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161. 题目: Enhancing soil health to minimize cadmium accumulation in agro-products: the role of microorganisms, organic matter, and nutrients
文章编号: N24040616
期刊: Environmental Pollution
作者: Junliang Xin
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Agro-products accumulate Cd from the soil and are the main source of Cd in humans. Their use must therefore be minimized using effective strategies. Large soil beds containing low-to-moderate Cd-contamination are used to produce agro-products in many developing countries to keep up with the demand of their large populations. Improving the health of Cd-contaminated soils could be a cost-effective method for minimizing Cd accumulation in crops. In this review, the latest knowledge on the physiological and molecular mechanisms of Cd uptake and translocation in crops is presented, providing a basis for developing advanced technologies for producing Cd-safe agro-products. Inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, application of organic matter, essential nutrients, beneficial elements, regulation of soil pH, and water management are efficient techniques used to decrease soil Cd bioavailability and inhibiting the uptake and accumulation of Cd in crops. In combination, these strategies for improving soil health are environmentally friendly and practical for reducing Cd accumulation in crops grown in lightly to moderately Cd-contaminated soil.

162. 题目: Soil organic phosphorus is mainly hydrolyzed via phosphatases from ectomycorrhiza-associated bacteria rather than ectomycorrhizal fungi
文章编号: N24040615
期刊: Plant and Soil
作者: Jing Yuan, Rui Yan, Xueqiong Zhang, Kai Su, Hui Liu, Xin Wei, Ran Wang, Lanlan Huang, Nianwu Tang, Shanping Wan, Wei Liu, Hans Lambers, Yi Zheng, Xinhua He, Fuqiang Yu, Yanliang Wang
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要:

Background and aims

Mycorrhizal fungi-released phosphatases have long been claimed pivotal to mobilize soil organic phosphorus (P). We hypothesized that ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, compared with their saprotrophic ancestors, evolved adaptive strategies to enhance the release of phosphatases to meet the P demand of ECM fungi and their host plants.

Methods

We analyzed genes potentially encoding secreted phosphatases in 103 fungal species, ECM fungi hyphae associated- and ectomycorrhizosphere phosphatase enzyme activities, and gene expression of Lactarius spp. and Laccaria bicolor fungi-secreted phosphatases during ECM formation. We also determined ectomycorrhizosphere abundance of bacterial phosphatase genes, and analyzed Pinus yunnanensis–Lactarius deliciosus ectomycorrhiza-associated P-mobilizing bacteria.

Results

We found that during transition from saprotrophy to ECM symbiosis, genes encoding fungal-secreted phosphatases did not manifest adaptive or convergent evolution. Among 10 genes potentially encoding secreted fungal phosphatases in Lactarius spp. and Laccaria bicolor, only two were up-regulated during ECM formation. Furthermore, unlike saprotrophic fungi, pure-cultured ECM fungi hyphae released very few or no phosphatases to the surroundings, while ECMs generally increased the phosphatase activities in the ectomycorrhizosphere under glasshouse conditions. Additionally, ECM-associated bacteria exhibited an increased abundance of P-cycling genes in the ectomycorrhizosphere under both glasshouse and field conditions. A substantial part of culturable bacteria from ECM tips hydrolyzed organic P and promoted fungal P acquisition.

Conclusion

We found no evidence for adaptive evolution of secreted phosphatases in ECM fungi; some ECM fungi may not even release phosphatases, and ECM-associated bacteria likely play a pivotal role in ECM-promoted organic P hydrolysis and plant P acquisition.

163. 题目: Comparison on molecular transformation of dissolved organic matter during Fenton and activated carbon adsorption processes for chemical cleaning wastewater treatment
文章编号: N24040615
期刊: Separation and Purification Technology
作者: Xiaodan Zhao, Zhuojun Huang, Haosen Sun, Qiqi Zhao, Zhanghe Huang, Chun Zhang, Yang Wang, Chunyan Yang, Zhen Zhou
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: This study employed Fenton oxidation and powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption processes for the removal of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter (DOM) in chemical cleaning wastewater (CCW) to meet discharge standards. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to identify resistant compounds and investigate the transformation characteristics of DOM. CCW mainly contained surfactant exhibiting heteroatom-rich characteristics, and both processes exhibited effective DOM removal but distinct selectivity towards different subclasses of formulas. PAC adsorption significantly decreased the number of DOM compounds and more effective in aromatic compounds than Fenton oxidation. The aliphatic compounds (AI ≤ 0.5, 1.5 ≤ H/C ≤ 2.0) predominantly with saturated and reduced states were resistant to PAC adsorption, and particularly a specific CHONSP formula was the predominant contributor to residual DOM in the effluent. In contrast, Fenton oxidation degraded most substances in the CCW except for a few saturated and reduced compounds primarily consisting of CHO, resulting in an increase in DOM number. Two unsaturated subclasses, carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules/lignin-like structures (primarily CHON) and carbohydrates (primarily CHONP and CHONSP), were prominently produced after Fenton oxidation. The major mechanisms governing Fenton oxidation of surfactant in CCW primarily involved dealkylation (25.2 %), oxygen addition (21.2 %), and decarboxylation (19.8 %). Given the unique removal preferences and resistance observed in Fenton and PAC processes, a combination approach could be explored in the future to achieve advanced overall performance.

