as a regional difference of agricultural area > urban area > reservoir area. A three-dimensional fluorescence with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) revealed four components of the rainwater: C1 and C2 as UV humic-like substances, and C3 and C4 as protein-like substances. The protein-like components of rainwater from agricultural areas had a high fluorescence intensity, whereas the UV humic-like components of rainfall from urban and reservoir areas had a high fluorescence intensity. Analysis of the fluorescence indices showed that rainwater DOM humification was low and had a strong endogenous character in the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The redundancy analysis revealed that NO3−-N, DTN, and SO42− mainly influenced the DOM optical indices of rainwater in urban areas, EC, DTN, and DOC had the highest interpretation of the DOM optical indices of rainwater in agricultural areas, and SO42−, DOC, and DTN had the highest interpretation of the DOM optical indices of rainwater in the reservoir. Overall, understanding the characteristics of rainfall DOM fluorescence and the relationships with nutrients in different ecological regions provides important information for comprehending biogeochemical processes in reservoirs.
178. 题目: Fate of low molecular weight organic matters in reverse osmosis and vacuum ultraviolet process for high-quality ultrapure water production in the semiconductor industry
Ultrapure water (UPW) is essential in the semiconductor industry for rinsing and cleaning products. With the growing demand for UPW, various feed water sources such as tap water, surface water, and wastewater are utilized to produce UPW. However, these feed water sources contain various low molecular weight organic matters (LMWOMs), which can adversely affect the quality of semiconductors when present in treated UPW. Therefore, achieving the complete removal of LMWOMs is crucial in the UPW production process. However, the current reverse osmosis (RO) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) processes employed for UPW production have limitations in achieving complete LMWOM removal. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the mechanisms of LMWOM removal in RO and the performance of VUV for high-quality UPW production. Six LMWOMs found in the semiconductor industry were tested for lab- and pilot-scale experiments. The result showed that size exclusion is the main mechanism of LMWOM removal in the RO process. However, methanol, ethanol, and urea were not efficiently removed by RO membranes. In addition, a lab-scale VUV experiment was performed under accelerated conditions to examine the oxidation mechanism of LMWOM. The LMWOM with low reactivity to hydroxyl radicals, such as tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and urea, were not removed perfectly within 60 min and 180 min, respectively. Furthermore, a pilot-scale VUV experiment was performed to examine the oxidation of LMWOM under real UPW production conditions. Despite observing a correlation in the pseudo-first-order rate constants between the lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments, the removal of TMAH and urea was still not achieved even with a lamp power of 320 W. As urea was not completely removed by either RO or VUV, strategies for UPW production using current water sources are discussed to develop future UPW technologies.
179. 题目: Novel biochar supported heterojunction of RH-BC (Fe0/Au0) catalyst: A highly efficient catalyst in the degradation of micro-pollutants
The loading of Fe and Au bimetallic nanoparticles onto the bio-char (RH-BC, rice husk derived) using the novel and eco-friendly process yielded heterojunction RH-BC (Fe0/Au0) nanocomposite. The Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam phytochemicals enable the in situ synthesis of these nanoparticles. Various analytical tools characterize the materials to a greater extent. The photo-Fenton-like processes under dark, LED-VIS, and UV-A light irradiations assess the efficiency of heterojunction catalyst in the degradation of potential micro-pollutants viz., tetracycline hydrochloride and N-(n-propyl) thiourea. Indigenous batch reactor operations optimize the parametric studies, viz., pH of the solution, catalyst dosage, and hydrogen peroxide dosage in the removal process. The maximum degradation of targeted pollutants in the photo-Fenton-like process was 93.75% (LED-VIS), 98.43% (UV-A) for TC, while 92.48% (LED-VIS), 93.57% (UV-A) for N-(n-propyl) thiourea, respectively. The parametric studies demonstrate the mechanistic aspects of the degradation process. The repeated use of the catalyst for five consecutive cycles showed an equivalent rate of degradation percentage and hence showed fair stability. The successful application of the novel Fenton-like catalyst in a real water system showed an insignificant change in percentage degradation, which raises the possibility of a broader application to the treatment of water contaminated by these potential micropollutants.
180. 题目: Seasonal changes of dissolved organic matter chemistry and its linkage with greenhouse gas emissions in saltmarsh surface water and porewater interactions
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest reactive reservoirs of carbon on earth. Saltmarshes play an essential role in shaping the fate of DOM and greenhouse gas (GHG) production in surface water and groundwater interactions in coastal areas. However, the coupling mechanism between DOM and GHG production is poorly understood. In this study, DOM in both surface water and porewater were analyzed by 3D excitation-emission-matrix spectroscopy under different seasonal and tidal conditions in a saltmarsh. Protein-like DOM was likely to produce CH4, while humic-like DOM tended to produce CO2. CH4 concentration was highly enriched in porewater because increasing fresh groundwater flow introduced small-sized protein-like DOM. Based on the mass balance model, >98.5% of CH4 was oxidated to CO2 in sediment-water interface. The degradation of sediment-derived DOC (especially humic-like DOM) contributes ∼80% of the total amount of CO2 in surface water. Both hydrodynamics and chemical reactions are suggested to influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Hydrodynamics (e.g., tidal pumping) are controlling factors in short timescales (hourly/weekly) while chemical reactions become crucial in influencing DOM chemistry and related degradation rate on seasonal scales. These findings emphasize the importance of the coupling mechanism at different time scales between DOM characteristics and GHG emissions in saltmarshes.