164. 题目: Microbial communities outperform extracellular polymeric substances in the reduction of hexavalent chromium by anaerobic granular sludge
文章编号: N24040614
期刊: Environmental Technology & Innovation
作者: Yun-Yun Sun, Qu-Sheng Li, Hui-Min Jiang, Yi-Hao Li, Ming-Shan Zhu, Ling-Ke Miao, Huan-Zhan Zhou, Jia-Wei Huang, Xiang-Xiang Fan, Jun-Feng Wang
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: The reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] by microbiota agents is a potential method for ecological remediation in heavily contaminated soil. This study investigated the contribution of microbial community and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to reduce Cr(VI) using lab-cultured anaerobic granular sludge (AGS). The AGS demonstrated an impressive reduction efficiency of 99.3% for Cr(VI) in soil, operating within an initial Cr(VI) concentration range of 500–3000 mg/kg. The distribution of typical electron acceptors, e.g., SO, NO, and Fe, had a negligible influence on microbial Cr(VI) reduction. The contribution of EPS on Cr(VI) reduction accounted for only 2.1% of the total Cr(VI) reduction, implying that Cr(VI) reduction driven by AGS was primarily caused by the direct effect of microbiota. High-throughput sequencing analysis confirmed that an increasing trend in the relative abundance of Cr reduction bacteria (: 0.40–5.54%, : 0.41–5.70%, : 0.35–6.64%, etc.), and the stability (0.716–4.114) of microbial co-occurrence networks was significantly promoted by the end of the experiment. Materials characterization indicated that successful reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] and formed in Cr(OH), and functional groups, O-H, N-H, -CH, and -CH, of AGS likely played a vital role in Cr(VI) reduction. Overall, these findings offer insights into the remediation technique of microbial Cr(VI) reduction in highly-contaminated soil based on the interaction network stability of the microbial community in AGS.

165. 题目: Organic carbon accumulation in British saltmarshes
文章编号: N24040614
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Craig Smeaton, Ed Garrett, Martha B Koot, Cai J T Ladd, Lucy C Miller, Lucy McMahon, Bradley Foster, Natasha L M Barlow, William Blake, W Roland Gehrels, Martin W Skov, William E N Austin
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Saltmarshes are a crucial component of the coastal carbon (C) system and provide a natural climate regulation service through the accumulation and long-term storage of organic carbon (OC) in their soils. These coastal ecosystems are under growing pressure from a changing climate and increasing anthropogenic disturbance. To manage and protect these ecosystems for C and to allow their inclusion in emissions and natural-capital accounting, as well as carbon markets, accurate and reliable estimates of OC accumulation are required. However, globally, such data are rare or of varying quality. Here, we quantify sedimentation rates and OC densities for 21 saltmarshes in Great Britain (GB). We estimate that, on average, saltmarshes accumulate OC at a rate of 110.88 ± 43.12 g C m yr. This is considerably less than widely applied global saltmarsh averages. It is therefore highly likely that the contribution of northern European saltmarshes to global saltmarsh OC accumulation has been significantly overestimated. Taking account of the climatic, geomorphological, oceanographic, and ecological characteristics of all GB saltmarshes and the areal extent of different saltmarsh zones, we estimate that the 451.65 km of GB saltmarsh accumulates 46,563 ± 4353 t of OC annually. These low OC accumulation rates underline the importance of the 5.20 ± 0.65 million tonnes of OC already stored in these vulnerable coastal ecosystems. Going forward the protection and preservation of the existing stores of OC in GB saltmarshes must be a priority for the UK as this will provide climate benefits through avoided emissions several times more significant than the annual accumulation of OC in these ecosystems.

166. 题目: Comparative effectiveness of carbon nanoparticles and biochar in alleviating copper stress in corn (Zea mays L.)
文章编号: N24040613
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Xiaoping Xin, Ghulam Farid, Jaya Nepal, Shengjia He, Xiaoe Yang, Zhenli He
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: The application of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and biochar in agriculture for improving plant health and soil quality and alleviating metal stress offers alternative approaches to meet the ever-increasing demand for food. However, poor understanding of their roles in improving crop production under Cu stress represents a significant obstacle to their wide application in agriculture. To clarify how CNPs and biochar affect corn ( L.) seed germination, seedling growth, plant health, and nutrient uptake under different Cu stress levels, soil-less Petri-dish and greenhouse soil-based bioassays were conducted. The results revealed that CNPs and biochar stimulated corn seed germination and seedling growth. Besides, they were effective in immobilizing Cu sorption in sandy soil and alleviating Cu stress for plant growth, as shown by the increased plant height and dry biomass. The plant nutrient uptake efficiency (NUE) was significantly increased by CNPs, with a maximum increase of 63.1% for N and 63.3% for K at the highest Cu stress level (400 mg Cu L). In contrast, non-significant effects on NUE were observed with biochar treatments regardless of Cu stress levels. Interestingly, CNPs significantly increased plant uptake of Cu in the Petri dish test, while biochar inhibited plant uptake of Cu under both experimental conditions. Principle component analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation analysis indicated that CNPs mitigated Cu stress mainly by elevating antioxidant enzyme activities, enhancing plant photochemical efficiency, and increasing plant uptake of N and K, while biochar was more likely to reduce bioavailability and uptake of Cu in the plant. These findings have great implications for the application of CNPs and biochar as plant growth stimulators and de-toxicity agents in agriculture.

167. 题目: Changes in coal waste DOM chemodiversity and Fe/Al oxides during weathering drive the fraction conversion of heavy metals
文章编号: N24040613
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Pinpeng Tuo, Zongpeng Zhang, Ping Du, Lijuan Hu, Renyou Li, Jie Ren
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: The long-term accumulation of coal waste on the surface during natural weathering leads to the inevitable migration of heavy metals contained in the coal waste, which increases the likelihood of environmental contamination and health risks. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and Fe/Al oxides play crucial roles in the transformation and bioavailability of heavy metals. Thus, we analyzed the Fe/Al oxide content and DOM molecular composition in coal waste with different degrees of weathering and explored the influence of DOM chemical diversity and Fe/Al oxides on the potential mobility of heavy metals. Results showed that weathering-driven decrease in Fe oxides (Fe, Fe, and Fe decreased from 82.4, 37.5, and 3.6 mg∙L to 41.3, 24.7, and 2.3 mg∙L, respectively) led to decreases in the reducible fractions of V and Cr. The potential environmental risks of more toxic metals of Cd and As, also increased as a result of the residual fractions decreased to 32.6 % and 41.3 %, respectively. Weathering caused an increase in oxygen-to‑carbon ratio, double-bond equivalent, modified aromaticity index, nominal oxidation state of carbon, and molecular diversity and a decrease in (/) and (H/C), suggesting that the DOM of highly weathered coal waste possessed high unsaturation, aromatic structures, hydrophilicity, and strong oxidative characteristics. Additionally, although V and Cr showed significant negative correlations with O/C ratio, polyphenolic, carbohydrates, and condensed aromatics, pH remained a key environmental factor determining the potential environmental risks of V and Cr by changing the residual fractions. The mobilities of Cd and As were significantly negatively correlated with those of Fe/Al oxides, particularly Fe, Fe, Fe, and Al. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of weathering on the geochemical cycling of different coal waste components, providing priority options for environmental risk prevention and control in coal mining areas.

168. 题目: Labile and recalcitrant carbon inputs differ in their effects on microbial phosphorus transformation in a flooded paddy soil with rice (Oryza sativa L.)
文章编号: N24040612
期刊: Applied Soil Ecology
作者: Yanlan Huang, Zhongmin Dai, Caixian Tang, Jianming Xu
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Organic carbon (C) can greatly affect soil microbial activity and thus alter the nutrient availability in soil. However, little is known about the microbial-mediated P transformation processes with organic C inputs in flooded soils. This study used high-throughput sequencing technology to investigate the effects of labile (glucose) and recalcitrant (lignin) organic C inputs on P availability and microbial communities in the bulk and rhizosphere soil under rice growth, aiming to clarify the key microorganisms involved in soil P transformation. Glucose addition enhanced microbial P immobilization and decreased P availability in the rhizosphere soil, while lignin amendment increased available P concentration in bulk soil through increased soil pH and altered bacterial community. Organic C inputs stimulated the growth and cooperation of specific P-solubilizing bacteria (, and ), facilitating the transformation of non-labile P to labile P in bulk soils, but also stimulated the growth of , immobilizing labile P into their biomass. Irrespective of C supply, soil P availability was correlated positively with the abundances of and but negatively with those of , , , and . This study emphasized the contrasting effects of labile and recalcitrant C on microbial mechanisms of P transformation in a flooded paddy soil. These findings provide potential strategies for microbially mediated P management in paddy fields.

169. 题目: Divergent changes of carbon and nitrogen in the density fractions of soil organic matter after revegetation in the Tengger Desert, north China
文章编号: N24040612
期刊: Land Degradation & Development
作者: Xiaojun Li, Haotian Yang, Rong Yang
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Revegetation is an effective measure to enhance soil organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) storage in drylands, but the underlying processes remain poorly understood. Based on density fractionation, the free light fraction (fLF), the occluded light fraction (oLF), and a heavy fraction (HF) were extracted from a chronosequence of revegetated sites aged 10, 22, 34, 48, and 65 years. A mobile sand dune (MSD) was used as the reference site (aged 0 years). The OC and N contents of different fractions and the bulk soils were determined to evaluate the impacts of revegetation and clarify post-revegetation stabilization mechanisms for the OC and N. The results showed that the dry mass of fLF and oLF in established shrublands were 17.16–31.30 and 17.68–44.87 times greater than those in the MSD, respectively, while the amount of HF decreased by 1.09%–2.51% in 65 years. The contents and stocks of OC and N and C:N ratio in each fraction significantly increased over time but decreased with soil depth, and these three variables decreased sequentially from fLF to oLF to HF. The OC and N contents and their ratios in each fraction were positively and linearly correlated with their corresponding values in the bulk soil. The OC and N percentages contained in the fLF and oLF increased significantly, but those in the HF decreased with increasing site age. Despite this, more than 55.08% of OC and 80.59% of N were remained in the HF across all the sites, indicating that the enhancement of OC and N stocks in SOM following revegetation were mainly derived from an increase in OC and N in protected fractions. Biological and physicochemical factors including microbial biomass C and N, the availability of N, P, and K, bulk density, and clay and silt contents, were the key factors regulating the OC and N dynamics in the density fractions. The initial OC and N accumulation after revegetation occurs mainly in the HF, while vegetation development shifts the OC and N from stable to labile pools. The OC and N accumulation in revegetated soils is attributed to the changes in both the LF and HF whereas OC and N in the light fraction become increasingly important over time. Stabilization by forming aggregates and mineral associations may dominate the long-term OC and N sequestration in restored ecosystems.

170. 题目: Estimation of soil organic carbon by combining hyperspectral and radar remote sensing to reduce coupling effects of soil surface moisture and roughness
文章编号: N24040611
期刊: Geoderma
作者: Ranzhe Jiang, Yuanyuan Sui, Xin Zhang, Nan Lin, Xingming Zheng, Bingze Li, Lei Zhang, Xiaokai Li, Haiye Yu
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Soil organic carbon (SOC) is important in the global carbon cycle. Accurate estimation of SOC content in cultivated land is a prerequisite for evaluating the carbon sequestration potential and quality of soils. However, existing SOC prediction studies based on hyperspectral remote sensing neglect the spectral response of the physical properties of surface soil, leading to inadequate model generalization. With the exponential growth of remote sensing data, the development of pixel-level soil spectral correction methods based on multi-source remote sensing data has become an interesting and challenging topic. This method aims to minimize the effect of soil physical properties on spectra, thus addressing the poor spatiotemporal transferability of SOC prediction models due to uncertain variations in surface soil physical properties. In this study, a soil spectral correction strategy is constructed using satellite hyperspectral image (HSI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images through multi-order polynomial regression and convolutional neural networks. This strategy considers soil physical variables such as soil moisture (SM) content and root mean square height (RMSH) of soil surface roughness. The soil spectral correction model and SOC content prediction model were established using 80 soil samples collected from Site 1. Afterward, the performance and transferability of both models were verified using the remaining 25 samples from Site 1 and 50 samples from Site 2. The results showed that: 1) The effect of SM and RMSH on the soil pixel spectrum can be significantly reduced after correcting HSI using soil spectral correction strategy. The correlation coefficients between the corrected pixel spectrum and the ground-based spectrum increase by over 60 % compared with those between the original spectrum and the ground-based spectrum. 2) Soil spectral correction improves the prediction accuracy and mapping capability of HSI for SOC content, with the highest of 0.743 and of 3.455 g/kg at Site 1. 3) Compared with the original HSI-based SOC prediction model, the soil spectral correction strategy based on multi-order polynomial and convolutional neural network reduced the of SOC prediction results at Site 2 by 5.082 g/kg and 5.454 g/kg, and the increased by 0.390 and 0.409, respectively. 4) When predicting SOC content from raw HIS, SM and RMSH contribute to more than 60 % of the bias, with SM having a larger bias than RMSH. The findings of this study emphasize the influence of soil physical properties on SOC prediction and contribute to the existing research on SOC mapping using HSI and SAR data.

171. 题目: Response of maize yield to changes in soil organic matter in a Swedish long-term experiment
文章编号: N24040611
期刊: European Journal of Soil Science
作者: Thomas Kätterer, Martin A Bolinder
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Agricultural practices that lead to soil carbon sequestration may be a win–win strategy for mitigating global warming and improving soil fertility and resource use efficiency. The mechanisms through which soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration affects crop yields are numerous but difficult to separate. The objective of this study was to disentangle these processes and estimate to what extent the yield response to SOC is mainly driven by changes in physical or biochemical properties and processes. This was achieved by analysing the response of yields in continuous maize to SOC concentrations during 20 years (2000–2019), which had evolved in 14 experimental treatments in a Swedish long-term field experiment at Ultuna since 1956, ranging from 0.94% to 3.65% in the topsoil (0–20 cm). Average maize yields during this period varied between 1.9 and 8.4 Mg dry mass per hectare in the different treatments. The treatments comprise applications of different mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers and organic amendments and combinations thereof. Our analysis showed that maize yield in the treatments that were not severely limited by nitrogen supply or soil acidity increased by 16% for each percentage unit increase in SOC. We applied the widely used concept of critical N concentration in plant biomass to diagnose the N status in maize in the different treatments (N nutrition index [NNI]) and parameterized a response function between yield and pH (RpH). Dry soil bulk density (BD) was used as a proxy for soil physical properties. These three variables NNI, RpH and BD explained 95% of the variation in maize yields among treatments. Further analysis of the relationship between BD, SOC and plant available water capacity revealed that about two thirds of the yield increases in response to SOC change could be ascribed to associated changes in soil physical properties. Our analysis suggests that the extra storage capacity of water, which increased by up to 15 mm in the topsoil for each unit percentage increase in SOC, was the main driver for the observed yield responses. We conclude that measures for increasing SOC in soils most likely are an effective adaptation strategy for reducing the risk of crop damage during dry spells, which probably are becoming more frequent in the future due to climate change, even in relatively humid climates as in Sweden.

172. 题目: Bioprospecting of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for boosting biofuel-related products production based on novel aggregation-induced emission active extracellular polymeric substances nanoprobes
文章编号: N24040610
期刊: Bioresource Technology
作者: Yan Wang, Yubing Hu, Jiezhang Mo, Tin Yan Wong, Jingjing Liu, Parodi Alessandro, Ben Zhong Tang, Wen-Xiong Wang, Neng Yan
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Biofuel production from microalgae has been greatly restricted by low biomass productivity and long-term photosynthetic efficacy. Here, a novel strategy for selecting high-growing, stress-resistant algal strains with high photosynthetic capacity was proposed based on biocompatible extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) probes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties. Specifically, AIE active EPS probes were synthesized for long-term monitoring of the EPS productivity at different algal growth stages. By coupling the AIE-based fluorescent techniques, algal cells were classified into four diverse populations based on their chlorophyll and EPS signals. Mechanistic studies on the sorted algal cells revealed their remarkable stress resistance and high expression of cell division, biopolymer production and photosynthesis-related genes. The sorted and subcultured algal cells consistently exhibited relatively higher growth rates and photosynthetic capacities, resulting in an increased (1.2 to 1.8-fold) algal biomass production, chlorophyll, and lipids. This study can potentially open new strategies to boost microalgal-based biofuel production.

173. 题目: Feasibility evaluation of near dissolved organic matter microfiltration (NDOM MF) for the efficient removal of microplastics in the water treatment process
文章编号: N24040610
期刊: Chemosphere
作者: Uje Lee, Kyeongyeon Park, Seungwon Chang, Min Cho, Jaewoo Lee
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Microfiltration (MF) using membranes with a mean pore size smaller than 0.45 μm has generally been used for particle removal from water, given that materials larger and smaller than 0.45 μm are regarded as particulates and dissolved organic matter (DOM), respectively. It is also the case for removing small-size microplastics (MPs). However, given their sizes (. 1 μm), there is room for further improvement of the productivity (., water flux) in the pore size range of 0.45–1 μm on the condition that the removal rate is maintained. With this in mind, MF's water flux and removal rate were tested using seven different MF membranes, and the right pore, with the size of 0.8 μm, was found for MP removal, which is called near DOM (NDOM) MF. In the filtration test using polystyrene surrogate beads with an average particle diameter of 1.20 μm, NDOM MF exhibited a 1.7 to 13 times higher permeate flux than the conventional MF using 0.1, 0.2, and 0.45 μm membranes while maintaining a higher removal rate than 2 log. The excellent removal rate of the NDOM MF was attributable to the following three factors: (1) smaller mean pore size than the average particle diameter, (2) particle screening effect enhanced by the secondary layer formed by surface deposition, and (3) symmetric sublayer structure favorable for capturing penetrated particles. Furthermore, the outstanding filtration performance also appeared in a low-temperature (<10 °C) process, demonstrating that NDOM MF is feasible independently of temperature. Additionally, in constant flux filtration, NDOM MF demonstrated the long-term feasibility by lowering the transmembrane pressure and specific filtration energy by more than 2 times.

174. 题目: Effects of warming on soil organic carbon pools mediated by mycorrhizae and hyphae on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau, China
文章编号: N24040609
期刊: Science of the Total Environment
作者: Jin Zheng, Shuang Liang, Rongyu He, Lin Luo, Yunyi Li, Chunying Yin, Xiangjun Pei, Chunzhang Zhao
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Mycorrhizae and their hyphae play critical roles in soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation. However, their individual contributions to SOC components and stability under climate warming conditions remain unclear. This study investigated the effects of warming on the SOC pools of (an ectomycorrhizal plant) and (an arbuscular mycorrhizal plant) mycorrhizae/hyphae on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that mycorrhizae made greater contributions to SOC accumulation than hyphae did by increasing labile organic carbon (LOC) components, such as particle organic carbon (POC), easily oxidizable organic carbon, and microbial biomass carbon, especially under warming conditions. Plant species also had different effects on SOC composition, resulting in higher mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC) contents in plots than in plots; consequently, the former favored SOC stability more than the latter, with a lower POC/MAOC. Partial least-squares path modelling further indicated that mycorrhizae/hyphae indirectly affected LOC pools, mainly by changing soil pH and enzyme activities. Warming had no significant effect on SOC content but did change SOC composition by reducing LOC through affecting soil pH and iron oxides and ultimately increasing SOC stability in the presence of mycorrhizae for both plants. Therefore, the mycorrhizae of both plants are major contributors to the variation of SOC components and stability under warming conditions.

175. 题目: Biochar obtained from eucalyptus, rice hull, and native bamboo as an alternative to decrease mobility of hexazinone, metribuzin, and quinclorac in a tropical soil
文章编号: N24040609
期刊: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
作者: Maria Alice Formiga Porto, Kassio Ferreira Mendes, Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo, Marcela Guiotoku, Matheus de Freitas Souza, Hamurábi Anizio Lins, Daniel Valadão Silva
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Mobile herbicides have a high potential for groundwater contamination. An alternative to decrease the mobility of herbicides is to apply materials with high sorbent capacity to the soil, such as biochars. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus, rice hull, and native bamboo biochar amendments on sorption and desorption of hexazinone, metribuzin, and quinclorac in a tropical soil. The sorption–desorption was evaluated using the batch equilibrium method at five concentrations of hexazinone, metribuzin, and quinclorac. Soil was amended with eucalyptus, rice hull, and native bamboo biochar at a rate of 0 (control—unamended) and 1% (w w−1), corresponding to 0 and 12 t ha−1, respectively. The amount of sorbed herbicides in the unamended soil followed the decreasing order: quinclorac (65.9%) > metribuzin (21.4%) > hexazinone (16.0%). Native bamboo biochar provided the highest sorption compared to rice hull and eucalyptus biochar–amended soils for the three herbicides. The amount of desorbed herbicides in the unamended soil followed the decreasing order: metribuzin (18.35%) > hexazinone (15.9%) > quinclorac (15.1%). Addition of native bamboo biochar provided the lowest desorption among the biochar amendments for the three herbicides. In conclusion, the biochars differently affect the sorption and desorption of hexazinone, metribuzin, and quinclorac mobile herbicides in a tropical soil. The addition of eucalyptus, rice hull, and native bamboo biochars is a good alternative to increase the sorption of hexazinone, metribuzin, and quinclorac, thus, reducing mobility and availability of these herbicides to nontarget organisms in soil.

176. 题目: Speciation and Possible Origins of Organosulfur Compounds in Rice Paddy Soils Affected by Acid Mine Drainage
文章编号: N24040608
期刊: Environmental Science & Technology
作者: Meihui Ren, Qinglin Zhuang, Xiaoshuang He, Wenxuan Liu, Chuling Guo, Han Ye, John R Reinfelder, Chengyan Ma, Jianmin Li, Zhi Dang
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Although sulfur cycling in acid mine drainage (AMD)-contaminated rice paddy soils is critical to understanding and mitigating the environmental consequences of AMD, potential sources and transformations of organosulfur compounds in such soils are poorly understood. We used sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to quantify organosulfur compounds in paddy soils from five AMD-contaminated sites and one AMD-uncontaminated reference site near the Dabaoshan sulfide mining area in South China. We also determined the sulfur stable isotope compositions of water-soluble sulfate (δ34SWS), adsorbed sulfate (δ34SAS), fulvic acid sulfur (δ34SFAS), and humic acid sulfur (δ34SHAS) in these samples. Organosulfate was the dominant functional group in humic acid sulfur (HAS) in both AMD-contaminated (46%) and AMD-uncontaminated paddy soils (42%). Thiol/organic monosulfide contributed a significantly lower proportion of HAS in AMD-contaminated paddy soils (8%) compared to that in AMD-uncontaminated paddy soils (21%). Within contaminated soils, the concentration of thiol/organic monosulfide was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), moisture content (MC), and total Fe (TFe). δ34SFAS ranged from −6.3 to 2.7‰, similar to δ34SWS (−6.9 to 8.9‰), indicating that fulvic acid sulfur (FAS) was mainly derived from biogenic S-bearing organic compounds produced by assimilatory sulfate reduction. δ34SHAS (−11.0 to −1.6‰) were more negative compared to δ34SWS, indicating that dissimilatory sulfate reduction and abiotic sulfurization of organic matter were the main processes in the formation of HAS.

177. 题目: The treatment of petrochemical wastewater via ozone-persulfate coupled catalytic oxidation: mechanism of removal of soluble organic matter
文章编号: N24040608
期刊: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
作者: Wenjing Guo, Chong Li, Junguang Zhao, Yun Ding, Qing Yang, Hongxun Guan
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要:

Petrochemical wastewater contains a variety of organic pollutants. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are used for deep petrochemical wastewater treatment with distinct advantages, including the complete mineralization of organic substances, minimal residual byproducts, and compatibility with biological treatment systems. This work evaluates the effectiveness of three methods, namely, ozone, persulfate, and O3-PMS (ozone-persulfate) processes, which were compared to remove soluble organic matter. The O3-PMS process offered significant advantages in terms of organic matter removal efficiency. This process involves ozone dissolution in an aqueous persulfate solution, producing a more significant amount of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to single AOPs. The production of hydroxyl radicals and the synergistic effect of hydroxyl radicals and persulfate radicals were investigated. In the O3-PMS process, transition metal ions were added to understand the mechanism of the O3-PMS coupled catalytic oxidation system. The results showed that when the ozone concentration was in the range of 5 ~ 25 mg/L, the dosage of persulfate was in the range of 0.01 ~ 0.05 mol/L, the dosage of metal compounds was in the range of 0:0 ~ 2:1, and the reaction time was in the range of 0 ~ 2 h; the optimum chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and total organic content (TOC) removal effect was achieved under the coupled system with an ozone concentration of 10 mg/L, a persulfate dosage of 0.02 mol/L, a 1:2 dosage ratio of between Fe2+ and Cu2+ compounds, and a reaction time of 2 h. Under optimal reaction conditions, the rates of CODCr and TOC removal reached 70% and 79.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the removal kinetics of the O3-PMS coupled catalytic oxidation system was analyzed to optimize the removal conditions of COD and TOC, and the mechanism regulating the degradation of dissolved organic matter was explored by three-dimensional fluorescence and GC–MS technology. Thus, O3-PMS coupled catalytic oxidation is an effective process for the deep treatment of wastewater. The careful selection of transition metal ions serves as a theoretical foundation for the subsequent preparation of catalysts for the ozone persulfate oxidation system, and this study provides a suitable reference for removing organic matter from petrochemical wastewater.

178. 题目: Biochar effects on soil nitrogen retention, leaching and yield of perennial citron daylily under three irrigation regimes
文章编号: N24040607
期刊: Agricultural Water Management
作者: Xiaolei Sun, Xiaosong Yang, Zhengyi Hu, Fulai Liu, Zijian Xie, Songyan Li, Guoxi Wang, Meng Li, Zheng Sun, Roland Bol
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: Biochar can serve as a soil amendment to immobilize soil nitrogen (N) and reduce N leaching from cropland without negative effect on crop yield. However, the interaction effect of biochar application and irrigation regimes on soil N status (N retention and N loss) and crop yield is rarely reported in the open perennial vegetable field. A two-years field trial (transplanting in first year and consecutive growth in second year) was conducted in citron daylily vegetable cropping system on a sandy brown alluvial soil. Two biochar application rates (0 and 30 t ha) and three irrigation regimes (CDI, conventional drip irrigation; WSDI, water-saving drip irrigation with 80% of full irrigation quota; APRDI, alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation with 80% of full irrigation quota) were included. The response of crop yield and soil N status to both biochar application and irrigation regimes varied across planting years for perennial citron daylily. After the first planting year's harvest, APRDI enhanced flower bud yield by 18–28% compared to CDI and WSDI, likely due to improved nitrate use efficiency evidenced by lower soil nitrate retention in the surface soil (0–20 cm) post-harvest. However, biochar application resulted in a reduction of yield by 27% under APRDI. Additionally, WSDI with reduced yields, decreased soil TN in the sub-surface layer (20–50 cm) with 9–19% by comparison with other two irrigation regimes, resulting in higher TN concentration in the soil solution (14–28%) in and thus an increased risk for N leaching. However, after the second harvest year, there were no variations in crop yield induced by biochar application and irrigation regimes. Irrigation regimes exhibited limited influence on soil N status, while biochar application mitigated soil nitrogen decline in the 0–50 cm layer by enhancing organic nitrogen retention capacity for nearly 16–85%. Furthermore, the lowest TN concentration in the soil solution in the sub-surface layer (20–50 cm) with biochar application under APRDI suggested a reduced risk for N leaching. We conclude that combining biochar application with the APRDI regime could help retain soil N, decrease the risk of N leaching, and enhance crop yield in total for two consecutive planting years. Therefore, this approach is recommended for sustainable N management in long-term planting of perennial crops.

179. 题目: Biochar imparted constructed wetlands (CWs) for enhanced biodegradation of organic and inorganic pollutants along with its limitation
文章编号: N24040607
期刊: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
作者: Ruba Munir, Amna Muneer, Bushra Sadia, Fazila Younas, Muhammad Zahid, Muhammad Yaseen, Saima Noreen
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要:

The remediation of polluted soil and water stands as a paramount task in safeguarding environmental sustainability and ensuring a dependable water source. Biochar, celebrated for its capacity to enhance soil quality, stimulate plant growth, and adsorb a wide spectrum of contaminants, including organic and inorganic pollutants, within constructed wetlands, emerges as a promising solution. This review article is dedicated to examining the effects of biochar amendments on the efficiency of wastewater purification within constructed wetlands. This comprehensive review entails an extensive investigation of biochar’s feedstock selection, production processes, characterization methods, and its application within constructed wetlands. It also encompasses an exploration of the design criteria necessary for the integration of biochar into constructed wetland systems. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of recent research findings pertains to the role of biochar-based wetlands in the removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants. The principal objectives of this review are to provide novel and thorough perspectives on the conceptualization and implementation of biochar-based constructed wetlands for the treatment of organic and inorganic pollutants. Additionally, it seeks to identify potential directions for future research and application while addressing prevailing gaps in knowledge and limitations. Furthermore, the study delves into the potential limitations and risks associated with employing biochar in environmental remediation. Nevertheless, it is crucial to highlight that there is a significant paucity of data regarding the influence of biochar on the efficiency of wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands, with particular regard to its impact on the removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants.

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180. 题目: Reactive oxygen species mediated extracellular polymeric substances production assisting the recovery of Thalassiosira pseudonana from polystyrene micro and nanoplastics exposure
文章编号: N24040606
期刊: Environmental Pollution
作者: Bihan Zhang, Ziqi Wang, Danrui Li, Luying Li, Yirong Zhao, Xuexi Tang, Yan Zhao
更新时间: 2024-04-06
摘要: As emerging pollutants in the aquatic environments, micro- and nano-plastics (MNPs) aroused widespread environmental concerns for their potential threats to the ecological health. Previous research has proved that microalgae growth could recover from the MNPs toxicities, in which the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) might play the key role. In order to comprehensively investigate the recovery process of microalgae from MNPs stress and the effecting mechanisms of EPS therein, this study conducted a series of experiments by employing two sizes (0.1 and 1 μm) of polystyrene (PS) MNPs and the marine model diatom during 14 days. The results indicated: the pigments accumulations and photosynthetic recovery of under MPs exposure showed in the early stage (4–5 days), while the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and EPS contents lasted longer time period (7–8 days). EPS was aggregated with MNPs particles and microalgal cells, corresponding to the increased settlement rates. More increase of soluble (SL)-EPS contents was found than bound (B)-EPS under MNPs exposure, in which the increase of the protein proportion and humic acid-like substances in SL-EPS was found, thus facilitating aggregates formation. ROS was the signaling molecule mediating the overproduction of EPS. The transcriptional results further proved the enhanced EPS biosynthesis on the molecular level. Therefore, this study elucidated the recovery pattern of microalgae from MNPs stress and linked “ROS-EPS production changes-aggregation formation” together during the growth recovery process, with important scientific and environmental significance.

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